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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Renzi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/202468/psyc-1101-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Austin Butler 1 Thursday August 18 2011 0 Psychology Study of behavior 0 How we think 0 Why we think 0 Disciplines ofPsychology 0 Clinical Schizophrenia Anxiety ADHD I What caused it I Is it fixable 0 Developmental Death I When did it start I When do you start to develop symptoms 0 Applied Analyze jobs and candidates I Are you able to work in a certain setting 0 Social Figures out why people do certain things socially I How do you feel around people 0 Cognition awareness memory thinking I How does it affect your thought process 0 Neuroscience all the stuff inside your brain I What is unusual about the brain Tuesday August 23 2011 0 Three key components of Psychology 0 Science systematic methods 0 Behavior what can be directly observed 0 Mental processes thoughts feelings motives 0 Science ofPsychology 0 Critical thinking 0 Skepticism o Objectivity o Curiosity 0 Psychology A general Science 0 quotPsychology is not limited to the study ofpsychological disorders 0 Freud s view of human nature 0 Positive Psychology 0 Narcissism Epidemic 0 Usually selfconfident selfassertive and selfcentered 0 Generation born since 1980s 0 History ofPsychology 0 Western Philosophy I Affect your mind has on western beliefs 0 Fear of death 0 Religion 0 Biology and Physiology 0 Austin Butler 2 I Biological Psychology how your brain responds to your body changes Wilhelm Wundt 183 2 192 0 I 1879 Established first psychology lab I Psychophysics How we respond and behave to our surroundings and different stimuli I Structuralism o Identified Structures of the mind 0 Introspection 0 Systematic detailed selfreports William Iames Functionalism I Identified the functions and purposes of the mind I Stream of consciousness I Human interactions with outside world I Why is human thought adaptive Psychology and Evolution I Charles Darwin 0 0n the Origin 0f5pec139es 1859 0 Natural Selection 0 Competition for resources 0 Genetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favored 0 Environmental changes alter course of evolution Contemporary Approaches I Current Psychological Perspectives 0 Biological o Focuses on the brain and nervous system 0 Neuroscience I Study of structure function development genetics biochemistry ofnervous system I Thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain I Allowed psychologists to better understand the brain 0 Behavioral o Focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior I 0CD Guilt 0 Notable behaviorists I John Watson I BF Skinner o Psycho dynamic o Emphasizes I Unconscious thought Austin Butler 3 I Con ict between biological drives and demands of society I Early childhood family experiences 0 Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud Humanistic o Emphasize I Positive human qualities I Capacity for positive growth I Free will 0 Theorists I Carl Rogers I Abraham Maslow Cognitive o Emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing o How humans interpret incoming info weigh it store it apply it Evolutionary 0 Uses ideas such as adaptation reproduction natural selection to explain human behavior 0 Evolutionary Psychologists I David Buss I Leda Cosmides Sociocultural Examines how social and cultural environments in uence behavior and mental processes Studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries 0 O Careers in Psychology Practice Applied Private Sector Areas of Specialization 0 Community Psychology 0 School amp Educaton o Individualistic Cultures Individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social Value independence 0 Collectivistic Cultures Austin Butler 4 I Emphasizes social group and the individual s role within that group I Value independence Thursday August 25 2011 0 Scientific Method 0 Science is a method 0 It s not what you study but how 0 How do we learn what we learn I Experience I Someone told you what to think I Sensory input I Logic 1 Observe some phenomenon 11 Curiosity 12 Variables 121 Independent manipulated 122 Dependent measured 123 Confounding controlled 13 Theory Formulate hypothesis and predictions 21 Testable predictions 22 Derived from theory 3 Test through EMPERICAL Can be observed research 31 Operational definition ofvariables 32 Analyze data using statistical procedures 4 Draw conclusions 41 Replication of results reliability 5 Evaluate the Theory 51 Change the theory 52 Peer review and publication 53 Metaanalysis 0 Descriptive Research 0 Goal Describing a phenomenon I Observation I Surveys and interviews I Case studies 0 Does not answer questions about how and why things are the way they are Equot Tuesday August 30 2011 o Correlational Research 0 Goal Identify relationships 0 Correlation coefficient r I 1lt r lt 1 Austin Butler 5 0 Strength of relationship magnitude 0 Direction of relationship 0 Correlation does not mean that one variable causes the other 0 Positive correlation I Both factors go up or both factors go down 0 Negative correlation I One factor goes up and one factor goes down 0 Experimental Research 0 Goal Determine causation 0 Random assignment 0 Independent variable manipulation o Dependent variable measurement 0 Exerimental group I Change somethingindependent variable 0 Control group I Stays exactly the same 0 Validity I External validity 0 Representative of real world issues 0 Do results generalize the real world 0 For something to be externally valid it must be internally valid Although it may only be internally valid I Internal validity o Are dependent variable changes the result of independent variable manipulation o Bias Logical errors 0 Bias and Expectations I Experimenter bias 0 When the experimenter thinks they know the solution and in uences the test I Demand characteristics I Research participant bias 0 The research participant thinks they know what will happen so they don t act as neutral I Placebo effect 0 An inert substance that causes the result to change 0 Taking a pill you think is an antidepressant but it truly is nothing 70 ofpeople will become less depressed I Doubleblind experiment 0 Even the experimenter doesn t know what each of the independent variables are Two boxes of donuts the experimenter assigns a donut to each person not knowing what each does Austin Butler 6 Thursday September 1 2011 0 Applying different research methods to same phenomenon Internal validity in 0 Possible Research Methods your experiment it s I Observation true 0 Naturalistic cheap External validity it I Survey and interview is true outside of the 0 Internal validity may be low people experiment too may lie I Case studies 0 People may also lie I Correlational research I Experimental research 0 Internal high 0 Research Sample 0 Population I Entire group about whom conclusion drawn 0 Sample I Portion of population actually observed 0 Representative sample I Characteristics similar to population I Opposite ofquotbiased sample 0 Random sample I Equal chance ofbeing selected 0 Research Settings 0 quotArtificial World lab setting I Controlled setting 0 Real world natural setting I Naturalistic observation 0 There is always a trade off between the two I You lose natural setting in lab but you keep controlled variable I People s natural settings are different so you lose control if you use natural setting 0 Analyzing and interpreting data 0 Statistics I Mathematical methods used to report data 0 Descriptive Statistics I Describe and summarize data I Measures of central tendency 0 Mean average 0 Median Mid point 0 Mode Most common I Measures of dispersion 0 Range 0 Standard deviation 0 Austin Butler 7 Inferential Statistics I Draw conclusions about data I Does data confirm the hypothesis I Statistical significance I A05 Confidence level I Bridge between sample and population 0 Chapter Summary 0 0 OOO Explain what makes psychology a science Discuss common research settings and the main types of research that are used in psychology Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics Discuss some challenges that involve ethics bias and information Discuss scientific studies on the effect of writing about ones trauma Austin Butler 8 Homework Notes and Vocabulary 0 01 9 H 0 HH NH HH lm HH coo N H N N N W Genetic Characteristics A trait passed down through generations that improves chances of survival and production Natural Selection Darwin s principal of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and produce offspring Personality Psychology examines traits that differentiate you from somebody else Developmental Psychologists focus on human growth through a lifespan growth and changes Critical thinking an active process involving engaging with ideas and not settling for simple answers You can NOT observe these behaviors feelings motives and thoughts Psychologists study behavior and mental processes Cognitive Psychology examines attention consciousness information processing and memory Early behaviorists rejected the idea cognition or thought processes in uenced behavioral responses Perspectives of Psychology Biological behavioral psychodynamic humanistic cognitive evolutionary sociocultural Neuroscience is a biological approach to psychology Iames was the major proponent to the functionalist movement 13 Introspection is a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when exposed to a stimulus Among the main concerns ofindustrial psychology are personnel matters and human resource management Health Psychology a field ofpsychology that uses a multidimensional approach to health that emphasizes psychological factors lifestyle and the nature of the healthcare system Social Psychology would be interested in how groups interact Positive Psychology pushes for stronger emphasis on research involving experiences that people value Two key early proponents of Behavioral Psychology Skinner and Watson Contemporary behaviorists emphasize The Methods of Watson and Skinner Actions and the observation of behavior When faced with a series of problems or tasks an individual from a collectivistic culture is more likely to address more difficult problems than one from an individualistic one Behavioral Neuroscience a field ofpsychology that focuses on brain and biological processes Psychology of women and gender emphasizes the importance of integrating information about women with current psychological knowledge and applying information about women to existing societies or institutions Social and Cognitive Psychologist can work in the field of criminal psychology where they would contribute their expertise to the legal field Austin Butler 24 By examining psychological processes across different cultures psychologists can investigate whether the world around them is representative of human beings or is instead a product of culture 25 According to Crosscultural Psychologistsfeeling good about oneself is a culturally specific need that applies only toindividualists Wundt created the first psychology lab Structuralism involves identifying the basic elements of the human mind Individualistic Cultures emphasize the uniqueness of each person and his or her own thoughts feelings and choices Humanistic Approach Psychological perspective that emphasizes a person s positive qualities capability for positive growth and the freedom to chose any destiny Ifyou think you have a psychological disorder like bipolar disorder you would likely see a clinical psychologist whereas if you were having difficulty NNN comm O adjusting to a new school or job or having a relationship problem you would see a counseling psychologist Freud was the founder of the Psychodynamic approach Practitioners of the Psychodynamic approach believe that sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind in uence the way people think feel and behave Environmental Psychology Areas affected by physical setting Learning Cognition abnormal behavior development social relations and perception CrossCultural Psychology The study of cultures role in understanding thought behavior and emotion Researchers study the principals oflearning using animals such as pigeons and rats An elite athlete might employ a sport psychologist which the social and cultural environments in uence behavior Evolutionary Approach An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation reproduction and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors among individuals their community and society Psychology The scientific study ofbehavior and mental processes Homework Assignment 2 1 The Scientific Method The process by which researches systematically acquire and evaluate naturally occurring phenomena such as human behavior 2 Hypothesis A prediction or possible explanation for an observed phenomenon that can be tested scientifically 3 Theories Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Sociocultural Psychology psychological perspective that examines the ways in Community Psychology concentrates on improving the quality of relationships


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