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by: Spencer Smitham


Spencer Smitham
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Smitham on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4230 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/202470/psyc-4230-university-of-georgia in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 1 gt Industrial Associated Withjob analysis training selection and performance appraisal gt Organizational Deals With motivation Work attitudes leadership and structure culture process of organizations cientisu 39 39 Model an 1 l used to train io psychologists maintaining that because io psychologists are both and of quot training must be focused on both theory and application b Censuliing Academic 30 35 Pub Za quot5 Private organizations 30 gt Personnel Psychology 7 selection training and assessment of employees gt Organizational Behavior 7 social amp group in uences communication org structurehierarchy leadership motivation issues gt Fr 39 Human Factors 7 quot h39 39 39 job design optimizing human abilities gt VocationalCareer Counseling 7 career path retirement prep Employee Assistance Programs gt O 39 39 1 7 quot39 39 org A L plan 39 and assess ge gt Industrial Relations labor issues management union liaison to resolve con ict Pre WWI gt 190 1 Psychological Aspects of Advertising gt Europe versus US WWI through 1920s gt 39 1 39 fortheArmy Development of personnel les performance forms IO psychologists 2 Selection and Placement actually educational psychologists Mental Abili Tests used for screening and placing military personnel wop 1 Army Alpha identi ed of cers from results Army Beta for illiterate and non English speaking recruits rst test able to give to a lot of people at nce and place them group administration gt Westinghouse Electric Wanted to distinguish betWeen sales people and engineers 0 Strong developed the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Men Identi es 6 themes Realistic Conventional Investigative Enterprising Artistic Social b Taylorism circa 1911 0 The rationalization of work 0 Fredrick Taylor frustrated by lack of ef ciency 0 Proposed Scienti c Management make every aspect as ef cient as possible Central tenet If industrial production were organized scienti cally there would be no con ict of interests between the workforce and management 0 Time and Motion Study swept the Country 0 Workers should be chosen for speci c tasks 0 Little faith in workers ability to manage their own tasks b Fordism circa 1914 not on test 0 Henry Ford s take on Scienti c Management 0 Ford Motor Company founded in 1908 with 8 skilled craftsmen mechanics blacksmith etc 0 Decreased price of automobile from 780 in 1910 to 360 in 1914 with unskilled laborers on the assembly line gt Work simpli cation 7 worker was seen as an extension of the machine performing same action over and over gt Ford began to realize that worker satisfaction mattered 0 Lead to Welfarism movement WWI through 1920s gt Women in early IO 1930s to preWWII b The Great Depression 7 focused on physical conditions b Hawthorne Studies Western Electric PlanteXperimental de ning moment of Do 0 Illumination studies 0 Signi cance b Hawthome Effect an increase in worker productivity produced by the psychological stimulus of being singled out and made to feel important Illumination studies inspired a series of other studies at Western Electric Introduced new ways 0 Changed the way people were paid 7 piece rate 0 Introduced break periods snacks 0 Shortened the work day WWII to Mid1960s merge between organizational psychology and industry b Matching military recruits to jobs in WWII 0 Began focusing more on Organizational topics like organizational dynamics work groups and employee morale Mid 1960s to mid 1980s b In response to the Civil Rights Movement research on fairness and discrimination emerged gt Work motivation job attitudes and job characteristics were popular areas of study 0 Hackman amp Oldham s work on motivating potential of j obs most cited work in IO history 0 Growth in doctoral programs members of SIOP Mid 1980s to the present focused more on processes manager employee customer interactions gt One of the fastestgrowing areas in psychology potential for global impact Changes in the Workplace pgs 1416 gt Global Competition 7 Free markets used to be exclusive to the United States 0 In 1960s 7 ofUS businesses were exposed to international competition 0 In 1980s greater than 70 0 Massive layoffs in the 1990s due to need to increase efficiency not due to losing money 0 Lean and Mean gt Technology 0 Less workers more work 0 Constant training needs 0 Internet Addition b Flatter organizational structure 0 No middle management 0 Empowered employees 7 giving people the authority to make decisions 0 VERY different from Taylorism b Leaderless groups 7 research is needed to determine how to ensure efficiency in these groups gt More diverse Workforce 0 Race gender ethnicity culture 0 Generational differences matter Protean Career concept that requires everyone to 1 monitor and assess the job market 2 anticipate future developments trends and industry shifts 3 gain the necessary skills qualifications relationships and assets to meet the shifts and 4 adapt quickly to thrive in an everchanging workplace Technology boom commuting relations across world decrease in workers Chapter 2 Goals of Science Description the accurate portrayal or depiction of the phenomenon of interest Explanation on gathering knowledge about why the phenomenon exists or what causes it Prediction the ability to anticipate an event prior to its actual occurrence Control the manipulation of antecedent conditions to affect behavior Good Theory Parsimonious the theory should be able to explain a lot as simply as possible Precision A theory should be speci c and accurate in its wording and conceptual statements so that everyone knows what its propositions and predictions are Testability the propositions presented in the theory must be veri able by some sort of experimentation Useful such that it is practical and helps in describing explaining and predicting an important phenomenon Generativity it should stimulate research that attempts to support or refute its propositions Assumptions of Science Empiricism the notion that he best way to understand behavior is to generate predictions based on theory gather data and use the data to test these predictions Determinism suggests that behavior is orderly and systematic and doesn t just happen by chance Discoverability suggests that this orderliness can be discovered Research Procedures Induction empirical observation data to theory Observation pattern theory sunrise again and again sun may rise tomorrow also Deduction Theory to data Theory to hypothesis the earth does this so I predict that it will rise at this time IV predictor DV criterion Data Collection Technigues Experimental less common have control Unobtrusive naturalistic observation researcher objectively observes individuals but does not try to blend with them Not causal Case Study Examinations of a single individual group company or society Surveys involves selecting a sample of respondents and administering some type of questionnaire Frequently used Archival Research relying on secondary data sets that were collected either for general or specific purposes identified by an individual or organization Experience Sampling Method ESM allows researchers to obtain repeated real time reports of phenomena such as moods and emotions through the use of technology such as PDAs Terms Helping others while doing no harm Establishing relationships based on trust Maintaining high integrity in teaching research and the practice of psychology Being fair and just in all professional relationships and actions Respecting the rights and dignity of all people must explain deceit t0 the irb and apa Causal Inference A conclusion drawn from research data about the likelihood of a causal relationship between two variables Dif cult to prove causality in io because of a lack of control Validity Internal Validity extent to which we can draw causal inferences about our variables Can we be con dent that the result of our experiment is due to the independent variable that we manipulated Construct Validity the extent to which a test measures the underlying construct that it was intended to measure Construct an abstract quality such as intelligence or motivation that is not observable and is dif cult to measure Content Validity a test or predictor covers a representative sample of the quality being assessed Predictive Validity test scores obtained at one point in time predict criteria obtained in the future Concurrent Validity a test predicts a criterion that is measured at the same time the test is conducted Convergent Validity a measure of the construct is related to measures of other similar constructs Divergent Validity a measure of the construct is not related to measures of other dissimilar constructs Reliability the consistency or stability of a measure Testretest reliability the stability of a test over time often called a coef cient of stability Parallel forms reliability the extent to which two independent forms of atest are equivalent measures of the same construct sometimes called equivalent forms of reliability or a coef cient of equivalence Interrater reliability the extent to which multiple judges agree on ratings made about a pa1ticular person thing or behavior Internal Consistency an indication of the extent to which individual test items seem to be measuring the same thing Meta Analysis a methodology that is used to conduct quantitative literature reviews Average all small r to get a true effect size Correlation coefficientr a statistic that measures the strength and direction of the relationship of the relationship between two variables Coef cient of determination the percentage of variance in a criterion that is accounted for by a predictor r2 RSquared More than one predictor total variance considering all predictors Variance a measure of dispersion re ecting the sum of the squared differences between each score and the mean of the group divided by the number of total scores Standard Deviation square root of variance moves back to original formunit Chapter 3 Element the smallest unit of work activity Pushing button Task performed to achieve a speci c objective multiple elements Driving a cab Position An individual s place in the organization de ned by the tasks performed SPED Teacher Job a collection of positions similar enough to one another to share a common job title Teacher Steps to conducting a Job Analysis Gain support from senior management Gain support from employees Review organizational information job information Decide on an approach Collect and Analyze data 6 Summarize results MerNquot Sources for Job Analysis Data Archival Information 0NET based on data gathered in various ways as a hybrid approach focus on work and the worker Incumbents employees who are currently occupying the job of interest Supervisors Customers Job Analysts Subject matter experts SME Individuals who participate in job analyses as a result of their jobrelated expertise Methods of Collecting Tailored blank slate fit job analysis to organization collect KSAOs and then decide PLfab job already made fill spot job analysis already made for that particular job Functional Job Analysis FJA A highly structured job oriented approach developed in which data are obtained about what tasks a worker does and how those tasks are performed Dictiona of Occupational Titles DOT A tool developed by the DOL in the 1930s that has been used to classify occupational and jobs consisting of narrative descriptions of tasks duties and working conditions of about 12000 jobs Job Element Method JEM a worker oriented approach to job analysis that was designed to identify the characteristics of superior workers in a particular job Ignores specificjob tasks focuses on KSAOs Position Analysis Questionnaire PAQ a widely used job analysis instrument that focuses on general work behaviors Too high reading level too abstract Commonmetric Questionnaire CMQ a newly developed worker oriented job analysis instrument that attempts to improve the generalizability of worker oriented approaches through the use of items focused on slightly less general work behaviors Lengthy Chapter 7 Recruitment the process of encouraging potentially qualified applicants to seek employment with a particular company Personenvironment PE fit the agreement or match between an individual s KSAOs and values and the demands of a job and characteristics of an organization Internet 1 use of job boards such as Monstercom and Hotj obscom which have broad appeal and 2 organizations own employment websites which focus on attracting recruits for their particular job openings Informal contacts pass along by friends or colleagues good because you know the person and their strengths and weaknesses often can lead to discrimination Selection and Predictors KSAOs Knowledge Skills Abilities and other WP how do io psychologists help with selection Identify the KSAOs necessary for performance Job Analysis Develop or identify measures of those KSAOs Validate those measures X Improve the measurement of the KSAOs Ie establish predictors Predictor used to predict performance on the job ie measure of KSAOs Test a systematic procedure for observing behavior and describing it with the aid of numerical scales or fixed categories 0 In selection tests are used as predictors of performance on the job the criterion Incremental validity more tests and measures a person uses the more accurate the prediction is so this is the reason used for giving multiple tests Validity shrinkage statistical phenomenon re ecting the likelihood that a given selection battery will demonstrate lower validity when employed with a different sample Validity generalization VG a statistical approach used to demonstrate that test validities do not vary across situations Situational Specificity the belief that test validities are specific to particular situations Multiple cutoff approach a noncompensatory model of employee selection in which passing scores or cutoffs are set on each predictor Multiple hurdle approach a rendition of the multiple cutoff approach in which the predictors are administered in a predetermined order and applicants are measured on the next predictor only if they scored above the cutoff on the previous predictor Multiple Regression a statistical technique that when used in a selection context allows us to estimate how well a series of predictors forecasts a performance criterion Chapter 4 0 Performance appraisal PA the systematic review and evaluation of employees job performance as well as the provision of the feedback to the employees Used For 0 Personnel decisions promotion ring hiring 0 Developmental purposes helps identify training and coaching needs 0 Legal purposes complying with personnel law Types of Performance 0 Many dimensions of performance 0 Task performance Workrelated activities performed by employees that contribute to the technical core of the organization ie activities identi ed in the JA Organizational Citizenship BehaviorsOCBs activities that help maintain the broader organizational social and psychological environment in which the technical core operates also called contextual performance not formally included in performance appraisal going above and beyond Counterproductive Work Behaviors CWBs harm or detract from the goals of the organization CWBs 1 Production Deviance organizational minor 0 Leaving early excessive breaks intentionally working slow waste Political Deviance personal minor Showing favoritism gossip blaming Property Deviance organizational serious Sabotaging equipment lying about hours stealing Personal Aggression personal serious Sexual harassment verbal abuse stealing from coworkers endangering coworkers The Criterion Problem 0 Criterion Evaluative standards that can be used as yardsticks for measuring an employee s success or failure 0 The criterion that is of the most interest to U0 Psychologists is performance Ultimate vs Actual Criterion 0 Ultimate criterion A theoretical construct encompassing all aspects that de ne success on the job 0 What we shoot for in measuring job success 0 Actual Criterion Best shot at the ultimate criterion Evaluating Actual criterion 0 Criterion Relevance Extent to which the actual criterion measure is related to the ultimate criterion eg how good our measure is 0 Criterion De ciency the stuff we can t tap into with our measure 0 Criterion Contamination Extent to which the actual criterion measure captures information UNRELATED to the ultimate criterion eg noise 0 Caused by l unreliabilityerror and 2 bias Criteria for criteria Objective Criteria 0 Based on counting rather than the opinions subjective judgments of a rater 0 Absenteeism lateness turnover rates 0 Productivity 7 usually measured in terms of the number of acceptable products produced in a given time period Subjective Criteria 0 Performance measures that are based on the judgments or evaluations of others 0 Traditionally conducted by managers downward feedback 0 More recently ratings from other sources have been considered 0 360 degree feedback Multisource Feedback 0 Involves the use of ratings by subordinates peers supervisors clients and self Basic Rating Formats Narrative Summaries Graphic Rating Scales 0 Scales consisting of a number of traits or behaviors that the rater must judge based on how much the ratee possesses or based on where the employee falls on this dimension regarding expectations BARS 0 Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale 0 Five steps in the development 1 Identification of important performance dimensions 2 Generation of behavioral example Critical Incidents at all levels of effectiveness 3 Retranslation of CIs back into dimensions 4 Rating of each CI on effectiveness 5 Choose items with behavioral anchors 0 Strength and Weakness 7 very elaborate so takes much time and money to create Behavioral Checklists Read large number of behavioral statements and check if individual exhibits each behavior 0 Weighted Checklist 7 variant of the checklist in which items are weighted by importance 0 Forced choice Checklist raters choose two items from a group of four to best describe an employee 0 Used to reduce rater bias but rater s sometimes feel a loss of control over ratings and hence negative reactions Employee Comparison Procedures 0 Ratees evaluated based on how well they measure up to peerscolleagues 0 RankOrdering 7 employees ranked from best to worst 0 Paired Comparison 7 compare each employee to every other employee 0 Forced Distribution 7 Raters distribute ratees into 5 to 7 categories 0 Can be used for employee raises or removal 0 Used by 20 of Fortune 500 companies Advantages Disadvantages Narrative 1 Good for feedback 2 Miss parts of the criterion space Summaries 3 Recency effects Graphic Rating 1 Easy to develop 4 Lack of precision in dimensions Scales 2 Easy to use 5 Lack of precision in anchors 3 Wellreceived by raters BARS l Precise welldefmed 7 good for 3 Time and money intensive coaching 4 No evidence that BARS are more 2 Well received by raters and ratees accurate than other formats Checklists 1 Easy to develop 3 More susceptible to rater errors 2 Easy to use Employee 1 Precise rankings possible 3 Time intensive Comparison 2 Useful for making decisions 4 Not well received by raters Methods Unintentional Biases 0 Stereotyping 0 Halo Cognitive Prototypes 0 Good employee Bad Employee 0 Retrieval recall behaviors that are consistent with stereotypes 7 whether they be good stereotypes or bad stereotypes


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