New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Robyn Towne


Robyn Towne
GPA 3.87


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Textile and Apparel Management

This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robyn Towne on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TXMI 3210 at University of Georgia taught by Medvedev in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see /class/202482/txmi-3210-university-of-georgia in Textile and Apparel Management at University of Georgia.

Similar to TXMI 3210 at UGA

Popular in Textile and Apparel Management




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter One Decades 1910 s I 1920 s I Sobriety in hairstyle shorter and jewelry clear lines tubular structure bias cut tunic such as one shoulder over a wrap around skirtjust two tones the train of skirt and the string of pearls simple and not fussy need to take public transportation working not sexy less concern about being motherly less ornamentation due to cubism and futurism The Roaring 20 s I Assembly line production began so styles are stripped back to the essentials cut construction fabric and fashion is no longer only for the wealthy due to a larger scale of production I Dressmakers such as Lanvin Paton Leloryinfluenced by Picasso and Brague I Sexy lines bared more flesh 1930 s I An almost sculptural sheath dress shows genius in drapery and bias cut I No corset but brings out the best in women s curves dresses fit for lavish soiree I When in recession fashion is more conservative Glamour NOT edgy comes in and luxury market does okay surprisingly I Costume history elitist elegance Do not only wear clothes by American costumers but quotsellquot the best Paris couture on the screen Vionnet Lancin Shiaparelli are influential The influence of Hollywood glamour is important in Marlene Dietrich Jean Harlow and Joan Crawford I Slinky sheathe dresses for evening box pleats and art deco designs rayon reaches the market women start playing sports going to the beach wearing pajamas 1940 s I The government rations textile production mildly flared skirt with broad straps become quotdumpierquot It is shortened due to the shortage of fabric no frills but touch of luxury is in the ample sleeves on the blouse shoulders are padded shoes are platform with soles made of cork or wood and even tire treads more masculine Wartime I People quotmake do suits with severe lines in long lasting fabrics simple lines and narrow collars decorations restricted to little details of buttoning and topstitching with wide shoulders I Synthetics recycled woolens felt taffeta corduroy is most popular I Women wear pants and trench coats I France no longer dictates because of WWII the occupation of France leads to many couture houses clothing though Chanel stays open because it is a collaborator American designers become popular bringing in casual styles such as Claire McCardell I Whatever is on peoples minds psychologically filters into fashion 1950 s I Unadulterated femininity women are forced back home I Christian Dior s quotnew look appears and is more structured with a crisp tulle underskirt which affords an ampleness that contrasts with the slender bodice underscored by a wide belt simple scoop neck with no added decoration I Generally the more luxurious materials tend to accessorize less interesting hats I Industry is in overdrive newfound prosperity expressed through wider skirts underskirt is a must with lowered hemlines soft shoulders narrow waist and bust coats with billow collars disappear I The first Chanel suit is invented as well as the first wool sack dress 1960 s I 9 Now young people tend to set the trend I Twiggy the childwoman sporting a shirtwaist dress childlike hairstyle which is at odds with full on makeup and huge eyes thinner legs flat shoes I quotYouthquakequot swinging joyous mood about color image of the woman is transformed androgyny and Lolita I Knees so hated by Chanel come into view through miniskirts and short Aline dresses I Squaretoed or vinyl thighhigh boots are huge need for comfort no longer women of leisure I Pea coats and shiny raincoats are in styles are sweet and modern 1970 s I Committed to clean lines could not remain immune to loose fitting curves of the timecool young hippie styles like tie dye tshirts fuzzy lines with swaths of color prints mixed with lots of flowers I DY is very popular with lots of macram bags and vests appearing I AngloSaxon designers make their mark Geoffrey Beene Bill Blass Ralph Lauren Calvin Klein Diane Von Furstenburg the famous wrap around dress Vivienne Westwood The youth of this era dictates fashion with subcultural styles emerging such as punk dress as a reaction to the quotspiritual povertyquot and factory poverty new technology and environmental standards while British Masculinity dictates style British men losing jobs subcultural 1980 s I Women enter the work force and Thierry Mugler turns women into curvy hipped cinch waisteddominatatives who are mysterious Women are powerful feminism makes advances with vamps warriors and dominatrixes I Suits become sexy and dominant shoulders are wide as shoulder pads emerge frightening mutton sleeves I Colors are purple green I Japanese designers emerge such as ReiKawakubo Comme des Garcons became accepted 1990 s can t really label as we used to by decade I Sober colors handmade fabrics asymmetry and overlay meant to last against waste and fickleness rebellious of modest 2000 s I Yamamto revolutionizes our idea of luxury and elegance through intensive experimentation with fabric lots of mysterious blacks and allure for symmetry no difference for him between cutting for men and women I Impeccable rectangles graphic volumes No concession to prettiness a statement more architectural I Jean Paul Gaultier extravagant and sexy styles with a tone of humor and eroticism Chapter Two The Nature of Fashion I Review 0 What group ultimately decides whether a style will be quotfashionablequot I Whether it is accepted or rejected by consumers I Our willingness and desire for constant change drives fashion 0 What is the fivestage life cycle that fashions go through I 39 39 rise 39 39 decline 39 39 I What is Fashion Fashion involves our visible lives and culture I Fashion Industries aka manufacturing businesses Fashion Business anything involved with fashion from the fiber to closing the sale Fashion Marketing old school selling and promotion only vs new school knowing your customer Fashion Merchandising PLANNING I The seven rights of fashion merchandising TEST 0 Right fashion oriented merchandise At the right time when are they shopping At the right place where are they shopping In the right quantities how many of each size should a retailer buy At the right prices at what budget range does this item fall With the right sales promotion younger consumers are best reached through technology men are best reached through catalogs o For the right target customer I Misconceptions of Fashion 0 Designers and retailers dictate what the fashion will be and force it on vulnerable customers in reality consumers are quotvariety vulturesquot 0 Fashion acts as an influence on women only only young women actually 0 Fashion is mysterious and an unpredictable force I Terminology of Fashion 0 Style is the characteristic or unique appearance ofa garment It is a distinctive artistic expression or presentation ex men s blazerjacket aviatorjacket rain jacket They come and go in acceptance but once it is a style it is always a style ex Marilyn Monroe s white halter dress Posh Beckham s oversized sunglasses It is the combination of silhouette construction fabric and details that distinguishes an object from other objects in the same category the basic elements stay the same 00000 0 Fashion is a particular style that has been accepted by the majority of people at a given time It is a symbolic product not a particular product such as a red handbag fur trimmed boots bubble skirt Not every style is a fashion There are two types of groups that accept fashions high fashion and mass volume fashion 0 Design is a particular interpretation of a style in the details It is a version or treatment of a style ex little black dress boots with clasps zippers color height heel described by the style number 0 Taste is the prevailing opinion of what is stylish and appropriate for a specific occasion timing is key here Good taste is only considered to be if worn by people whom it looks appropriate and in the right timing of the fashion cycle It is making the most artistic use of current fashion James Laver s outdated rules Indecent 10 years before shameless 5 years before o A Classic is a style or design that satisfies a basic need over an extensive time period It is described by a simple design that isn t easily outdated such as a white shirt pearls khakis Chanel suit blazerjacket o A Fad is a fashion that sweeps in and out of popularity with a specific group of population usually in one season It is described by exaggerated feature or detail and is usually introduced first at the lower price range making for a quicker market saturation It follows the same cycles as fashion popularity increase acceptance decrease decline just much faster like quotminiature fashions such as the gaucho pant o ATrend is a general direction of movement of a fashion which has a solid foundation A few leading designers are showing a certain fashion leading retailers are beginning to buy these products fashionforward customers are buying Differentiated from a fad because it has a much slower rise and more limited acceptance A trend will stay if it has a sold foundation fits with peoples lifestyles if it is comfortable and if it has sex appeal Trends appear to last for a maximum of three seasons I Components of Fashion Four Elements of Fashion Design 0 Silhouette shape or form overall outline basic shape bellshaped or bouffant bustle or back fullness straight or tubular variation on tubular include slim rectangular wedge and aline 0 Details individual elements that define silhouette give its form or shape trimmings skirt and pant length and width shoulder and waist treatment sleeve treatment I Evolution of the Suit 1940 s1950s wide shoulders and pads 1960 s1970 s casual and unstructured 1980 s structured wide and jagged 1990 s unstructured 2000 s back with wide and strong 0 Texture the look and feel of material woven or nonwoven can give the appearance of silhouette bulky or slender and influences drape and color 0 Color it is the key factor in apparel selection for both sexes can have symbolism such as purple for royalty I The four color families I Naturals colors driven from the sky landscape and water I Pastels colors lightened with white I Darks tones and shades of colors I Bright high intensity colors When clothes are colorful people wear fewer accessories I Warm red yellow orange I Cool blue green violet I The Fashion Cycle like a wave goes up crests and usually goes sharply down I Introduction quotindecentshameless I Rise quotoutr quot when knockoffs and adaptations originate I Culminationquotsmart I Decline quotdowdyhideous I Obsolescence quotridiculousquot Think of a bell shape introduction and rise innovation stages are on the up acceleration and mass acceptance culmination stages are at the top and decline and obsolescence decline stages are on the down 0 Variations in the Fashion Cycle I Lengths of cycles declines are fast products are speeding through the cycle breaks in the cycle longrun vs shortrun and seasonal staples consumer buying I Fashion is intangible incapable of being perceived by the sense of touch 0 Group acceptance individual but also part of a group I Reference group behavior normative we want membership vs comparative point of reference often what you do not want to look like I Do we dress as individuals Is any dress radical I More people care about presentation as only 5 of Americans are passionate about fashion I Driving Factors 0 Change consumers want change more than needs 0 Social forces politics leisure changes 0 Desire for specific styles I Fashion facilitates an orderly change 0 Does our society have an identity ex in the US we don t really wear hats now because they are out of fashion though the British maintain the hat jeans are probably symbolic of our quotlaidbacknessquot and are identified as an American item 0 Designers cannot force change They have to anticipate it they are not quotgodsquot ex late 60 s forced the quotmidiquot and the late 80 s forced the quotmini though the government can force fashion ex WWII quotration to fashion I People are free to choose an image 20 s bohemian 0 50 s beatniks 0 60 s hippies 0 70 s liberated 0 80 s punk rock and yuppies Chapter Three I Cultural groups 0 African American males spend more on clothes than white Americans not about wealth more about cultural adornment also think of metrosexual and gay men but women are supposed to spend more 0 Asians are very brandconscious and spend more on lux items 0 Hispanics have more children and like different colors more fiery colors in relation to skin tone 0 must look at a very wide ethnocentric perspective I Psychographics 0 Better predictor of consumer purchase patterns 0 PRIZM systems fourteen broad groups and 66 clusters based on zip codes housing and lifestyle choices tells what people buy though it doesn t tell why ex inner group suburbs new beginnings old glories American classic suburban pioneers I What is VALS values and lifestyle Sorts customers into eight major categories based on psychological attributes o It is a system that identifies current and future opportunities by segmenting the consumer marketplace on the basis of personality traits that drive consumer behavior Innovator on top survivor at the bottom people are motivated based on ideals achievement and selfexpression o Behavioral Segmentation help retailers predict the behavior of present and future customers I Group customers based on their opinions of specific products and their actual rate of use of products I Where do retailers get the information to segment the market Focus groups and surveysquestionnaires I Environmental Factors that the customers are in 0 Degree of Economic Development Economic Environment I Economic development fashion change I China traditional dress vs western I Hong Kong went back to China in 1997 and gave it a major economic boost Economic Extremists fashion change I North Korea Kim Jung mandates socialist haircut I Congo President outlawed mini skirts in 1997 I Consumer income is measured by I Personal income gross income received by the population wages salaries interest 0 Per capita personal income is gross divided by population I Disposable personal income money left over after tax approximation of purchasing power aka take home pay I Discretionary Income money that a person or family can spend after buying necessities I Purchasing power what a dollar can buy I Inflation demand increases supply decreases I Recession demand decreases supply increases high interest rates and high unemployment I Rate of population growth fashion change I Size of population by 2025 US population will be almost 350 million I Age mix baby boomers account for 50 of discretionary spending power currently represent 267 of population 0 Sociological Environment I The intangible change agents I Leisure time scarce but in demand I Casual living began in 1950 s currently reversed dressing up is popular again I Active sportswear began in the 1970 s biker skater surfer women s I Ethnic Influences I Minority groups represent 30 of the nation s total population I The biggest effect they had is increased demand for smaller sizes different styles and color schemes 0 Hispanics biggest group by 2015 is expected to be 53 million 166 of the population enjoy fiery colors influenced by the South American rainforest 0 African Americans are the second largest minority with 13 2005 lately have a better education with higherlevel jobs and a collective income of 543 billion African pride is expressed by wearing African styles fabrics and patterns Kente Bogolan Beauty standards are changing with more famous African American models emerging o Asians the fastest growing minority group and expected to be triple the current numbers and 9 of the population by 2050 mostly Indians not a homogenous group as they come from over a dozen countries and speak at least 41 different languages Geographically concentrated in New York California and Texas Affluent professional and brand loyal Influenced by Chinese and Indian fashions I Intangible Agents continued Status of Women I Still not there glass ceiling salaries of women are 77 of men s I Women now have higher education and more social and individual freedoms dressing up for men 9 dressing to please yourself I Environmental Factors sociological I Middle class influence primary target of the fashion industry I Physical mobility quotcross pollination I Faster communications I War and disaster I Psychological Environment I Fashion promises many things I Five psychological factors boredom curiosity reaction to convention need for selfassurance desire for companionship quotfix up look sharp Chapter Four The Movement of Fashion I Who directs the movement of fashion 0 O O O O 0 Consumers through their trends and buying behavior Color and fabric forecasters about two years before goods hit market Textile producers about 12 to 18 months before goods go to market Manufacturers three to nine months before buyers Buyers two to six months before goods hit the market Consumers end up making the final decisions I Accelerating Factors 0 OO O Widespread buying power discretionary income Leisure time decreased working hours increased paid vacation increase in catalogs as well as etailing and home shopping More education speeds fashion cycles Improved status of women Technological advances new fibers finishes and potential price control because of improved production techniques Sales promotion good for showing that something exists can help the spread of fashion or extend its peak Seasonal change most consistent people want to change their wardrobes even in mostly yearround warm climates I Retarding Factors 0 O O O O Habit and custom most influential do you shop for familiar or nonconventional What age demographic do you think is the slowest to change Custom formality religious dress female vs male buttons historically distinct and this still hasn t changed transgender clothing Religion religion customer order economic extremists believe modern fashions lead to temptation Sumptuary laws regulate what can be purchased children s sleepwear gas shortage such as a union strike or other type of quotrecession knockoff handbags some designers say this keep them on their toes but other blame cheaper versions of their designs from keeping them from profiting more past laws shorts swimwear fines 1930 school dress codes Nature of the merchandise men s apparel is generally slower to change than women s accessories are changing the most quickly Reductions in consumers buying power when the buying power increases fashion cycles more quickly quotnothing except poverty can make a style permanentlyquot I Playing the Apparel Fashion Game 0 O O O 0 Alternate exposure and covering of body parts Dominant motivation is attraction Sterilized vs erogenous body parts Women s fashions are about sexual appeal Men s fashions are about strength power bravery social rank 0 Pieces of the game body parts waist shoulders bosom neckline hips derriere legs feet youth cult 1960 present 0 Rules of the game I Fashion emphasis usually stays in one area I Only certain parts can be exposed I Fashion attention must always move forward I Predicting the Movement of Fashion 0 Fashion merchandising is producing and selling fashion at a profit 0 To be successful in the business of fashion you must I Distinguish what the current trend is I Estimate how wide spread they are I Determine when these fashions will appeal to the target customer 0 Identifying trend moving towards or away from mass acceptance source of data past sales product acceptance experience of the salesperson education level lifestyle buying habits fashion resources 0 Interpreting influential factors current events prophetic styles introduction phase but is likely to gather momentum among the fashionable sales promotion efforts can turn interest in a fashion stronger canons of taste modesty custom art utility importance of timing can accelerate or retard fashion I Theories of fashion adoption 0 Downwardflow theory quottrickle down theory Assumes existence of social hierarchy I Bottom seek identification with affluent by accepting their fashions I Top seek disassociation after lower classes adopt a fashion sumptuary laws I Implications for merchandising industry does not wait for approval adaptations and knockoffs o HorizontalFlow theory quotmass market theory I Assumes fashion moves between groups in one social level I Fashion leaders in each social group expose new styles simultaneously I Implications for merchandising there is not one quotfashion public but many market segmentation fashion innovator vs fashion leader 0 Upwardflow theory quotstreet style theory I Young and low income groups I Newest theory began in the 1940 s I Implications for merchandising radical changes in traditional retailing from Milan fashion to American readytowear retailers should look to style tribes I Who are the fashion leaders 0 Do not create new fashions Wearing a fashion does not make a leader Constantly seeks distinction and others follow Determines the appropriate dress for any occasion Examples I British Royalty duchess of Windsor forjewelry duke of Windsor for knickers glen plaids quotwindsorquot knot princess Diana for her wedding dress and slicked hair I America s first families Jackie Kennedy for her pillbox hat oversized sunglasses Chanel suit John Kennedy for his hatless and coatless appearances izod shirt under sports jacket Barbara Bush for faux pearls and royal blue Hilary Clinton for pants suits I Entertainment world Clark Gable for no undershirt The Beatles for long hair and mod suit Madonna for lingerie as outerwear Sienna Miller for leggings as highfashion Cicely Tyson for cornrow braids I Sports world Michael Jordan for air Jordan Tiger Woods for red golfshirts I Fashion followers about 85 of people 0 Reasons for following fashion feelings of insecurity admiration lack of interest quotsullen surrenderquot ambivalence varying rates of response window pieces I Does anyone have an original style 0 Computer age vs individuality o Simultaneous conformity and individuality need for unison and isolation o Readyto wear fashions we control color and shape 9 you put the look together but the things are already made 0 Fashion and self expression Chapter Five The Business of Fashion I Design manufacturing distribution retailing advertising consulting communications publishing marketing I Top producers China India Mexico Vietnam 0 O O O I Primary objective is profit employment has declined in half heyday was early 70 s biggest employer I Free trade multilateral and bilateral o Bilateral trade between the US and Cambodia others include Australia Chile Israel Jordan Morocco Oman and Singapore 0 Mutilateral NAFTA US Mexico and Canada 0 DRCAFTA US Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic I Four levels 0 Primary level I Materials fur leather starts two years ahead of final product distribution usually the growers and producers of raw materials on farms and in labs with fiber yarns fabrics GREIGE goods goods receive no finishpreparation which are bought by converters who contract them out to have them finished such as dyed and then sell the finished product first to plan and forecast the color and texture often use imports from the third world 26 cents vs 17 for manual labor 0 Secondary Level I Industries manufacturers contractors that produce semifinished and finished fashion goods from materials produced at primary level work six to eighteen months in advance of final product distribution wholesalers work in large quantities middle men and vendors source of supply sell smaller quantities to retailers 0 Retail level the ultimate distribution level I Vertical integration ex vendor starts producing own fabric or horiztonal integration ex brand starts another brand what you are already doing industries include specialty store category killers ex Bed Bath and Beyond boutiques more exclusive than specialty stores flea markets superstores ex Walmart discount stores factory outlets mom amp pop ex Heerys mass merchants department stores internet wholesale clubs chain stores offprice stores ex TJ Maxx purchase two to six months before actual finished goods are sold 0 Auxilary level coordinates with all toher levels I Support services trade associations fashion forecasters buying offices product development office specialistsconsultants magazines advertising agencies research agencies I Buying merchandise begins with primary level and starts two years prior Competition takes place in price low prices are good for customer but might hurt profit quality higher quality than competitor is good for the customer 9 more choice and innovation a must in the industry that seeks change above all 0 Better fit better style better material I Types of retail firms 0 Conglomerates the number one is general electric worth 1299 billion 0 Design firm ex LVMH Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy and Gucci Group I Forms of business ownership 0 Sole proprietorship 70 ofall business I Advantages keep all profits simple to form easy to dissolve ownership flexibility I Disadvantages unlimited financial liability limited capital management deficiencies lack of stability 0 Partnership I Advantages ease of formation complementary management skills greater financial capacity than a sole proprietorship less hassle and red tape than a corporation I Disadvantages unlimited financial liability interpersonal conflicts lack of continuity if partner dies harder to dissolve than sole proprietorship o Corporations inc many owners I Advantages limited financial liability specialized management skills greater financial capacity than other forms of ownership economies of largescale operation easy to transfer ownership I Disadvantages difficult and costly to establish and dissolve ownership tax disadvantages legal restrictions depersonalization I Government regulations on fashion 0 Federal legislation 0 Laws affecting competition I Sherman AntiTrust Act of 1890 ended monopolies I Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 policed unfair competition policies 0 Laws protecting consumers I Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 I Flammable Fabric Act of 1954 modified in 1972 I Textile Fiber Identification Act in 1960 modified in 1984 listed fiber content so consumers are not tricked I Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel Ruling of 1972 modified in 1984 and 1997 tells how to take care of a garment major fines if not followed I Business growth and expansion 0 Corporate giants most distinct change can be conglomerates necessary in today s world can be through mergers acquisitions internal expansion such as Nike Tommy Hilfiger 0 Internal growth offer more services and broader assortment of merchandise I Horizontal growth new markets new lines or stores ex Ralph Lauren rugby line I Vertical growth expanding capabilities on levels other than original function I Advantages no haggling of prices total quality supervision no middle man DKNY is at the secondary and retail levels 0 Mergers acquisitions one large company buys another company and maintains the owning company s name ex Gap I Advantages company s purchasing power sell stock for resources to expand elimination of duplicate facilities I Disadvantages loss ofjobs o Franchisearrangement allows individual or a group of people the right to own a business while benefitting from the reputation of an established firm where the franchisee pays a set sum and royalties to the franchisor the established firm 13 ofall retail sales occur in franchises I Advantages to franchisee franchisor provides advertisements marketing tools brand loyalty benefits of reputation and establishment fast to set up limited liability I Disadvantages to franchisee small profit in comparison to work and time input limited flexibility may not be a longterm cooperation I Advantages to franchisor fast expansion market penetration royalties and franchise frees I Disadvantages to franchisor franchisee could tarnish franchisor s reputation 0 Licensing legal arrangement that allows a firm to produce and market merchandise in the name ofa licensor for a period of time I Began in 1950 with Christian Dior for ties I License the original designs or a brand name I This means billion in worldwide retail sales I Most American designers license their name or designs I Promotes the continuation of foreign manufacturing America only produces very little I Royalty fee of sales paid to licensor I Advantages to licensor expands designer s name but could backfire if the designer is really widespread because it cheapens the brand I Advantages to manufacturer customer loyalty and profits I Advantages to retailer products sell well I Advantages to customer brands typically represent quality I A lot of what is going on in the world is based on America s quotviewquot I Birth of Fashion 0 Do consumers bring about changes in demand 0 Fashion business s main concerns charting forecasting satisfying demand each new season new designs fail to become fashions because the designs are introduced too early are too segmented to a target market or are too radical o The designer s role I Designers must consider the lifestyle of target market predict future trends be aware of current events be aware of cost and availability of materials know the image of the firm as well as available production techniques understand labor and production costs to make a profit 0 Types of designers I High fashionname designers I Responsible for fashion house business decisions and designs create both readytowear and custom designs license to manufacturers prominent in the introduction stage I Stylist designers I Work for manufacturers and adapt the designs of others typically name designers prominent in the late rise to culmination stage I Freelance designers I Sell sketches of their original designs or sell in production work out of studios o Intuition and inspiration designers are arbitrators NOT dictators of fashion to have no 39 Chapter Ten Men s Apparel I Male dress traditionally expressed power wealth and glory I History 0 Late 1700 s oldest domestic apparel industry 0 Early 1800 s slop shops against Atlantic coast creating batches of clothing in standard sizes 1818 Brooks Brothers opens first store 1846 Introduction of the sewing machine 1863 Invention of paper patterns by Butterick which created consistency in sizing 1864 Industrial Revolution9 Helped create the conservative cut and dark suits for men People who were not famous or aristocracy regular workers were wearing dark colored suits because there was so much soot and dust in the air 0 1914 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America ACWA o 1929 Great Depression 0 19391945 WWII uniformed style ration of many materials there were many more boutiques haute couture and such in Italy and Europe because many sew by hand in these countries while the cultural and political changes in the US led us to move towards manufacturing rather than hand sewn apparel o Postwar Sportswear enters men s apparel primarily in California more sportslike climate and lifestyle America gave men s casual wear to the world 1940 s Men designer s clothes start 1960 s Revolutionary fashion 1964 John Weitz becomes first American designer of men s wear 1970 s Revolutionary fabrics knits made from polyester gave it a bad name because almost everything was made from polyester polyester is easy to dye so clothes became colorful and flamboyant 9 lately men are wearing more polyester suits though they have a wool blend about 55 polyester 0 1975 Jon T Malloy s Dressfor Success step by step guide on how to look good 0 1976 Amalgamated Clothing and Textiles Workers Union ACTWU United Shoe Workers of America 0 1990 s Dress down Fridays hit corporate America and the hip hop look hits mainstream men s fashion 0 1995 ACTWU amp ILGWU merge to form UNITE o 2004 UNITE HERE 2000 s back to the conservative masculine man tailored suit sales I Categories 0 Tailored clothing suits overcoats sports coats formal wear separate trousers Furnishings dress shirts neckwear sweaters underwear socks robes pajamas Outerwear raincoats jackets active sportswear ski pa rkas snowsuits Work clothing work shirts work pants overalls Other uniforms and miscellaneous items 40 of manufacturing in MidAtlantic states 0 All categories use licensed designer brands I The quotName Game designer wear 0 Italian designers Armani Donatella Versace Dolce ampGabbana Valentino 0 Belgian designers Raf Simons WIlmNeels 0 European designers Helmut Lang Yohji Yamamoto JeanPaul Gaultier 0 quotBig Four American designers Ralph Lauren Calvin Klein Donna Karan and Tommy Hilfiger9 Ralph Lauren is only original men s wear designer others started in women s wear I Market Segments o Tailored Clothing 0 O O O O O O 0 00000 O O O O I Backbone of men s wear industry I Produce semistructured clothing that involve hand tailoring operations I Ways to distinguish top quality suits grades how many hand operations there are l244l661 and the cut quot7 inch drop from chest to waist for the designer sits 6 inch drop for nondesigner suits I Structured clothing not easy to fold or pack away keeps a shape and can stand on its own if you put it down going down in popularity suit separates where you wear a sports jacket and trousers in different combination going up in popularity I Sizes mean chest measurements I Because formal occasions are more rare in America men do not typically own a lot of suits 2quotd Sportswear casual wear I Fastest growing segment I Unstructured jackets knits woven sports shirts slacks leisure shorts coordinating separates Takes shape from the body I Depends on short runs fashionability and QR I Interest peaked in 1970 s when there were important changes in lifestyle vacation more demand for fashion I Difference between tailored and sportswear I Construction and size range not occasion styling colors or fabric Sizes are only s m I an xl 3rdActivewear I Bloomed in the 1980 s I Clothing for sports and leisure I Most men want to appear active rather than be athletic I Inspired color to stay in men s wardrobes I Licensing is big ex Tiger Woods for Nike Greg Norman for Reebok 4th Contemporary I Provides high quality and fashion worn by style conscious I Produces clothing in all categories but in brighter colors I Usually produced under a designer s licensing agreement Sth Bridge Apparel I Defined by retailer not the manufacturer I Consumed between the ages of 25 and 40 who have a sophisticated style I Men who don t desire young men s clothing but can t afford designer I Bridge between designer and contemporary I AdvertisingPublicity I Men sW 0 Accessories 0 O O O O 0000 Mostly men s wear producers in cooperative advertising Magazines 60 Esquire Details Vibe Trade shows number one is NY also regional in California and other places ear Industry Trends Mergers and Acquisitions are on the increase Diversification such as expanded product lines are increasing Designerjeans to slacks Automation counteracts the expensive labor force unusual change as it was mostly done by hand Increase in foreign production and imports Increase in specialty stores Increase in casual and sportswear Proliferation of labels and private labels to know your customer better I Footwear 0 Organization I Shoes slippers athletic shoes and boots I 300 variations in lengths and widths about 10000 styles I Most innovation originated in Europe except the moccasin first unisex fashion accessory I 12 billion pairs sold annually and only 1438 million produced domestically I Nine West CT Timberland NH Brown Shoe Co MO I Imports and quality what country is the number one producer of highend shoes 65 Italy then Brazil then Spain and Portugal 0 Operation I Lasts originally wooden to shape a shoe to a standard size Can involve over 300 separate operations I Determinants ofquality and price I Unique industry I Giant companies dominate second highest production by giant corporations 0 Women s I Account for over 12 of all sales I Women s shoes were functional until the 1920 s I In the 1990 s market segmentation began based on age and income I Designer shoes for society leaders I Stilettos for stars and the fashion conscious I Working and younger women desire comfort in brands like Nine West and Kenneth Cole 0 Men s I Dress shoes were once the most important category but are now a niche market I Casual shoes were once only considered for the 1825 age group I Men s brands I Casual shoes Timberland and Rockport I Dress and casual AllenEdmonds Johnston amp Murphy I Designer dress imports Clark s of England Bally s of Switzerland 0 Athletic I Charles Goodyear made athletic shoes possible I Converse s all star in 1917 I Since 1980 s athletic shorts have become a mature separate market inspired by casual dressing and the fitness craze and penetrated mens women s and children s market I Market has become specialized walking running hiking I Handbags 0 Overview I Originally function not fashion I Small domestic industry and manufacturer brands are not as important as designer brands Dooney and Bourke Kate Spade I Nylon and microfiber yarns rival leather I Styles clutch messenger tote hobo field bag also includes smalljewelry cases phone cases small wallets I Belts 0 Manufacturers I Rack trade sold as separate fashion item women s 2232 inches men s 2844 inches I Cutup trade sold as part of outfit belts made in lengths to fit the garment I Self belts bands and buckles covered in same fabric as garment Chapter Seven Fur and Leather I The Leather Industry 0 History I Started as Cottage Industry but now huge industry in Northeast and is highly specialize 0 Three types of companies I Regular tanneries purchase raw pelts I Contract tanneries process pelts for other firms I Converters buy pelts from meat packers commission tanning to contractors and sell finished leather 0 Categories of leather I Cattle most widespread mostly shoe production all parts of shoes all merchandise I Sheep and lamb usually suede finish NOT type of leatherO for use in shoes and garments I Goat and kid gloves I Equine pony skin I Buffalo I Pig and hog fancy leather goods shoes and wallets I Deer extremely soft dress gloves and moccasins I Kangaroo and wallaby very strong used in athletic shoes I Exotic reptile group is most costly to use ex waterfrogs seals turtles land elephants camels ostrich reptile snakes alligators crocodiles 0 Leather Processing I Animal Pelt Categories Skins under 15 lbs calves goats pigs deer sheep Kips 1525 lbs young horses and cattle Hides 25 lbs cattle oxen buffalo horses I Tanning Processes for different finishes matte patent waxy antiqued metallic napped brushed leather with some being washable spongeable thickness moisture color and aesthetic appeal 0 Trends Minerals chrome and alum Vegetable minerals bark wood nuts tea leaves Oils codfish or other fats makes them shiny and waterproof Chemicals formaldehyde makes leather white used often because leathers are mainly dyed now into 500 different colors Or a combination usually to recolor something I Leather Industries of America LIA I Enlarging markets new leathers are softer and thinner greater color range easy care methodsfinishes increased competition from synthetics easier to care for do not scratch cheaper increased foreign trade I TheFurIndustry 0 Background I English nobles wore fur as a sign of power Ermine white fur was often a symbol of innocence Fur was very important in the economy trade and it is said that America would not be here had fur not been integral to the economy the quotfur rushquot In Northern Europe fur was invaluable for warmth and was a form of currency worth more than gold or silver Mink 9 sable 9 fox type of fur depends on aesthetics and availability though mink is the absolute number one representing 61 of furs sold in the US and followed by beaver I Changes in fashion occur much slower in the fur industry due to price I Nutria ratlike animal is worn for sport wear I Animals are raised for fur rather than meat making them killed for decoration rather than survival which creates a lot of controversy PETA ALF I 95 of the fur in the US comes from farms that are certified quothumane I Strongest argument in favor of fur faux fur is made from synthetics which are made from petroleum a nonrenewable resource Other arguments include species farmed are not endangered I Many countries rely on fur for the economy such as Canada which has the best animalhuman rights efforts I Because of animal cruelty issues many designers are against fur Stella McCartney Ralph Lauren 0 Organization and Operation Pelt production majority come from fur farms but also from fur auctions most famous in England Scandinavia Russia Tokyo Beijing Canada whether the climates are cold typically At auctions fur is sold in bundles for better matching takes numerous pets to make a coat I Fur processing fur dressers and dyers wash it pluck unwanted hair dye the fur Not very high quality fur can be stenciled Mostly done by small independent manufacturers in the US I Fur manufacturing NYC fur district is on 7th avenue between 23rd and 30th street in Manhattan Typically a coat made by hand very rarely is it mass produced has ten miles of thread and 1200 staples Fendi revolutionized the process in 1989 I Mom and Pop retailers 85 ofindustry is run by these retailers The line between manufacturing and retailing is hazy I Chain Retailers I Leased departments Macy s for example the fur department is not owned by Macy s but in fact leased to someone else I Consignment selling lends furs to retailers to sell get them back if they don t sell I Wholly owned Neiman Marcus for example The store owns their own fur department a bout 8 are consignment I FICA maintains standards 0 Maintaining Quality I Trade Associations gender of fur Fur Products Labeling Act of 1952 requirements under the Act English name of the animal country of origin type of processing mixed quality furs I 1987 was the highest point in Fur sales at 2 billion linked to women s rising power during the decade Currently the industry is about 18 billion Younger and younger generations are purchasing fur no longer a matronly item 7 0 Trends I Renewed fashion interest working women new merchandise categories and designer interest I Increased foreign trade great variety and quality reputation Russia and China NYC Fur Fashion week 1995 I Restrictive legislation endangered species I New channels of distribution popup stores Video I Each designer has a specific role to fulfill for his or her company Some have free range while others are restricted Research the mood and attitudes of the time in which you are interested to be inspired for design Women s Apparel History of the women s apparel industry 0 1800 before mass manufacturing there was homemade and custommade o 1865 Civil War ends and massproduced cloaks begin the Industrial Revolution 0 1900 ILGWU International Lady s Garment Workers Union founded and the shirtwaist is created 0 19091910 major strikes for legal rights 0 1910 shirtwaist shirt and skirt are sewed together9alowed the standardizing of measurements begins the readytowear business 0 1911 triangle shirtwaist factory fire 0 1920 most women shopped in department stores 0 1930 s ILGWU negotiated 35 hours 5 day work week and paid vacations New York City Fashion District 0 Fashion district became backbone of readytowear due to cheap immigrant labor force proximity to textile mills in New England and South and because it was a port for importing textiles from abroad In 1965 95 of the garments worn were produced in the US in 1990 it was 50 and now it is 5 55 of the immigrants were Jewish and 45 Italian Organization Size 0 Size of producers bigger is better 0 Specialization by product 0 Designers must balance diversification with specialization Jil Sander sophisticated minimalism Emilio Pucci oud colors on conservative cuts 0 Categories of women s apparel Outerwear suits sportswear maternity jeans dresses afterfive activewear innerwear blouses bridal wear on average 800 uniforms and aprons special needs Ranges 0 Misses fit average adult female between 5 5 and 5 9 0 Missy is 4 to 20 regular even sizes with tall sizes ranging 12 to 20 0 Small is 0 to 2 o Juniors odd sizing from 5 to 17 with petite sizes from 1 to 15 1950 s by Anne Fogarty Five to fit slimmer and shortwaisted figure smaller than women s size 6 o Petites 47 million in the US small boned short women under 5 4 size from 0 to 8 include misses even numbered sizes 2P to 16F junior sizes 1P to 15F In 1980 petite separates created by EvanPicone 0 Women s and women s petites are even numbered sizes 12WP26WP and regular 16 to 20 and 26 to 52 o XL to 5x represent 13 ofall women in the US and is the fastest growing sector in retail at 35 billion 30 private label or store brands with vanity sizing Wholesale price points determined by quality of materials quality of workmanship amount and type of labor executive and sales position of organization showroom rent and business overhead Women s price zones 0 Major price zones I Custom collection limited edition newest 5000 for the wealthy Designer signaturejacket more than 1500 Donna aran Bridge about 800 to 1000 for three piece I Contemporary newer zone 180240 Laundry I Better about 150210 Liz Claiborne Ellen Tracy DKNY middle class I Moderate 70120 Guess Espirit Levi s chain stores I Budget lowest price zone promotional JC Penney s Arizona mass market 0 Multiple price zones I Ex Banana Republic GAP Old Navy I Offprice retailers Filene s Basement 1908 I Private labels compete by developing their own designs which are comparable in quality to designer signature or bridge but priced as the better zone Seasonal classifications 0 Major apparel seasons correspond to the calendar Semiannual shows introduced in the fallwinter and springsummer organized halfa year before retailing of the garment starts 0 Holiday seasonal wear and resort are shown in the fall Sales Promotion Strategies 0 Apparel companies have two customers retailers and consumers and promotion focuses on these 0 Advertising buying space or time in print or broadcast media to promote lines Based on an ad budget characteristics of target customer product line and area of distribution I Until the 1930 s retailers refused manufacturer labels on garments now everything says quotmade in China Retailers spend less than 1 ofannual sales on advertisements Cooperative advertisingO when apparel manufacturers share cost ofadvertising with retailers trade associations or other manufacturers Print magazine newspaper WWD 1910 Broadcast radio local TV national brands cable less expensive than network TV Internet versatile youth oriented I Smart phones 0 Publicity has the same goal as advertising but is not controlled by the marketer Much celebrity use The advantage is that it s free but the disadvantage is that there is a lack of control what if the celebrity is on the bestdressed list 0 Fashion shows major public relations effort in women s apparel In NYC it s in Lincoln Center Major trade shows NYC Los Angeles Las Vegas Atlanta Regional markets Miami San Francisco Seattle Dallas 0 Trunk shows present a manufacturer s line to a retail store and their customers Donna Karan 500 investment dressing Promotion aids display and stock fixtures advertising aids educational and sales training for salesperson and customer assistance with instore fashion shows Industry trends in apparel manufacturing 0 Goal is to maintain US market share against foreign imports only 5 of apparel in America is produced by America 0 To maintain this 5 manufacturers act as retailers to cut out intermediaries greater emphasis on licensing increased offshore production increased global sourcing increased emphasis on quick response increased use of technology Tactics in apparel industry 0 Increased emphasis ofquick response speedy production and no shipping overseas which offsets the benefits of offshore production most crucial business strategy in the fashion business 0 Technology computers and internet I Computerized production CAD computer aided design CAM CM computer integrated manufacturing one computer connects everything EDI allows UPS or FedEx to track all the orders to determine where they are in the sales process eliminates packing forms


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.