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Bio Week 6 notes

by: Regan McGillick

Bio Week 6 notes BIO 151-001

Regan McGillick

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Topic of the lectures was all about Chronic diseases and how they all relate to 3 prominent systems of the body: digestion, circulatory, and nervous system
Biology of Humans
Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Biology Week 6: (2/29, 3/2, ¾) --recall: 3 main characteristics of all living things: 1. made of cells 2. reproduce from other cells 3. smallest living unit (all cells go through mitosis=Somatic cells//except cells for sex (sperm, ovaries)  Mitosis: --the division of cells, that will produce daughter cells, that are identical to the parent cells. --mitosis is regulated by the seasons of growth in an organism (regulated by hormones and genes) 1. Interphase: 3 parts: chromosomes duplicate, and the copies remain attached to each other a. G1 = primary cell growth b. G2 = DNA duplicates c. G3 = Cell prepares for the division 2. Prophase -> in nucleus, chromosomes condense and become visible in the cytoplasm. 3. Metaphase -> chromosomes line up in the center of cell 4. Anaphase -> the pulling a part of the chromosomes into 2 genetically identical groups and move to opposite ends of the spindle. 5. Telophase / Cytokinesis-> nuclear membranes from around each of the two sets of chromosomes, the chromosomes begin to spread out, and the spindle breaks down How can Mitosis Cause Cancer? : -as you age = mitosis doesn’t produce as clean, and perfectly formed cells = mistakes are made in the cells a. Rapid tissue growth = hyperplasia b. hyperplasia – can get out of control  TUMORS -Tumors: new cells resemble originals, confined mass, generally harmless  Cancer-> Steps to Malignancy: 1.Genetically altered cells 2.Hypoplasia 3.Dysplasia = producing abnormal cells 4. Cells stay in one place= clumping 5. Malignant tumor = cells invade normal tissue and enter blood  How to Prevent: ? : - 1 in 3 Americans diagnosed with cancer - 1 in 4 American will die from cancer - 2ndleading cause of death  Preventable: 1/3 cancers are preventable- making better choices (diet, chemicals, fitness)  Why does Cancer Develop? : Genetic Mutations 1. Proto-oncogens -> oncogenes a. The multiple oncogens present = growth can get out of control 2. Tumor Suppressor Genes a. damaged or mutated – malfunction = growth un-checked 3. Mutator Genes a. Failure of a proper repair 4. Exposes to Environment: a. Sunlight b. Chemicals (tobacco, pesticides) c. Flying or x-ray radiation d. Viruses  Immune System’s role: a. By defending viruses  Preventions: -diet (red meat 2x week, for colon cancer) -alcohol (bad and good) -avoiding chemicals -using sunscreen  Treatment: -surgery -radiation -chemotherapy -immunotherapy  Nervous System: detecting our responsiveness A. Function: a. Takes info in and receives stimulus b. Integrates information c. Produces rapid responses B. 2 Sections of the System: a. CNS: Central Nervous System : Brain and Spinal Cord b. Regions of Brain i. Forebrain- main governing part ii. Midbrain- relays visual and audial iii. Hindbrain- controls functions and coordination c. Protections for the brain: i. Skull bone ii. Cerebrospinal fluid iii. Ventricles= spaces in the brain that give wiggle room if there is inflammation of the brain iv. Meninges= a protective layer around brain 1. Duramatar 2. Arachnoid-fibers 3. Piamater - soft d. PNS: Peripheral Nervous System: all your nerves i. Sensory NS- information coming in ii. Motor NS- info from CNS to certain muscle nervous tissue iii. Autonomic NS C. Anatomy of Nerve Tissue: Neuron = individual nerves --Produced by the Schwann cell and produce the Myelin Sheath a. Dendrites b. Cell Body c. Axon d. Axon terminals e. Axon Knobs D. Functions of Myelin Sheath: a. Insulates axon b. Speed impulses c. Guides axonal regulation of PNS  Nerve Impulse: electoral chemical energy, moving charged ions in and out of the cell’s membrane. 1. Resting Position: so what is happening there? a. Sodium- is outside of the membrane (it’s channels are closed). High concentration outside of membrane. b. Potassium- inside the cell, with its channels open c. Charge on membrane is Negative (Every 3 Na+ out for 2 K in) **only one channel can be open at a time** 2. Action Potential: a nerve impulse has been sent and the charge is now travels- it travels in waves a. First wave= Depolarization: i. Sodium: channels open-> rush inside cell ii.Potassium: channels close, stuck in cell with Sodium iii.Positive Charge Repolarization: iv. Sodium: channels close trapped inside v. Potassium channels open->leave cell vi. Negative Charge 3. Hyperpolarization: this step works to regain balance. a. Ions are switched back to original places by the Sodium/Potassium pump: pulls K+ back inside and pushes Na+ out **Charges (+/-) change as ions move in and out of cell=impulses** E. The Traveling of Impulses: a. Travel across synapses. Literally a gap between eh axon knobs on one neuron to the next. (synaptic clef) b. Calcium ions move into axon knobs and interact with vesicles in the knobs c. Vesicles hold chemicals called Neurotransmitters which at the messenger that goes across the synapse F. Nervous System Disorders a. Concussions – disruptions of brain function i. Acute risk- bleeding into meninges= short term ii. Stretching of tissue – leaking of Na and K ions = long term iii. Immune responses with swelling b. CTE: chronic traumatic encephalopathy i. Common in football players and boxers ii. Increase risk by the continuing to play- not by the more blows to the head you have iii. Tau Protein comes in which is a plaque that interferes with the nerve functions (The order and information was given and is of the credit of Professor Kelly Murray, of Biology 151)


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