Chapter 7 notes- Nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You
Chapter 7 notes- Nutrition: Eating for a Healthier You HTH 100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 100 at James Madison University taught by Regina Prodoehl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 369 views. For similar materials see PERSONAL WELLNESS [C5W] in Nursing and Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Health 100 Chapter 7 Nutrition Eating for a Healthier You Hunger When our brain initiates a physiological response that prompts us to seek food for the energy and nutrients that our bodies require to maintain proper functioning Appetite A learned psychological desire to consume food Nutrition The science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of the foods we eat Your health depends largely on what you eat how much you eat and the amount of exercise that you get throughout your life Nutrients Macronutrients Water Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals Digestive Process The sequence of functions which the body breaks down foods into molecules small enough to be absorbed and excretes the wastes Calories Kilocalorie Unit of measurement to quantify the amount of energy in food has been shortened to calorie Energy containing nutrients Proteins Carbohydrates and Fats provides calories Water Dehydration A state of abnormal depletion of body uids Hyponatremia A condition that occurs when the level of sodium in the blood is too low 0 Causes of Hyponatremia Drinking too much water you lose sodium through sweat drinking too much water during endurance activities can dilute the sodium content of your blood Drinking too much water at other Pro times can also cause low sodium Dehydration taking in too little uid can also be a problem If you get dehydrated your body loses uids and electrolytes Human body 5070 water teins body builders Develop and repair bone muscle skin and blood cells Your body breaks down proteins into amino acids Essential amino acids 9 of 20 different amino acids Nonessential the body can make them 11 of the 20 Proteins make a person fell FULL Complete proteins supplies all the essential amino acids animal products Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids plant sources Carbohydrates Supply us with the energy we need to sustain normal daily activity Broken down more quickly and ef ciently than protein and fats and yield glucose 130 g a day simple carbohydrates simple sugars found in fruits vegetables and dairy most common is glucose fruits and berries have fructose fruit sugar glucose and fructose are monosaccharides eventually the body converts all simple sugars to glucose to provide energy Disaccharide combination of two monosaccharides examples are sucrose table sugar lactose milk sugar and maltose malt sugar Disaccharides must be broken down into monosaccharides before the body can use them Complex carbohydrates Found in grains cereals legumes and other vegetables Also called polysaccharides which are formed by long chains of monosaccharides Examples are starches flours breads pasta rice corn oats glycogen and ber The body breaks down the complex carbohydrates into glucose When not needed for energy glucose can be stored in body muscles and the liver as a polysaccharide called glycogen Fiber The indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move foods through the digestive system delays absorption of cholesterol and other nutrients and softens stools by absorbing water Fiber is either soluable it dissolves in water pectins gums mucilages can be digested easily by bacteria in the colon or insoluable do not dissolve in water lignins and cellulose cannot be fermented by bacteria in the colon Fiber is found in most fruits and whole grains Why Fiber is good protects against constipation protects against diverticulosis protects against heart disease protects against type 2 diabetes protects against obesity and may reduce risk of colorectal cancer Fats The most energy dense nutrient provides 9 calories per gram Signi cant source of our body s fuel Vital for maintaining healthy skin and hair insulating body organs against shock maintaining body temperature and promoting healthy cell function The longer you exercise the more fat your body burns Make food taste better make you feel full and carry the fat soluble vitamins A D E and K to cells Triglycerides the most common form of fat in foods make up 95 of total body fat contain fatty acid chains of oxygen carbon and hydrogen atoms When we consume too many calories the liver converts the excess to triglycerides stored in fat cells throughout our bodies Saturated fats Fatty acid chains that cannot hold any more hydrogen in their chemical structure generally come from animal sources solid Unsaturated fats Have room for additional hydrogen atoms in their chemical structure come from plants liquid Monounsaturated fatty acids and Polyunsaturated fatty acids refer to the relative number of hydrogen atoms that are missing in a fatty acid chain Essential fatty acids those we must receive from our diet because our body does not make them omega3 fatty acids fatty sh dark green leafy vegetables walnuts and omega6 fatty acids corn soybean peanut sun ower both are also polyunsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated to make them more solid avoid them found in processed foods Cholesterol oily substance derived from animals our liver makes it also contributes to fatty plaque which contributes to CVD Triglycerides and Cholesterol are packaged inside protein coats to form compounds called lipoproteins because they cannot travel through the bloodstream independently Highdensity lipoproteins High in protein and low in cholesterol and triglycerides high level of HDLs in the blood is healthy removes cholesterol from dying cells and from plaques within blood vessels Lowdensity lipoproteins higher in both cholesterol and triglycerides travel in the bloodstream delivering cholesterol to blood cells it can possibly stick to lining of blood vessels therefore plaque is created and chance of CVD Vitomioo orgooio oomooooolo that promote growth and oro oooootiol to Hire oool health Vi Help maintain nerves and skin produce blood cells build bones and teeth heel wounds and convert food energy to body energy Classi ed as either fat soluble are absorbed through intestinal tract with the help of fats A D E K or water soluble are dissolved easily in water Bcomplex and C Too much fat soluble vitamins can cause toxicity problems tamin D o Formed from a compound in the skin when exposed to the sun also in forti ed milk yogurt soy milk cereals and fatty sh 0 Essential for the body s regulation of calcium the primary mineral component of the bone 0 De ciency of Vitamin D can cause loss of bone density and strength osteoporosis softening and distortion of the bones rickets and osteomalacia breast and prostrate cancer heart disease and stroke 0 Bene ts of Vitamin D ghts infections lowers blood pressure reduces the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and may reduce the growth of cancer cells 0 Too much Vitamin D causes reduce appetite nausea vomiting constipation can affect the nervous system cause depression deposit calcium in the soft tissues of the kidneys lungs blood vessels and heart Folate 0 One of the B vitamins needed for productions of compounds necessary for DNA synthesis in body cells and proper cell division during embryonic development Folate de ciencies can cause the birth defects neural tube defects NTD when the primitive tube that eventually forms the brain and spinal cord fails to close properly common one is spina bi da where a portion of the bones of the vertebral column do not completely enclose the spinal chord Major minerals The minerals that the body needs in fairly large amounts sodium calcium phosphorus magnesium potassium sulfur and chloride Trace minerals Only very small amounts of trace amounts are needed iron zinc manganese copper uoride selenium chromium iodine Sodium o Necessary for the regulation of blood volume and pressure uid balance transmission of nerve impulses heart activity and certain metabolic functions Enhances avors acts as a preservative and tenderizes meats present in high quantities in the foods we eat Saltsensitive individuals respond to a highsodium diet with an increase in blood pressure hypertension Calcium an alkaline mineral Primary mineral component of bones and teeth Essential of muscle contraction nerve impulse transmission and regulation of the heartbeat An important buffer reducing blood acidity and helping to maintain pH balance and important for blood clotting and other functions Dairy products Iron Iron de ciency is the most common nutrient de ciency 30 of worlds pop Ironde ciency anemia Anemia is the body s inability to produce adequate amounts of hemoglobin oxygencarrying component which results in the body not having enough healthy red blood cells without iron red blood cells can t carry enough oxygen to body tissues result is major fatigue Important for energy metabolism DNA synthesis and other body functions lron overloadtoxicity is the leading cause of accidental poisoning in children other symptoms are nausea vomiting diarrhea rapid heartbeat weak pulse dizziness shock and confusion lron forti cation excess iron intake from high meat consumption associates with CVD and cancer Functional foods foods that may confer health bene ts beyond the nutrients they contribute whole foods forti ed foods enriched foods enhanced foods Some of the most popular contain Antioxidants Most popular functional foods contain antioxidants which protect against oxidative stress examples are Vitamin C and E and the minerals in copper zinc manganese iron and selenium Other potent antioxidants are phytochemicals which are compounds that occur naturally in plants and protect them against ultraviolent radiation pests and other threats ex carotenoids Antioxidants and Phytochemicals de ciency can lead to age related diseases when consumed in whole foods may be healthful BUT supplements of these may be harmful Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 A set of recommendations for healthy eating A serving The recommended amount you should consume A portion The amount you choose to eat at any one time Avoid empty calories calories that have no nutritional value Strive to be physically active for at least 30 minutes a day Read food labels the FDA and the USDA have made the Nutrition Facts label that is on packaged foors the daily values tells you how much of an average adult s allowance for a particicular substance fat ber calcium etc is provided by a serving of the food based on 2000 calorie diet Vegetarianism o More than 3 percent of US adults Pursue because of concerns for animal welfare 0 Generally weigh less have better cholesterol levels fewer problems with irregular bowel movement constipation diarrhea and lower risk of heart disease may also reduce risk of some cancers colon Vegans may have lack of vitamins and minerals from diet but can take supplements Vegan does not eat meat poultry seafood dairy products eggs any other animalbased products Lactovegetarian does not eat meat poultry seafood and eggs Ovovegetarian does not eat meat poultry seafood and dairy products Lactoovovegatarian does not eat meat poultry and seafood Pescovegetarian does not eat meat and poultry Semivegetarian does not eat red meat Dietary supplements products containing one or more dietary ingredients taken by mouth and intended to supplement existing diets vitamins minerals herbs enzymes amino acids fatty acids and organ tissues Eating well in college Eat breakfast berrich carbohydrates and lunch Avoid vending machines Salad bar Avoid giant sizes and seconds Limit soda Organic or Locally grown foods Organic foods and beverages developed grown or raised without the use of toxic and persistent pesticides or fertilizers antibiotics or hormones Has to meet the criteria set by the USDA Locavore people who eat mostly food grown or produced locally usually within close proximity to their homes farmers markets home grown food thought to be fresher and to require far fewer resources to get them to market and keep them fresh for longer periods of time Foodborne Illnesses poisoning o 1 in 6 Americans are sickened by foodborne illness 0 From microorganisms toxins other harmful substances Diarrhea nausea abdominal cramping and vomiting 0 May occur 30 mins after or 58 hours 0 People with severe illnesses cancer diabetes kidney disease AIDS foodborne diseases can be fatal 0 E coli meat 0 Preventing at home wash hands temp control of fridge cook meats to recommended temp avoid using same cutting boards or utensils for meats and produce eat leftovers within 3 days Food Irradiation a process that exposes foods to low doses of radiation or ionizing energy to break down the DNA of harmful bacteria destroying them or keeping them from reproducing o Lengthens products shelf life Prevents the spread of deadly microorganism Food allergy hypersensitivity an abnormal response to a component usually a protein in food that is triggered by the immune system 0 Symptoms tingling sensation of the mouth swelling of the lips tongue and throat dif culty breathing skin hives vomiting abdominal cramps and diarrhea o Anaphylaxis a severe reaction that causes widespread in ammation and cardiovascular problems such as sudden drop in blood pressure approximately 100200 deaths a yeah Celiac disease an immune disorder that causes malabsorption of nutrients from the small intestine in genetically susceptible people affects over 2 million Americans most undiagnosed Cannot eat gluten c When they consume gluten the person s immune system responds with in ammation 0 Pain abdominal cramping often diarrhea and other symptoms 0 Can lead to longterm health problems such as nutritional de ciencies tissue wasting osteoporosis seizures liver disease and cancer of the small intestine Food intolerance Can cause symptoms of digestive upset o Lactose intolerance the body does not have enough lactase to digest lactose which causes gas to be formed bloating abdominal pain and diarrhea Genetically Modi ed Food Crops GM foods 0 Insertion or deletion of genes into the DNA of an organism Used to enhance production making disease or insect resistant plants improving yield or controlling weeds 0 Sometime created to improve the color and appearance of foods or to enhance speci c nutrients Soybeans and cotton corn
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