General Biology I-Textbook CH 1
General Biology I-Textbook CH 1
Popular in Course
Popular in Biology
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Document was uploaded by Austin Eng on Wednesday July 9, 2014. The Document belongs to a course at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 97 views.
Reviews for General Biology I-Textbook CH 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/09/14
Introduction Themes in the Study of Life Monday Ju y 7 Z 14 221 PM 1 Evolution change that has transformed life from beginnings to diversity of today 2 Biology scientific study of life 11 Themes Properties at Each Level of the Hierarchy Emergent Properties properties as a result of arrangement and interactions as parts as complexity increases 0 Ex Chloroplasts must have specific organization to conduct photosynthesis 0 Ex Recycling of requires web of diverse organisms working together 0 Ex Arrangements in graphite and diamonds dictate appearance Power and Limits of Reductionism 0 Disrupting living system interferes with regular functions yet some complex structures cannot be studied without dissection 0 Reductionism reducing complex systems to components that are easier to study gt EX Watson and Crick39s study of the molecular structure of DNAhow DNA could serve as the chemical basis of inheritance Systems Biology models dynamic behavior of biological systems based on the interactions between its parts 0 Let biologists predict how changing variables will affect other components gt Exquot How can a drug for hypertension affect other functioning organs 0 Relevant to life at all levels gt Mathematical diagrams of ecosystems can outline network of interactions between abiotic and biotic elements gt How animal physiology coordinate processes ie regulation of Na ions 0 Levels of Biological Organization Biosphere all life and all place where life exist on Earth Ecosystems all living and nonliving components ie soil gases light etc of a certain area that Communities the organisms that inhabit an ecosystem Populations individuals of a single species within a specified area Organisms individual living things Organs and Organ Systems internal entities that allow function Tissues group of cells that work together Cells life39s fundamental unit of structure and fxn function Organelles functional components of cells 10 Molecules chemical structure of 2 or more chemical unitsatoms Interactions Between Organisms and the Physical Environment Organisms interact constantly with their environment 0 Ex Plant photosynthesis takes water and minerals from soil roots help break apart rocks 0 Ex trees interact with microorganisms in soil insects animals minerals taken up will always return to the soil ie dead leaves Humans too interact with their environment 0 Global climate change buming fossil fuels car exhaust etcgtgt birds migrate ice caps melt and so forth Energy Transfer and Transformation Living organism use energy to carry out life fxn U 39gt Pi Chapter 1 Page 1 0 One form of energy is often transformed into another gt Ex chlorophyll use sun to convert CO2 H2O into sugar and O2 gt Ex muscle cells use sugar as fuel 0 Energy ows through an ecosystem usually as light and exits as heat Structure and Fxn are Similar at All Levels Structure hints upon how something Works and What it does Knowing fxn insight into construction The Cell is the Basic Unit Activities of all organisms based on cellular activities All cells have certain characteristics 0 Membrane enclosed DNA as genetic info 0 Distinguish prokaryoticarchaea and bacteria and eukaryotic gt Eukaryotemembrane enclosed organelle largest organelle is nucleus gt Prokaryote no separations Continuity of Life Relies Upon DNA DNA deoxyribonucleic acid substance of genes the units of inheritance that transmit info from parentgtoffspring DNA Structure and FXN 0 Chromosome contains long DNA molecule with many genes gt Genes encode info to build other cells proteins gt Proteins are structural and responsible for carrying out cellular Work 0 As a cell divides gt DNA replicates gt Offspring inherits genes identical to parent cell gt DNA controls development and maintenance of organism and all it does 0 Molecular structure of DNA stores information gt 2 long chains make a double helix gt Nucleotides ATCG arrangement analogous to Words gt Provides blueprints for making proteins Antibodiesdefense proteins enzymes catalyze reactions 0 DNA uses RNA to control protein production gt Sequence transcribed to RNA which makes protein gt Gene directing production of cell product gene expression gt Some RNA regulate fxn of protein coding genes Genomics Large Scale Analysis 0 Genome entire library of genetic instructions an organism inherits 0 Humans have 2 sets of chromosomes each set has 3bill nucleotide pairs 0 Genornics study of Whole sets of genes and comparing them to those of other species gt Highthrough put tech bioinformatics use of computational tools to store organize or analyze interdisciplinary research teams Feedback Mechanisms 0 Output or product of a process regulates the process gt Negative feedback making of product slows the process most common Ex ATP in excess inhibits enzyme near the start of the process gt Positive feedback end product speeds up process Ex clotting of blood chemicals released by platelets to attract more platelets Evolution 0 Organisms are modified descendants of common ancestors 12 Evolution Unity and Diversity Classifying Diversity Chapter 1 Page 2 Grouping Species 0 Taxonomy names and classifies based on degree of shared characteristics Three Domains of Life 0 Bacteria most diverse and Widespread prokaryotic 0 Archaea extremophiles prokaryotic 0 Eukarya organisms with eukaryotic cells 3 kingdoms Plantae Animalia Fungi distinguished by mode of nutrition protists more related to above kingdoms than to other protists Unity in the Diversity 0 Universal language of DNA Charles Darwin and Natural Selection On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Descent with modification species rose from a succession of ancestors who differed from them Natural selection is a mechanism for descent with modification 0 Observations individuals in population vary populations produce more offspring than can survive species suit their environments 0 Conclusion individuals with inherited traits are more likely to survive than less suited ones the environment selects for the propagation of specific traits among other naturally occurring traits in a pop The Tree of Life Unity of mammalian limb anatomy re ects inheritance of structure from a common ancestor 0 Darwin natural selection overtime causes ancestral species to create 2 descendant species 0 Ex 1 pop Fragments in to separate subpopsgtgtone species can radiate into multiple species based on environmental factors ie Darwin39s Galapagos nches 13 Scientific Method 1 Science an approach to understand the natural World 2 Inquiry search for info and explanations of natural occurrences Making Observations the gathering of info via senses or with help of tools 0 Observations reveal valuable info about the natural World gt Data recorded observations qualitative ie Goodall39s observations of chimps or quantitative Goodall39s measuring of the frequency and duration of specific behaviors gt Inductive Reasoning specificgtgtgeneral Forming and Testing Hypotheses 0 Hypothesis tentative answer to a question based on available data that must lead to predictions that are tested by more observations or an experiment Deductive Reasoning generalgtgtspecific 1 Initial observations may give rise to multiple hypotheses 2 A hypothesis can never be proven as true Questions That Science Can and Cannot Answer 0 A hypothesis must be testablethere must be some observations to prove it true or false Experimental Variables and Controls Experiment involves manipulation of one factor of the system in order to produce observable effects 0 Variable factors that vary in an experiment 0 Controlled experiment ie mouse camo experiment designed to compare an experimental groupno camo with a control group normal camo gt Mouse color manipulated by scientists independent variable gt Predation dependent variable Theories in Science Chapter 1 Page 3 0 A Theory 1 is broader than a hypothesis 2 is general enough to give rise to testable hyptheses 3 supported by more evidence than a hypothesis 14 Science Benefits from Cooperation and Perspectives Model Organism species that is easy to grow in lab and responds Well to experimentation ie Drosophila melanogaster Science and Tech dramatic effects on society Chapter 1 Page 4
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'