Week 8 Lecture Notes
Week 8 Lecture Notes Psys 100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
▯ Lots of Test Questions from this lecture ▯ ▯ Learning ▯ Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experiences with out environment ▯ ▯ Three General types of Learning ▯ 1. Classical Conditioning: most people have a fear response just sitting in a dentist’s chair! Why? o We associate the chair with pain Ivan Pavlov 1927 o Experiments with dogs outlined this type of learning Food (natural or unlearned stimulus) -> Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) -> Salvation (natural or unlearned response) -> o Unconditioned Response (UCR) o Unconditioned = Unlearned o Stimulus that does not lead to UCR (Salvation) -> Neutral Stimulus (NS) -> DOES NOT lead to Unconditioned Response (UCR) -> o Know Acronyms!!! o Pair NS (tone) with the UCS (food) repeatedly o After enough pairings… the NS will being to elicit the UCR (salvation) by itself! NS -> CS (conditioned learned stimulus) UCR -> CR (Conditioned learned response) Classical Conditioning occurs in humans too! o In one study using humans, a puff of air was delivered to the eyes. Before learning: Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) puff of air to the eyes -> Unconditioned Response (UCR) blinking/head jerk Neutral Stimulus (NS) buzzer Nothing During learning: Pair NS with UCS repeatedly Buzzer -> puff of air -> blink After learning NS- buzzer -> CS UCR – blink -> CR Learned sequence that you didn’t associate before o Back to the dentist’s office Before learning: UCS – injection with long needle -> UCR -fear of pain Neutral Stimulus – waiting room -> nothing During learning: Pair NS with UCS repeatedly Waiting room -> injection -> fear(learned response) After learning NS -> CS UCR -> CR o Same learned fear can be found with dogs and cats when they are taken to the Vet Evidence shows that classical conditioning occurs with cancer patients receiving chemotherapy o Before learning: UCS - heavy dose of chemotherapy -> UCR - Sever Nausea NS – travel -> nothing o During learning: Pair NS with UCS repeatedly Traveling -> Chemo -> Nausea Being in a car is going to make them throw up knowing they’re going to get Chemo o After learning: NS- traveling -> CS UCR – Nausea -> CR Three Important Variables in Classical Conditioning (2 test questions) o 1. Magnitude of the UCS The UCS (puff of air) must be sufficiently strong to elicit the UCR (head jerk/blink) o 2. Contiguity (or timing between receiving the NS and UCS) For optimal learning, the NS should occur about ½ or .5 seconds before the UCS Buzzer ½ second before air puff o 3. The number of times the NS has been paired with the UCS The more times the NS (tone) and UCS (food) are paired during learning, the longer the learning will last. Four Important Properties of Classical Conditioning Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination LOOK IN BOOK! ▯ 2. Operant Learning: “instrumental learning” a learning process in which the probability that an organism (human or animal) will emit a response is increased by the subsequent delivery of a reinforcer Note: the reinforcement is delivered after the response has occurred. This should increase the changes that the response or behavior will occur again. Behavior occurs -> reinforcement delivered Press bar -> get food/stop shock Two lines of research on operant conditioning: o 1. Shaping o 2. Superstitious behavior Shaping: process of reinforcing small behaviors step-by-step until the total desired behavior is performed o Often used to teach small circus and amusement park animals tricks. o Idea: to reinforce animal at each new stage until total behavior occurs! o Note: for larger animals (elephants, whales, dolphins), trainers must wait for natural behaviors to occur and then reinforcement must be immediate. Wait for the whale to jump then ring the bell every time they do it so it becomes on command. Superstitious Behaviors: initially documented when researchers found bizarre behavior sequences among chickens reinforced randomly. o Method: chickens were randomly administered food pellets during the night hours. o Results: the next morning each chicken displayed a unique sequence of very odd behaviors. o Conclusions: Accidental reinforcement – the behavior that happened right before the pellets were distributed was accidental and by giving them the pellets after the behavior they become associated. o In humans, superstitious behaviors are commonplace among sports figures. In fact, these “sports rituals” are sometimes very complex! What happens is that certain behaviors were accidentally reinforced in the past – so the player continues to perform those behaviors in similar situations. EX: baseball video. Two Types of Reinforcement: o 1. Positive: adding something good o 2. Negative o BOTH increase the probability that a behavior will occur again ▯ Lots of test questions from today’s lecture too! ▯ ▯ Two types of reinforcement cont. ▯ Positive Reinforcement: the presenting of a rewarding (or pleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred. ▯ Negative Reinforcement: the removal of a negative (or unpleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred. The reinforcement in negative reinforcement is the termination of a painful stimulus A good example of a negative reinforcement o Children often learn that, if they “overcry” at the start of spanking then the overcrying terminates a painful stimulus (spanking) This is negative reinforcement ▯ In sum: Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability that a certain behavior will happen again With positive reinforcement, get something good. With negative reinforcement, take away something bad. These are very different from… ▯ Punishment: decreases the probability that a certain behavior will occur again. Primary Punishment: Punishment with stimuli that naturally cause pain o Spanking a child o Shocking a rat Secondary Punishment: punishment with stimuli that are associated with the pain (but do not actually cause physical pain) o A frown o A cold stare o Saying “no” loudly o Acting aloof o A common type of secondary punishment The removal of a pleasant stimulus (where something good is taken away) Getting a traffic ticket Grounded No gaming for a week Time out This is NOT negative reinforcement Remember… negative reinforcement involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Is punishment effective? o It does suppress simple behavior patterns for the short term. o BUT, punishment has two major drawbacks that should be considered: When the punisher is absent, original behaviors often return quickly (“Denver- example”) Punishment can only be used to suppress behavior! In other words, punishment only allows one to eliminate old behaviors, NOT teach new behaviors Research shows that punishment can be effective, but only under TWO conditions: o Only secondary punishment should be used o Positive reinforcement should always be used along with the secondary punishment The combination of secondary punishment and positive reinforcement can be very effective in shaping behavior ▯ Why we shouldn’t use primary punishment (especially with children)? ▯ Data shows that, Approximately 80% of US adults agree that it is OK to spank a child “under certain circumstances” Problem? o Research shows very clearly that it is “Not OK” to hit children o Spanking leads to some extremely negative consequences o Main Problem with using primary punishment: Children imitate parental aggression! People who use physical punishment with their kids End up with children who will use physical aggression when they are parents. Had parents who used physical aggression with them. Children imitate their parents!
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