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1 week of sociology notes

by: AlliSlaten

1 week of sociology notes Soc 100-001

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1 weeks worth of notes
General Sociology
John R Brouillette
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Allison Slaten Sociology Notes Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method - Do we simply “pick” our marriage partners? • 77% choose partners within a 5 year age range of themselves • 78% choose partners around the same education level • 93% choose partners of the same race/ethnicity - Why do you believe and behave the way you do? Why do other people believe and behave differently from you? What are the consequences of the answers to those two questions? - 4 Perspectives on human life (ranked from 1-4 in order from least abstract to most abstract) - Sociological perspective- sociology’s special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of the particular people - Biological (1) - Psychological (2) - Social Interaction (the way we interact in a certain way to achieve the same goal) (3) - Cultural (4) - Emergence- each lower level effect the level above it, meaning that they are not independent but that they interact with each other - Interpenetration- each higher level effects the levels below it - Autonomy- they don’t need each other always - Global perspective- the study - The Sociological Imagination - Putting on a set of glasses that you may not have put on before - “The ability to see the relationship between individual and the larger society” - “Many of our particular problems (and our success as well) are not unique to use but are the result of larger social trends” (page 9) - Personal problems are transformed into public issues (box on page 9) • what are the factors outside of ourselves that effect our actions - Theoretical Approaches Allison Slaten - Functionalist- a society is viewed as a stable, orderly system - Conflict- groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources - Symbolic Interactionist- focuses on the specific interaction among people and interpersonal communication - Ways of knowing - Belief/ Faith - Expert/Authority - Tradition - ESP - Science - Assumptions of science - All perceptions are achieved through the senses scientific proof comes though the senses, not all truth does • - People can trust their perceptions, memory, and reasoning (as reliable agencies for acquiring facts) • We can make mistakes but scientist take step to improve their memory and perception - Question: Scientist seek ultimate truth • Answer: False - Science in Sociology - The study of society base on a systematic observation of social behavior - Scientific truth is based on information - Question: Do scientist believe that people’s perceptions, memory, and reasoning are infallible? • Answer: No - Criteria for a cause - Establish a correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable • Just because you have a correlation doesn't mean you have a cause - The independent variable must occur earlier than the dependent variable Allison Slaten - The relationship cannot be explained away by a third variable (can we wash the connection way with a third variable?) - Some Correlations - Playboy circulation—> rape rate is higher, alcohol consumption is higher, suicide rate is higher - % of Hunter in state—> Homicide rate is higher, rape rate is higher - NFL Football players—> Homicide rate is higher - Spurious Correlation- A trivial or meaning less correlation - Summary - Science is just one of may was that people attempt to make sense of their words - Sociologist use science to establish scientific truth, not ultimate truth - we said causes and consequences of peoples beliefs and behaviors Chapter 2: Culture - Culture- The ways of thinking, acting, and material objects that together form a people’s way of life - Components of Culture - Material Culture- the physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share - Non material culture (symbols, language, values, norms) - Just being there doesn’t make it a part of our culture we have to add meaning to the object - Symbol- anything that meaningful represents something else - Language- A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another - Sapir -Whorf Hypothesis- language shakes the view of reality of its speakers • “The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same worlds with different labels attached.” - Sapir, 1929 Learning new concepts will help you see the world differently • • New concepts give different meaning to things Allison Slaten - Values - Ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture • Most important aspect in culture because it defines the goals of a society by showing us what is important to them & what they value • Freedom, Equality, Achievement & Success, Racism and group superiority - Norms- established rules of behavior • Mores- norms that may not be violated without serious consequences • There are different levels of norms • Folkways- norms that may be violated without serious consequences • Laws- Written norms Article 1: Values- Take Care of Myself • Individual achievement and success- competition is encouraged so that when one is successful it reflects personal merit. • Freedom- Although we have the responsibility to others, we are free to pursue our personal goals because individuality is favored over conformity • Equality- Everyone is entitled to an equal starting point or opportunity • Racism and group superiority- In our society thought we don’t like to admit it, and we have strong views on individualism there is a lot of judgment based on race, gender, social class, etc. - Alternative Values- Take care of others • Group achievement and success- A successful person puts the good of the group before his or her own needs. They succeed together which is why cooperations are encouraged • Freedom- Pursuing ones personal goals and freedoms over another’s or the groups is greedy and • Equality- People should have equality in areas such as condition, access to food, shelter, and health care regardless of their talents or efforts • Equal Treatment of everyone- treat everyone equally regardless of race, age, gender, ethnicity, wealth, etc. Article 2: Conservative VS Liberal Beliefs Allison Slaten - Liberals-Believe in equality, believe that it is the duty of the government to product civil liberties and individual human rights, believe that the government should solve all the problems - Conservatives- believe in limited government control. personal responsibility (not equality), strong national defense, and that the government should allow individuals to pursue their own goals - Abortion • Liberal- It is the women’s right to choose what happens to her body because the fetus does not have individual rights. • Conservative- The fetus is a human and has individual rights. Abortion is considered murder and tax payer money should not help women receive abortions if they cannot afford one. - Affirmative Action • Liberal- Racism set minorities back as far as education and opportunity. We have a duty to make up for that and an affirmative action law is necessary. As a racist society there are still unequal opportunities for minorities compared to whites. • Conservative- Individuals should be admitted to schools and given opportunities based on their skills and other abilities. Reverse- racism is not the solution to our problem because society as a whole is not racist only certain individuals are. Affirmative action is wrong. - Death penalty • Liberal- Death penalty is considered inhumane and “cruel and unusual”. Execution risks killing an innocent person. • Conservative- The death penalty is an appropriate punishment for taking an innocent life and is neither cruel or unusual. - Economy • Liberals- The economy should be regulated by the government because they have public interest in mind and will protect the economy from the greed of big business. • Conservative- The economy should not be run with excessive government regulation because it doesn't allow for competitive capitalism, and the best opportunities. Free market provides more jobs and a higher standard of living. Allison Slaten - Education • Liberals- Public school is the best education option for students. Vouchers take money from public schools and the government should focus on improving current schools, increasing teacher salaries, and reducing class size. • Conservatives- Vouchers allow for competition and encourage schools to get better. Parents want the right to choose where their children attend school, and allow private schools to enroll students who can’t necessarily afford it. - Embryonic Stem Cell Research • Liberals- support embryonic stem cell research because it can help researchers find cures for diseases as well as treatments. The embryos have no human features therefore it is not murder. This research has been shown to be effective. • Conservatives- Believe that it is morally and ethically wrong to experiment with embryonic stem cells. However, think that it is only to do research with adult and umbilical cord stem cells. Research on the embryonic stem cells is considered murder because it requires the embryo to be destroyed. Embryonic stem cells have not been successfully used to help cure disease. - Energy • Liberal- Believe that oil is a depleting resource and the government should explore alternative types of energy like wind and solar. They support government control of gas ad electric industries. • Conservatives- Oil is abundant and there will not be enough wind and solar energy to provide energy. They believe that drilling should be increased and support private ownership of gas and electric industries. - Euthanasia and Physician assisted suicide • Liberal- Euthanasia should be legalized because a person should have the right to choose whether or not they want to end their pain and suffering if they are terminally ill. Permitting this could reduce health care funds and allow more funds for those who can benefit rom them. • Conservatives- Neither should be legalized because it is immoral and unethical to deliberately end someones life. Many religions prohibit this stuff and these would devalue human life. Allison Slaten - Global Warning and Climate Change • Liberal- Global warming is caused by increased production of carbon dioxide. Laws to reduce these emissions need to be enacted immediately in order to save our planet. • Conservative- There is no proof that humans affect permanent change to the earth’s temperature. Laws to decrease emissions will not help the environment and will raise prices for all. - Gun Control • Liberal- The second amendment does not allow citizens to bear arms only allows for a national guard. Individuals do not need guns for protection that is why we have local federal government. More guns means more violence. • Conservatives- The second amendment allows individuals to bear arms to defend themselves. More guns in the hands of good citizens mean less crime - Health Care • Liberal- The government should provide health care to everyone regardless of their ability to pay. • Conservatives- All Americans have access to health care however the government controlling the payment of it is making health care cost higher for everyone. Healthcare should remain privatized. - Homeland Security • Liberal- Passenger profiling is wrong and extra screening should be about more than race and ethnicity. It is offensive to many people. • Conservatives- Profiling should be allowed, however there should be more that goes into it other than race and ethnicity. There should be an intelligence that uses other criteria that then requires passengers extra screening. - Immigration • Liberal- Support legal immigration and blanket amnesty for those who are illegal. Believe that all immigrants (legal or not) should be allowed the sae education and health benefits as everyone. It is unfair arrest millions of undocumented immigrants. Allison Slaten • Conservatives- Support legal immigration only. Illegal immigrants do not have the same rights as those who are legal. The boarders should be secured by the federal government and should enforce current immigration law. - Private Property • Liberal- The government has the right to seise even on private property to accomplish a public end. • Conservatives- Believe that the government and citizens should respect private ownership and property rights. Seizure is wrong in most cases and eminent domain should not be used for private development. - Religion and Government • Liberal- There should be a separation between church and state. The government should not support any religious expressions. • Conservatives- The first amendment only prevents the government from establishing a national church/denomination. However, God and other symbols of other Christian heritage should not have to be removed from federal buildings and in schools. The government should not interfere with religion and religious freedom. - Same Sex Marriage Liberal- Support same sex marriage because marriage is the union of people who • love each other. • Conservatives- Believe that marriage is the union of one man and one women. Requiring citizens to recognize same sex marriage violates moral and religious beliefs of millions. - Social Security • Liberal- Social security should be protected at all costs. Reductions in the system will cause potential harm to those who are poor and needy and would reduce the benefits of those who rely on the program. • Conservatives- The system needs revisions to make it more efficient and financially sustainable. Would be more effective if it was privatized and allowed individuals to manage their own savings Allison Slaten - Taxes • Liberal- Higher taxes for the wealthy is necessary to address many financial issues. These taxes should go to helping the poor and needy. These taxes enable the government to create jobs and provide welfare programs for those in need. • Conservatives- Want lower taxes and a smaller, limited government. This will increase the standard of living and encourage people to work, save and invest. Money spent by the government on welfare systems encourage laziness and being dependent on these programs. - United Nations (UN) • Liberal- The United States has a moral obligation to support the UN because they support the greater good for the global community. They have a responsibility to maintain international peace. United States troops should submit to the UN command if needed. • Conservatives- The UN has repeatedly failed. The United States should never subvert its national interests to those of the UN. The military should not be under command of the UN ever. Varying opinions on whether or not the United States should withdraw from the UN. - War on Terror/Terrorism • Liberal- Terrorism is the result of arrogant United States foreign policy. Relying on military force to end terrorism creates hatred and leads to more violence. Captured terrorists should be tried in civilian court. • Conservatives- Terrorism is one the biggest threats to the United States. Terrorists must be stopped and destroyed. Intelligence gathering and military force is the best way to defeat terrorist around the world. Captured terrorists should be treated as enemy and tried in military courts. - Welfare • Liberal- Support the safety net that welfare provides for the poor. This is necessary for fairness in the American economic life. • Conservatives- Oppose long term welfare because there should be opportunities for those in need to become more independent and self- reliant. This is more effective and won’t allow them to remain dependent on the government. Allison Slaten - Society- the people who interact in a defined territory and share a common culture - BP(before present)= BC (before Christ) - Hunting/Gathering —> Horticulture/Pastoral —> Agriculture —> Industrial (United States was ahead of everyone and those in the agricultural era didn’t particularly like the machines in this era) —> Postindustrial (communication) - Question- You wore this outfit to class today. You are probably breaking one of our societies___? - Answer- Folkways - Subculture- cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society’s population • ex. Colorado cowboys, California “beach crowd”, jazz musicians, Millennials, computer “nerds” - Support the larger culture and do not try and other throw it - Counterculture- cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society • ex. Flower children of the 1960’s, Ku Klux Klan, Neo-Nazi skinheads - A society’s values, norms, and behavior will change over time and so will yours and mine - Ethnocentrism- The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture and assuming that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all others - Cultural Relativism- the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards Chapter 3- Socialization: from infancy to old age - Queen Anne Game • Purpose- use previous learning experiences to help us solve new problems. - Question- Once formed can our personalities be altered significantly? - Answer- Most said yes or no with a few more answering no than yes. - Nature VS Nurture - Nature- the study of how biology affects human behavior - Nurture- the study of how learning affects human behavior Allison Slaten - Sociologist believe that people are born neutral (a clean state) and depending on other forces that is how we become who we are - Social scientists lean more to the nurture side of the scale but not completely - Social biologists are a little over the half way point towards nurture - To what extent do you have freedom to choose what you eat? - Society limits our choice - At birth are people born good, bad, or neutral? - Sigmund Freud - Thought people were born bad or to deviate and we have to do something to prevent that from happening • ID- our born self • Ego- don’t do things because I don’t want to get in trouble • super ego- don’t do things because it’s the right thing to do - Sociologist believe that personality • Develops over time - Kinch’s Self Concept Theory - Self Concept—> Individual’s behavior—> Response of others—> Individual’s perception—> Self concept (ongoing circulation) - Cooly’s looking glass self - A self image based on how we think others see us - We care about what other people see in us - Stages in the Life Course - Pre-industrial Society • Childhood to Adulthood (financially independent) - Post- industrial Society • Childhood… Adolescence… Adulthood… Old age Question- Jack Brouillette’s super bowl lecture was presented from the ___ perspective. Answer- Conflict theory because it addressed inequality Allison Slaten Agents of Socialization - Family - School - Peers - Mass Media - The more education one receives, the less amount of television one watches - Freedom and Objectivity - Brainwashing- influencing someone to do something agains their will - Resoicalization- the process by which people abandon their old selves and develop new ones • Voluntary • Involuntary - Involuntary resocialization - Total institution- a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of officials • ex. prisons, mental hospitals, POW camps Chapter 4- Social Interaction in Everyday life - Social Status- a social position that a person occupies • Ascribed- A part of your status that you cannot change (race, gender,etc) Achieved- the part of your status that you achieved (job, religion) • • Master Status- The ones that stick out or mean more than others - Every social status has a relationship with other social statuses - Role- behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status • An employee at Wendy’s (status) is supposed to arrive at work on tie, be clean, be polite to customers (role) - Role Stain- Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single that a person occupies, within one status - Role Conflict- occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time, conflict between two statuses - The Social Construction of Reality Allison Slaten - The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interactions • People watching - The Thomas Theorem- situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences • What people say is true, is true Although reality is “soft” as it is fashioned, it can becomes “hard” in its effects. • - Ethnomethodology- the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings - “We don’t seethings as they are, as we see them as we are.” - Anais Nin - Dramaturgical Analysis- The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performances • Performances: front stage and back stage (we have stages in which certain people are not invited in to) Impression management- how do I want to show myself the the public? • • Civil Inattention- seeing something and pretending you didn’t • Nonverbal communication- facial expressions, eye contact, and touching • Personal space- 0-18 inches away is intimate space • Breaking the rules - What is the methodology they use to study this? • break some norms and see how people react - Social construction of language • unemployed- Between jobs • colored people- people of color • broken family- one parent household • used cars- preowned car - Humor Humor is a product of reality construction • • Humor provides a way to express an opinion without being serious, relieves tension • Humor often is a sign of real conflict - When would you help or harm someone? Allison Slaten Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations - Social Group- Two or more people who identify and interact with one another - Relationships - Primary • Personal orientation • Usually long duration Broad relationship- involving many activities • • There is no goal or an end • There is something meaningful about the other person in this relationship that makes it meaningful - Secondary • Goal orientation- only reason we interact with this person is to achieve something • Variable duration- often short term • Narrow relationship- involving few activities • Mean to an end- using the individual - The Temporary Society (Bennis and Slater) • Individuation- be more separated from our roots that are found in small communities in the world • Concomitant feeling of alienation- feeling of being lost Interchangeability- if you’re going to function at CSU you will likely be known as • your major not for who you are. In order to survive you have to be able to be interchangeable • Other- Directedness- • One of the few primary groups we have left is family • They feel that the American family is doing beautifully - Formal Organizations- a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner - A bureaucracy- rational model designed to perform complex tasks of efficiency - Max Weber’s 6 elements to promote organizational efficiency • Specialization of duties Allison Slaten • Hierarchy of offices • Rules and Regulations • Technical competence • Impersonality • Formal, written communications - Problems with Bureaucracy - Bureaucratic alienation- - Bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism - Bureaucratic Inertia - With new computer technology, privacy has declined (p. 160) - Time orientation - Peter’s Principle on bureaucracy - Hierarchy- individuals tend to rise to their levels of incompetence Criteria may be faulty • • “2nd grade teacher promoted to principle” • Everyone should be demoted 1 level; things would run more smoothly - Parkinson’s Law- works to expand to fill up time available for its completion • ex. have a month to do something, it’ll take you a month but most wait until the last minute - Japanese Model- went from putting out bad to good products • New employees (same salary, same responsibilities) • Lifetime employment • Broad based training in all phases of operation • Collective decision making (quality circle) • Holistic involvement of society (primary relationships are more significant) - McDonaldization of Society- non fast food organizations mimic the organization and principles of McDonalds • No emphasis on quality - 4 traits • 1. Efficiency- get most done as quickly as possible (largest number = efficiency) • 2. Predictability- you know what you’re getting, at least it’s similar Allison Slaten • 3. Uniformity- standardized products • 4. Automation- humans are not efficient compared to machines. Get the most out in the shortest period of time - High amounts of waste - Environment pollution - Interpersonal/ dehumanizing to work - Effects many varieties in life - Question- Large mega- churches often have several thousand members. This illustrates which principle of McDonaldization? - Answer- Efficiency Chapter 6- Sexuality and Society - Sociological imagination of this chapter- Do we make our own choices regarding how we feel about sexuality OR does society shape our opinions on issues involving sexuality? - Question- When do you think sex education should be taught? • Answer- 70% said middle school - Question- Do you believer there is too much emphasis on sex in tv and movies? • Answer- 66% said yes - Human sexuality is an important component of every society - How people express their sexuality • Varies from society to society • Varies within a society over time - How we express our sexuality is learned, even though our sex is biological - Our values and subsequent behavior are shaped by our exposure to various forces within the social environment: family, school, peers, and mass media. - How have these forces shaped our values and behavior regarding our sexuality? - Runner’s World 64% say running makes them better lovers • • 66% think about sex while running • only 8.3% think about running while having sex Allison Slaten - History of sex - Ancient Greece • women’s job was the bear children • sex in marriage was required • homosexual relationships were condoned for females, having sex was breaking a more (double standard) • - Reformation (early 1500s) • the role of sex in ancient Greece wasn’t adequate • they believed that sex can happen for pleasure as well • sex outside of marriage wasn’t approved of - Puritans • took many ideas from reformation • love was the basis of marriage sex was to have children • - Kinsey (1948) • wrote a book about males wanting to have sex just for fun • attitude toward sex changed - Today • sex should be broader • sex doesn’t have to be serious • can be seen as a recreational activity • lost its value - Sexuality - Procreation- child bearing - Relational- experience, human, primary relationship - Recreational- feeling, object, secondary relationship - Question- How do you feel about a man and women having sexual relations before marriage? - Answer- 55% said not wrong at all - Question- How do you feel about extramarital sex? Allison Slaten • Answer- 59% said always wrong, 13% said not wrong at all or wrong only sometimes - Sexual Controversies GSS 2013 - Premarital sex • 54.1% said not wrong at all Our class is a representative sample of the study • - Extramarital sex • 78.4% said always wrong - The Sexual revolution - 1960’s: fostered a new openness toward sexuality • The pill- gave females power over the sexual relationship and control over their bodies • Attitudes toward sex changed dramatically especially for premarital sex Double standard challenged • - Extramarital sex • 75% of men and 90% of women remain faithful during the marriages - Premarital sex • men and women are almost equal in the percent reporting engaging in premarital sex • premarital sex is broadly accepted among America’s young - 1933-1942 56% of men had 2 or more partners - 16% of women - 1953-1962 - 62% - 48% - Sexual Controversies - Teen pregnancy in the U.S. • Highest rate among other high income countries • Sex education in schools: solution or problem Allison Slaten - The sexual counterrevolution - Will cause the idea about sex to go back to what it was— Re-emergence of fundamental religious groups - Holistic health movement- more to health than physical, health should be viewed in a broader sense, we have responsibility for our health - Increased concern over economic consequences of children born out of wedlock- those born out of wedlock tend to be poorer than most, not married, - Backlash of the sexual revolution • started with the feminist movement • leading to women being used and abused because sex was now for “fun” - HIV- Aids - Sexual Violence and Abuse - A culture of rape college campuses • - Rape - Date rape (acquaintance rape) - Myths about rape - Theoretical Analysis - Functionalist- looks at how can sexual activity be used to maintain a stable society • make sure this helps our society • What are the things that are not helping us to be more stable (what is tearing us down) ex. teen pregnancy - Interactionist - Conflict • Feminist theory- inequalities between men and women • Queer theory- inequalities between those who are straight and those who aren’t both of these are more specific conflict theories • - Prostitution - Functionalist- how does this stabilize our society- what functions does prostitution serve that others don’t, or how is it destroying our society - The Abortion Controversy Allison Slaten - The deliberate termination of a pregnancy - 1973 Roe V Wade - Pro-choice - Pro-life - Circumstances of the pregnancy makes big difference in how people see this issue -


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