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BZ 101 week of notes

by: AlliSlaten

BZ 101 week of notes BZ 101

GPA 3.3

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one week of notes
Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
Karen M Raines
Class Notes
Biology, BZ 101
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
BZ 101 Notes Chapter 1 notes to come next week after I get my textbook Chapter 2- Organic Molecules - 2.4- Organic Molecules - Lipid= fat - Organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms • Carbon atoms often share electrons with other carbon atoms forming long hydrocarbon chains • Attached to the carbon chains are functional groups • functional group- a group of atoms that is attached to a molecule that reacts/ behaves in a predictable way and contains certain characteristics - Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together • Monomers- simple organic molecules that exist individually - ex. monosaccharide, fatty acids, amino acid, nucleotide • Polymers- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers - ex. carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid - Cells have common mechanism for joining monomers and degrading polymers • Dehydration Reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule • Hydrolysis(water splitting) Reaction- the components of water are added, the chemical bond that is holding the monomers together is split by adding water. This includes chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. - 2.5- Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates- Function for quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods - On cell surfaces are involved in cell to cell recognition (white blood cells use this to recognize whether or not a cell is supposed to be in the body) - Simple Carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides • ex.glucose, galactose, and fructose - Disaccharides (simple sugars) contain two monosaccharides. • ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose - Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits • Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants • Glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals (we store glycogen in our muscles and liver) • Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants - 2.6- Lipids - Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store lipids long term • Function as energy storage molecules • Insulate against heat loss • form protective cushions around major organs Form membranes • • Chemical messengers - Lipids are diverse in structure and function • One common characteristic is that they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) - Types of lipids include fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids - A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that ends with the acidic group • ex. COOH - Saturated fatty acids- have no double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms - Unsaturated fatty acids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms (not all the carbon atoms are completely surrounded by hydrogen atoms) - Trans fat means that the molecule is switched making it less healthy - Emulsification- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile(we produce this) emulsifies fats in our small intestine. • ex. soap and egg whites - Phospholipids- Comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol • they are major components of cells membranes • They spontaneously form a bilayer in which the hydrophilic heads face outward toward watery solutions and the fails form the hydrophobic interior. The polar head faces the outside meaning that it is hydrophilic water soluble and the tails are non polar or hydrophobic that means that they are not water soluble. - Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen - 2.7- Proteins - Proteins- are polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally are very long and contain lots and lots of monomers - Proteins perform many functions: • Structural- Keratin and collagen • Enzymes Hormones- Insulin • • Transport molecules- Hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) • Antibodies - Amino acid- contains an amino group (-HN2) an acidic group (-COOH) and and R group also known as the rest of the molecule (varies) • 20 exist in nature - Peptides- can be used interchangeably with protein and a peptide bond joins two amino acids - Polypeptide- a single chain of amino acids - Levels of protein organization: • The structure of the protein has at least 3 levels of organization (some have 4) • ex. Hemoglobin- protein that transfers oxygen throughout the blood - The final shape of a protein is very important to its function Denatured- A protein loses structure and function due to hear or pH. Generally is • permanent - Polypeptide- a chain of amino acids • 2 or more polypeptides - Misfolded proteins- interferes with the function of the protein and can cause things like Alzheimer's - 2.8 Nucleic Acids - DNA- (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism, 4 bases - RNA- (ribonucleic acid), 4 bases - Both are polymers of nucleotides - Components of a nucleotide • Phosphate • Pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) • Nitrogen- containing base (1 of 5) - DNA- • sugar (deoxyribose), bases(adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine), • • strands (double stranded with base pairing), • Helix (yes) - RNA- • sugar is ribose • bases are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine • strands are single • helix no - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)=adenine + ribose (adenosine) + 3 phosphate groups • high energy molecule (energy currency of the cell) • undergoes hydrolysis and energy is releases • enzymes are proteins which are crucial for hydrolysis - Last two phosphate bonds are unstable and are easily broken therefore they release energy - Hydrolization forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) - ATP can be rebuilt (add P to ADP to make ATP) - Question: A _______ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Dehydration - Question: The primary function of a carbohydrate is: • Answer: A quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Question: A ____ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Steroids, lipid molecules, and hormones - Question: Proteins are polymers of? • Answer: Amino Acid - Question: DNA is a____? • Answer: Nucleic Acid Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function - 3.1 - The cell - The cell marks the boundary between the nonliving and the living - The cell is the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life - Cell theory - All organism are composed of one or more cells - Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organism - All cells come only from other cells - Surface area/volume ratio - The amount of surface area affects the ability to get materials in and out of a cell - As cells increase in volume, the proportionate amount of surface area decreases - All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane - The material inside of a cell is the cytoplasm - The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell - 3.2 Prokaryotic Cells - Lack a membrane- bounded nucleus - Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus - Humans are Eukaryotic organisms - 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya - Generally unicellular • may be single, strings, or clusters - Not all bacteria cause disease some are beneficial • - Question: Prokaryotic cells lack… • Answer :A true nuclei - Question: The ____ is the smallest independent unit of life • Answer: Cell - Question: What factor limits cell size • Answer: Surface area/ volume ratio - 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells - Are structurally complex - Have a nucleus - Possess membrane- bounded organelles - Animals, plants, fungi, and protists - Some Eukaryotic cells have cell walls - - Parts of the cell - The Nucleus - Contains chromatin • DNA and associated proteins - Nucleolus • Where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made - Nuclear Envelope • Nuclear pores - Ribosomes • Site of protein synthesis two subunits (large and small) • • Subunits consist of rRNA and protein molecules • found attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm - Endomembrane System • Consists of the nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and several vesicles(tiny membranous sacs) • Essentially the transportation and product- processing section of the cell • compartmentalizes cell - Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough ER • Studded with ribosomes Processing and modification of proteins • - Smooth ER • No Ribosomes • Synthesiszes phospholipids • various other functions • Liver cells have a lot of these - Golgi Apparatus • “post office” of the cell collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids • • Proteins made RER have tags that serve as “zip codes” to direct Golgi apparatus where to send them - Lysosomes • Produced by Golgli Apparatus • Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes • “Garbage disposals” of the cell • Break down unwanted, foreign substances or worn- out parts of cells • Important during development • Diseases? - Tay-Sachs(lysosomal storage disease) - Energy related Organelles - Life is possible only because of a constant input of energy - Chloroplasts (plants only) and mitochondria are the 2 eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form the cell can use - Photosynthesis - Solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen - - Only plants, algae, and cyanobacteria - Solar energy is the ultimate source of energy for most cells - Cellular Respiration - carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy - All organism convert chemical energy into ATP - ATP used for all energy requiring processes in cells - Mitochondria • found in all eukaryotic cells(including plants and algae) • site of cellular respiration • Contain their own DNA • All mitochondria come from your mother • Diseases? yes - 3.4 and 3.5 - The Cytoskeleton • Maintain the cell shape • Assists in movement of cell and organelles • Dynamic- assemble and disassemble • Three types of protein components - Microfilaments (Actin filaments) - Inermideiate Filaments - Microtubules - Centrioles • found in centrosomes of animal cells • Involved in the process of microtubule assembly and disassembly • form the mitotic spindle during cell division - Cilia and Flagella Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement • • In eukaryotic cells, cilia are much shorter than flagella • Both are membrane- bound cylinders - 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules because of the 9 pairs of microtubules that surround a single pair of microtubules - Question- ribosomes are the sites of____ - Answer- protein synthesis - Question- the ____is often referred to as the “post office” of the cell because it collects, modifies and packages and sorts molecules - Answer- Golgi - Question- which organelle do we associate with ATP synthesis - Answer- Mitochondrion - Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell - First cells were prokaryotes - Evidence suggests archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes - Evolved in stages - Endosymbiotic theory- Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derive from prokaryotes that were taken up by a much larger cell - Supporting evidence - Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in size and in structure - Both organelles are bounded by a double membrane- the outer membrane may be derived from the engulfing vesicle, and the inner one may be derived from the plasma membrane of the original prokaryote - Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a limited amount of genetic material and divide by splitting (their DNA is a circular loop like that of prokaryotes) - Although most of the proteins within mitochondria and chloroplasts are now produced by the eukaryotic host, they do have their own ribosomes and they do produce some proteins (their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes) - The RNA (ribonucleic acid) base sequence of the ribosomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria also suggests a prokaryotic origin of these organelles - 4.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function - Plasma Membrane- Regulates the entrance and exit of molecules into and out of the cell • Consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins - 5 Membrane Protein functions - 1. Channel protein allows a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane freely. A mucus blocking this pathway causes cystic fibrosis - 2. Carrier proteins selectively interact with specific molecules or ions so that it can cross the plasma membrane. The family of GULT carriers transfer glucose in and out of cell types. Different carries respond differently to different levels of glucose. - 3. MHC (major histocompatibility complex) meaning glycoproteins are different for each person, making transplants difficult. Cells with foreign MHC are attacked by white blood cells which are responsible for immunity - 4. Receptor proteins are shaped in a certain way so that certain molecules can bond with it. This causes some forms of dwarfism because they don’t produce enough growth hormone. - 5. Enzymatic protein catalyzes are a specific reaction. The membrane protein (adenylate cyclase) is involved in ATP metabolism. Cholera releases a toxin that interferes with this reaction eventually causing severe diarrhea. - 4.2 Permeability of the Plasma Membrane - Differentially permeable - Factors that determine how a substance may be transported across a plasma membrane: • Size • Nature of molecule- polarity, change • Concertino gradient - Concentration gradient - Going “down” a concentration gradient • From an area of higher to lower concentration - Going “up” a concentration gradient • From an area of lower to higher concentration, requires input of energy - Some molecules freely cross membrane • Water, small, non-charged molecules - Other molecules cannot- use.. • Channel proteins, carrier proteins, vesicles (endocytosis or exocytosis) - Diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) - Solution contains a solute (solid) and a solvent (liquid) - Once the solute and solvent are evenly distributed, their molecules continue to move about, but there is no net movement of either one in any direction - Gases can diffuse through a membrane - Oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit this way - Osmosis- diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane. - Diffusion always occurs from higher to lower concentration - Osmotic pressure is the pressure that develops in a system due to osmosis • The greater the possible osmotic pressure, the more likely it is that the water will diffuse in that direction - Tonicity- the osmotic pressure or tension of a solution - Isotonic- no net gain or loss of water - Hypotonic- cell loses water—> crenation - Transport by carrier proteins - Carrier proteins are specific • Combine with a molecule or ion to be transported across the membrane - Carrier proteins are required for facilitated transport and active transport - Facilitated Transport • Small molecules that are not lipid- soluble • Molecules follow the concentration gradient • Energy is not required - Active Transport Molecules combine with carrier proteins (often called pumps) • • Molecules move against the concentration gradient (entering or leaving the cell) • Energy is required - Vesicle Formation - Membrane assisted transport - Transport of macromolecules - Requires energy - Keeps the macromolecule contained - Exocytosis (exit out of the cell) • Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane as secretion occurs • Membrane of vesicle becomes part of plasma membrane • Cells of particular organs are specialized to produce and export molecules - ex. pancreatic cells release insulin when blood sugar rises - Endocytosis (enter into the cell) - Cells take in substance by vesicle formation - Phagocytosis- large, particulate matter - Pinocytosis- liquids and small particles dissolved in liquid - Receptor Mediated Endocytosis- a type of pinocytosis that involves a coated pit Chapter 1: - 1.1 The Characteristics of Life - Cell- smallest unit of life, and some organisms are single celled - Levels of biological organization (smallest to largest) • Atom- smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons • Molecule- Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements • Cell- the structural and functional unit of all living things • Tissue- a group of cells with a common structure and function • Organ- composed of tissues functioning together or a specific task • Organ system- composed of several organs working together • Organism- An individual, complex individuals contain organ systems • Population- Organisms of the same species in a particular area • Community- interacting populations in a particular area • Ecosystem- a community plus the physical environment Biosphere- Regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living • things s - Organisms require energy in order to be productive. This energy can from solar, water, food, or carbon dioxide - The information needed to reproduce is encoded in our genes which are in each individual’s DNA - 1.2 and 1.3 The classification of organisms - Domain- largest classification category - Domain Eukarya - Protista- complex single cell and some multicellular • ex. slime mold, euglenoid - Fungi- some unicellular, most multicellular filamentous forms with specialized complex cells • ex. black bread mold, mushroom, yeast - Plantae- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. moss, fern, pine tree - Animalla- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. sea star, finch, human - Extinction- permanent loss of a species - 1.4 The process of Science - Biology- the scientific study of life. Biologist can be found almost anywhere studying life forms - Hypothesis- a prediction or explanation for a natural event in which can be studied to be true or false using deductive reasoning (if, then) - Experimental variable- independent variable or the variable you control - Responding variable- dependent variable or the variable that is the outcome Chapter 11: Human Organization - A tissue is composed of similarly specialized cells that perform a common function in the body - Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body: • Epithelial: covers body surfaces and lines cavities Connective: supports and binds body parts • • Muscular: moves the body and its parts • Nervous: receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses - Epithelial Tissue • Consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer • Numerous functions - Protection - Secretion (glands) - Absorption - Excretion - Filtration - Connective Tissue • Binds organs together • Provides support and protection • Fills spaces • Produces blood cells Stores fat • - Components of Connective Tissue • Matrix: noncellular material - solid, semisolid, or liquid - A non-fluid matrix will have fibers: collagen, elastic, reticular • Cells: various types - Blood • Unlike other types of connective tissue in that the matrix (i.e., plasma) is not made by the cells Functions: • • Transports • Regulates • Protects - Muscular Tissue - Cells are called muscle fibers - Muscles fibers contain actin and myosin filaments • Interaction accounts for movements - Types of Muscle Tissues - Skeletal - Smooth (visceral) - Cardiac - Nervous Tissue - Neurons (nerve cells) - Conduct impulses • Sensory input, integration, motor output - Neuron structure • Dendrites • Cell body • Axon - Nervous Tissue Neuroglia • • Support and nourish neurons • Four types in the brain - Microglia: engulf bacterial and cellular debris - Astrocytes: provide nutrients - Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths - Ependymal cells: line fluid-filled spaces of brain and spinal cord • Cavities: - Ventral Cavity or Coelom divided into: • Thoracic cavity – Lungs and heart - Abdominal cavity • Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm • Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestine - Pelvic cavity • Bladder, rectum, internal reproductive organs - Dorsal Cavity • Cranial cavity – Brain Vertebral canal - Spinal cord • - Body Membranes: • Line cavities and the internal spaces of organs and tubes that open to the outside - Mucous Membranes • Line tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems • Epithelium overlies loose fibrous connective tissue • Goblet cells produce mucus - Protective function - Body Membranes - Serous Membranes • Line thoracic and abdominal cavities • Epithelium and loose fibrous connective tissue • Secrete watery fluid for lubrication • Includes: pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum, mesentery - Body Membranes: - Synovial membranes Loose connective tissue • • Line freely movable joints • Secrete synovial fluid - Meninges • Line the dorsal cavity • Protect brain and spinal cord • Connective tissue - The Integumentary System - Skin • Epidermis & Dermis - Accessory organs • Hair follicles • Nails • Sweat glands • Oil glands - Functions of the integumentary system • Protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss Helps to regulate body temperature • • Synthesizes vitamin D • Contains sensory receptors – awareness of surroundings • All systems of the body contribute to homeostasis • Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment by an organism, or even by a single cell • Even if external conditions change dramatically, internal conditions stay within a narrow range The internal state of the body is often described as one of dynamic equilibrium • - Negative Feedback - Primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point • Two components (minimum) - A sensor - A control center - Positive Feedback • A change brings about a greater change in the same direction Involved in processes with a definite cut off point • • Examples - Blood clotting-activated platelets initiate clotting process and release chemicals that stimulate further clotting - Child birth- contractions get stronger until birth occurs • Disease • Abnormality in the body’s normal processes that significantly impairs homeostasis. • Local disease Systemic disease • • Acute disease • Chronic disease Chapter 12: Cardiovascular system - Three Types of Blood Vessels: • Arteries: carry blood away from the heart • Capillaries: permit exchange of materials - with tissues - Veins: carry blood toward the heart - Plasma- Liquid portion of the blood - Formed Elements - Red blood cells – White blood cells - Platelets - Blood has: • Transport functions • Regulatory functions Protective functions • - Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) • When mature lack a nucleus • Shape is biconcave disc • Contain hemoglobin • Binds to oxygen • Last around 120 days • Destroyed in the liver and spleen Iron is mostly recycled – Heme portion degraded – bile pigments • - Erythropoietin- Hormone produced by kidneys • Speeds up maturation of red blood cells in bone marrow - White Blood Cells (Leukocytes): • • Usually larger than red blood cells • Nucleated • Role is to fight infection and provide • immunity - The Platelets (thrombocytes): • Fragmented megakaryocytes • Involved in the process of clotting or coagulation - Myocardium- Major portion of the heart • Consists mainly of cardiac muscle - Pericardium- Serous membrane that surrounds the heart - Endocardium- Lines the inner surface of the heart • Membrane consisting of connective tissue and endotheliumThe Pulmonary Circuit • Blood from the body collects in the right - atrium - Right Atrium→ Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Arteries→ Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Pulmonary Veins → Left atrium → - The Systemic Circuit • Blood leaves the left ventricle, travels • through the body and is returned to the heart • Left Ventricle->Aorta → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Vena cava->Right Atrium - Coronary arteries • Serve the heart muscle itself • CAs are the first branches off the aorta • • Cardiac veins empty into right atrium • Portal system begins and ends in capillaries - Hepatic portal system - Atherosclerosis- An accumulation of plaque (soft masses of fat and cholesterol) beneath inner lining of arteries • Interferes with blood flow • Plaques can cause clots to form A stationary clot is a thrombus • • If clot breaks loose it becomes an embolus • Angina pectoris - Chest pain from partially blocked coronary artery • Myocardial infarction (heart attack) • Heart attack occurs when vessel becomes completely blocked • A portion of the heart muscle deprived of oxygen – Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Stroke Cerebrovascular accident • • Arteriole in the brain bursts or is blocked by an embolus • Lack of oxygen to brain can cause paralysis or death • Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Affects about 20% of all Americans • Usually caused by a narrowing of the arteries • Age, gender, and lifestyle can influence blood pressure - Obesity – Smoking – High dietary salt intake • Medications can be used to treat this disease - Treatments: • Noninvasive - Medications • Invasive - Angioplasty - Coronary Bypass Operation – Heart Transplants and Artificial Hearts - Chapter 11 Clicker Questions Question: _______ epithelial tissue consists of multiple layers of flattened cells. Answer: Stratified squamous The primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point is____. Answer: Negative feedback - Chapter 12 Clicker Questions Question: ____ are the most numerous type of vessel in the human body. Answer: Capillaries Question: Blood low in oxygen, returning from the body, first enters the heart at ____ Answer: Right Atrium Question: _____ fragments Answer: Plantents Chapter 13- Lymphatic and Immune System - The lymphatic System • Lymphatic vessels • Lymphoid organs - The 3 functions contribute to homeostasis • 1. Returning excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream • 2. Absorbing fats from he digestive tract and transporting them to the bloodstream • 3. Helps defend the body against disease - Lymphatic Vessels • Fluid inside is called lymph - Lymphatic Capillaries • Extend through most areas of the body Capillaries merge into larger vessels • - Larger lymphatic vessel structure similar to veins • Valves prevent back flow • Movement of lymph is dependent on skeletal muscle contractions • These larger vessels carry the lymph into the thoracic and lymphatic ducts to be returned to the bloodstream - Blood flow (from red to blue) • Oxygen is diffusing making it not red anymore - Primary lymphoid organs - Red bone marrow • Site of blood cell production from stem cells • B cells mature in the blood marrow - Thymus • Site of the T cell maturation - Secondary lymphoid organs - Spleen • Mostly red pulp the filters blood and removes old RBC’s • White pulp is lymphoid tissue- contains lots of lymphocytes - Lymph nodes • Cleanse lymph • Packed with B and T cells Macrophages(type of white blood cell) residing in nodes engulf pathogens • - Lymphoid organs contain large numbers of white blood cells known as lymphocytes • B lymphocytes (B cells ) • T lymphocytes (T cells) - Lymphocytes develop and mature int he primary lymphoid organs - Some lymphocytes become activated in secondary lymphoid organs - Innate Immunity - Immunity- the body’s capability of removing foreign substances, killing pathogens, and or cancer cells (anything with the ability to do harm to the body) - Innate (non specific) immunity- mechanisms are fully functional without previous exposure to an unwanted substance - Adaptive (specific) immunity- dependent upon exposure to specific antigens • Antigen- any molecule that stimulates an immune response - Innate Immunity (no antibodies, and not specific) - Physical and chemical barriers • Skin and mucous membranes from barriers • Secretions contain lysozymes • Stomach acid kills/ inhibits bacteria - Inflammation- Inflammatory reaction caused by physical or chemical damage to the tissue (skin) - Phagocytes (white blood cells- neutrophils and macrophages) and natural killer cells (NKCs) • Phagocytes engulf pathogens by endocytosis • NKCs seek out and kill cells that lack self molecules - Protective proteins • Complement system proteins and interferons (chemicals that can attack cells with viruses or can be use to help certain conditions) • About 20 that circulate through the blood • Form a membrane attack complex • Bind to mast(immune cells that secrete histamine) cells and trigger histamine release (enhance inflammatory response) Attract phagocytes • - Question: Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ? - Answer: Thymus gland - Question: Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system - Answer: produce clotting factors - Question: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets arise from stem cells located in the ______ - Answer: red bone marrow - Question: Which of the following is classified as “innate” immunity? - Answer: all of the above- physical barriers like the skin and mucous membranes, inflammation, phagocytes, complement proteins - Adaptive immunity - Adaptive (specific) immunity- the adaptive immune system recognizes, responds to, and usually eliminates antigens from the body - Adaptive defenses depend on B cells and T cells • Capable of recognizing antigens because they have specific antigen receptors - Memory cells recognize the bacteria from the vaccine so that the body can respond quickly with antibodies that are already prepared for them - B Cells • Give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies • Give rise to memory cells (differentiate between B cells), remain in the body sometimes for our entire lives - T Cells • Helper T cells- help • Cytotoxic T cells- seek out and destroy foreign cells in the body • Memory Cells- recognize a virus you have already fought - B cell clonal selection theory- each B cell has a B-cell receptor (BCR) that will combine with a specific antigen - Selected B cells (with the help of a helper T cell) undergoes clonal expansion—> plasma cells and memory cells • B cell is going to divide and make lots of it like it (fight the same antigen) Some B cells become plasma cells that secrete antibodies • - This type of immunity is called humoral immunity or antibody-mediated immunity - Antigen and antibody fit together like lock and key - 5 Main Antibodies - IGG is the main antibody type in circulation (first one produced when pathogen enters body) - largest antibody is IGM - Breast milk gives the baby antibodies simply by drinking the milk - IGE is associated with allergies - IGD only function known is being a receptor - IGA- main antibody found in milk and saliva - T Cell clonal selection theory- antigen presenting cell binds antigen/ MHC protein - T cells only recognize and bind antigens presented by antigen presenting cells • Macrophage engulfs the virus and then the outside of the virus sticks out so the antibody can cling onto it - T cell clonal expansion —> helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells - This type of immunity is called cell- mediated immunity (requires cell to be presented) - Active VS Passive Immunity - Adaptive immune response can be: - Active Immunity • Individual alone produces an immune response against antigen • Dependent upon the presence of memory B and memory T cells • Can be induced artificially by immunization - Passive immunity • Individually is given prepared antibodies either naturally or artificially by injection • Short lived immunity because there are no memory cells • Cross placenta- found in breast milk • May be used to treat immunodeficiencies or prevent illness in an exposed individual - human gamma globulin, antivenin (anti venom), rabies immune globulin - Adverse Effects of Immune Responses - Sometimes the immune system responds to harmless antigens in a manner that damages the body - Allergic Reaction • anaphylactic shock- immediate allergic response - Delayed allergic response - Incompatible blood types - Tissue rejection - Blood Type Reactions - Rh system: - Rh positive-Rh antigen is present on red blood cells • 85% of the US population - Rh negative- Rh antigen is absent on red blood cells - Hemolytic Disease- when the mom is RH negative and father is Rh positive the baby could be Rh positive and the mother could create antibodies that fight the babies blood cells - Disorders of the Immune Systems - Autoimmune disease- cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack a person’s own cells • Myasthenia gravis- muscle weakness due to attack of neuromuscular junctions • Multiple sclerosis (MS)- neuromuscular disorder due to attack of myelin sheath of nerve fibers • Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE)- kidney damage due to disposition of antigen- antibody complexes • Rheumatoid arthritis- joints affected - Immune deficiencies- immune system is unable to protect the c=body from disease • ex. HIV—> (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) AIDS • Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) • X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) - Question- Inflammation does not involve____ - Answer- B Cells - Question- Which statement is NOT true of the B cells? - Answer- B cells require presentation of antigens by macrophages before they are able to recognize the antigen - Question- Adaptive immunity depends upon the activity of what type of cells? - Answer- B cells and T cells - Question- A cell that is responsible for the ability of an organism to produce a rapid antibody response against an infectious agent when it is encountered years after the first encounter is a______ - Answer- memory B cells Chapter 14- The Digestive Tract - Contributes to homeostasis(constant environment in the body) by: • Ingesting food • Disgusting food into nutrients • Absorbing nutrients • Eliminating indigestible remains - Digestion: • Mechanical Chemical- enzymes break down macromolecules into smaller molecules that can • be absorbed - Mouth • Tongue, salivary glands, teeth • Hard pallet- top of the mouth right behind the teeth • soft pallet- soft tissue toward the back of the moth on the top and ends at the uvula - Pharynx (throat) • Receives air from the nasal cavities and food from the mouth • Swallowing- occurs in pharynx an is a reflex reaction - Esophagus • muscular tube that extends from the stomach • peristalsis is a process that moves food • Relaxation of sphincter(small muscular circle that contracts) allows passages of food into stomach - Stomach • Gastric pits lead into gastric glands • Gastic glands produce gastric juice - pepsinogen (becomes pepsin- begins the chemical digestion of proteins) - hydrochloric acid (HCL) - mucus - The small intestine • Duodenum- the first 25 centimeters, receives bile from the liver (bile emulsifies fat), receives pancreatic juice from the pan, many enzymes for digestion nutrients, bicarbonate to neutralize acidic pH of chyme • Jejunum • Ileum- contains Peyer’s patches- immune response to intestinal pathogens - Hormonal control of digestive functions - The large intestine • Absorbs water, salts, and some vitamins • Stores indigestible materials until it can be eliminated - Accessory Organs of Digestion - Pancreas • endocrine(associated with hormones) and exocrine function - Liver • Produces bile - Gallbladder • Concentrates and stores bile • Digestive enzymes, like other enzymes are proteins that speed up specific chemical reactions - Nutrition - Nutrition- science of foods and nutrients • All body functions depend on proper function - Macronutrients - Carbohydrates- primary energy source - Lipids- energy source • Necessary for syntheses of plasma membranes and some hormones - Proteins- growth and development regulate metabolism (with vitamins and minerals) • • 8 amino acids are essential and must be supplied with diet - Water • Serves many important roles • Cells are 70-80% water - Macronutrients - Vitamins- organic compounds needed for metabolic purposes but the body is unable to produce • many coenzymes-enzyme helpers • Deficiencies produce specific symptoms - 13 Vitamins • Fat soluble- Vitamins A,D,E,K, stored in the body • Water soluble- remaining 9 (B complex and vitamin C), not stored in the body - Need to know all about: Vitamin C, Niacin, Folacin, and Vitamin B12, Vitamin A,D,E,K - Minerals - Major Minerals • Body contains more than 5 grams of each major mineral • Constitutes of cells and body fluids - Trace Minerals Body contains less than 5 grams of each • • Components or larger molecules - Need to know all about: Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Iron, and Iodine - Disorders and Diseases of the Digestive System - Stomach Ulcers- caused by Helicovacter pylori, a bacterium that breaks down the mucus layer and causes a sore or ulcer • Our stomach has a thick layer of mucus normally protects wall of stomach • Can also occur in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) due to acidic chyme - Polyps and Colon Caner - 3rd leading cause of death by cancer in both men and women in the U.S. - Polyps- small growths arising from the epithelial lining of the colon • May be benign or cancerous • Detected by a colonoscopy (camera up your ass) • High fat diet increases bile secretion and may increase risk of polyp formation and or colon cancer Fiber may inhibit polyp development by diluting the concentration of bile and • facilitating movement of cancer- inducing substances through the intestine - Pancreatitis- inflammation of the pancreas • Can be life threatening but usually one recovers without long term effects - Pancreatic Cancer • high mortality rate • Pancreas essential • Often resistant to treatment • Tendency to metastasize - Hepatitis- Inflammation of the liver • Usually caused by a viral infection • Can be hepatitis A, B, or C - Cirrhosis- liver tissue is replaced by fibrosis scar tissue Jaundice is a symptom of hepatitis and cirrhosis- the whites of the eyes yellow and • so does the skin. The liver cannot metabolize bilirubin - Question- Secretin, gastrin, and CCK in humans are____ • Answer- all hormones that control digestive secretions - Which organ is the major site for chemical digestion and absorption • Answer- small intestine • NEED TO KNOW THE CHART AND WHAT EACH PART IS/ DOES/ LOCATED - Which of the following associations is not true? • Answer- Vitamin E is necessary for blood clotting Chapter 15- Respiratory System - The respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to accomplish: • 1. External respiration- exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) between air and the blood • 2. Transport of gases to and from the lungs and the tissues • 3. Internal respiration- exchanges of gases (02 ad CO2) between blood and tissue fluid - Nose- part of the upper respiratory tract • contains two nasal cavities Warms and moisten air during inhalation • • Contains hairs and odor receptors • Separated from mouth by palate - Pharynx- connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx (voice box) • tonsils form a protective ring lymphatic tissue Larynx and trachea are normally open • • Esophagus is normally closed - Larynx- passageway for air between pharynx and trachea • vocal cords- folds of mucosa that vibrate to make sounds - Glottis- opening between the folds - Epiglottis- prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. • Moves over so that food and water doesn’t go down the “wrong pipe” -


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