Bio 103 Human Anatomy Nervous Tissue Notes
Bio 103 Human Anatomy Nervous Tissue Notes Biology 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Nervous Tissue There are two places where nervous tissue is found o Endocrine System= Where chemical reactions take place o Nervous System= Where both electrical and chemical reactions take place The Nervous System Central Nervous System= Composed of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System= Composed of nerves and bundles of nerve fibers (axons) Sensory= Signal that goes from the receptor to the Central Nervous System. Is afferent (brought in) Motor= A signal from the Central Nervous System to the effector (muslces and glands). Is efferent (brought out) Effector= Affecting a muscle or gland There are 2 types of cells in the muscle tissue o Neurons= Nerve cells o Neuroglia= Supports cells and protects and aids in neuron function Neurons o Excitability= Responds to stimuli o Conductivity= Conducts an electrical signal along the plasma membrane o Secretion= Allows neurotransmitters to transmit signal easier o Is stellate shaped o Does not undergo mitosis o 100 billion neurons o Carry out system communication Types of Neurons Sensory (afferent) Neurons= Detect stimuli Interneurons (association) Neurons= Only found in the Central Nervous System and are 90% of neurons in the body. They receive signals from other neurons Integration= The ability of neurons to process, store, and retrieve information. Basically, their ability to make decisions Motor (efferent) Neurons= Respond to stimuli from muscles and glands. If your finger touches a hot stove, your sensory neurons will detect the pain from the heat and send a signal to the interneurons. The interneurons will get the pain signal and relay it to the motor neurons in order for you to pull your finger away from the hot stove. Neuron Structure Soma= Cell body that is the control center. It also makes cytoplasm Nissl Bodies= Compartmentalized rough endoplasmic reticulum Dendrites= Branchlike structures that receive signals Axons= Looks like a tail that branches off from the cell body. It sends signals Terminal Arborization= Fine branches Synaptic Knob= Where neurotransmitters are sent Neuronal Variety Unipolar= One long axon which passes the soma. It is only included in the sensory nerves 2 Bipolar= One axon and one dendrite in the neuron. It is only included in the organs Multipolar= One axon and many dendrites. It includes motor and interneurons Types of Neural Tissue Glial Cells Central Nervous System o Oligodendrocyte= Produces myelin o Ependymal Cells= Produces cerebral spinal fluid o Microglia= Are macrophages (scavengers) o Astrocytes= Physical and metabolic support of the neurons o Most of the glial cells in the Central Nervous System wrap around and insulate the neuron Peripheral Nervous System o Schwann Cells= They wrap themselves around the axon and produce myelin as well. They also speed up the electrical transmission Myelin o An insulating layer around the axon o Formed by oligodendrocytes in the Central Nervous System o Formed by Schwann Cells in the Peripheral Nervous System o A type of plasma membrane o 80% lipid and 20% protein o Saltatory Conduction= Jumping from one Node of Ranvier to another. Is 100x faster than unmyelinated sheath. o Node of Ranvier= The space in between schwann cells Synapse= Junction of a neuron and another cell. Examples: o Neuron to neuron o Neuron to muscular fiber 3 o Motor endplate to neuromuscular junction Nerve Connective Tissue Endoneurium= Connective tissue around the neuron Perineurium= Connective tissue around the fascicles Epineurium= Connective tissue around the nerve Nerve Regeneration Neuron cell bodies don’t regenerate Axons can regenerate Schwann cells produce a regeneration tube to direct the regrowth of an axon Central Nervous System neurons cannot regenerate 4