Comm106 Week 9 notes
Comm106 Week 9 notes Comm106
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm106 at Stanford University taught by Jennifer Pan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Communication Research Methods in Communication Studies at Stanford University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Comm106 3/4/2016 Most Similar Design: • For exploring your data à find at least two cases that are different on the outcome (different Y values) but cases that are similar on most X’s. Conduct a case study and see what x’s are different. You can talk about how that is the factor that might be causing an effect. • League of Nations and United Nations: very different outcomes, but they were both alliances of nations with the goal of facilitating international collaboration • What was different about them? That could be an explanation for their differing outcomes. • Another example: Northern Italy differs a lot from Southern Italy à Why are they so different? One researcher determined the answer is social capital. Most Different Design • Test the relationship between 1 x and 1 y • Find two cases that are similar on outcome Y and differ on many different x’s except one x which is the same. • Bot E Germany and Russia have weak civil society. What is common between them? Communist past? • The biggest problem is that you cannot rule out confounding factors. • You are only testing one x on one y • Deterministic and representativeness can be limited Hypothesis Testing vs. Exploration • Hypothesis Testing à there has to be a difference on only one x and on y • You already know what x you have in mind that will explain the difference • Exploration à it all seems the same, but there is a difference in Y MSD: Different on the outcome: Different on one x: MDD: Similar on the outcome: Similar on one x: Comm106 3/2/2016 Qualitative Research • Belief that testing a theory requires studying/tracing (causal) processes in depth … rather than ‘number crunching’ • Larger samples may have very heterogeneous cases … it may be misleading to compare them • Examples: people’s experiences coping with mental illness, people’s experiences responding to sexual assault, reasons why people practice religion • May be necessary of the population size is just really small à effects of winning the lottery on happiness, effects of synesthesia on musicians’ music making. • Qualitative data helps us describe cases • You can use qualitative methods for testing causal theories, but you need variation on X! You cannot test “the CIA causes coups” because there is no “not CIA” Comparative Cross-‐Case study • Social origins of dictatorship and democracy à • Compare Y and X in a small N of cases • This is close to regression analysis in spirit but is not numerical Analyzing a Single Case • What happens if we try and find a regression? This is impossible because you can fit an infinite number of lines to a single dot • You can use process tracing à the causal mechanism is the set of intervening steps thought to take us from X to Y. You analyze the case in detail to see if these intervening steps are actually there.
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