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2444 Sports History

by: Holly Melton

2444 Sports History art 1906

Holly Melton

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Here are lecture notes for week 7, Hope you enjoy and share with friends :)
Survey of Western Art-Medieval and Renaissance
jessica christie
Class Notes
2444, sports, history, Sports History
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Melton on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 1906 at East Carolina University taught by jessica christie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art-Medieval and Renaissance in Art History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Sports on Campus  Amateur code­ college athletes are amateur student athletes   Basketball and football grew to come in conflict with the amateur  code  Athletics overshadowed admissions and academic frauds were  committed to keep athletes  National Collegiate Athletic Association was created because of the  football scandal  King football  College football became big in the 1920s and big stadiums were built  to hold tens of thousands of fans  Michigan Stadium, aka “The Big House” opened in 1927  Star players and coaches became the public faces   Professional coaches and athletic directors were immune from  college presidents and faculty who wanted to limit football Harold “Red” Grange  King football biggest star, led the University of Illinois to a national  championship in 1923  In 1924 he led 39 to 14 victories against Michigan, which hadn’t been  beaten since 1921  Grange scored 5 touchdowns during this game on 402 rushing yards  and 60 passing yards  This led Grantlan Rice to name Grange “the galloping ghost”  In Grange’s last game he announced that he already signed with the  Chicago Bears  Charles C. Pyle helped Grange turn from an amateur player to a  professional one  Grange’s fame grew because of his involvement in advertisements  and movies, he later became a sports caster on radio and later to TV Knute Rockne & Notre Dame Football  In 1918 Rockne became Notre Dame’s coach  He compiled 105 wins, 12 losses and 3 national championships   Rochne developed a recruiting system relying on an informal network on Catholic churches and organization, this helped funnel out the  best athletes from Catholic High Schools  He developed a big fan based off of alumni, students, and the  Subway Alumni (Irish Catholics who have never attended the  university)   Because of his use of mass media it helped his fan base the football  games were broadcasted on radios without pay  The current contrast with the broadcast corporation (Notre Dame  broadcasting corporation) since 1991 allowed the exclusive right to  advertise to televise Fighting Irish Football  The right to televise Fighting Irish Football isn’t free, the current deal  with NBC ($38 million) allows Notre Dame to get revenue without the  need of conferences   In 1928 Rochne gave his team a pep talk at halftime which led the  team to a win   Grantlan Rice wrote about one of the most famous football games, he wrote about “The Four Horseman of Notre Dame” which were 4  players on Notre Dame   A university publicist posed the 4 players on horse’s for a picture and  it was publicized worldwide The Rise of Men’s College Basketball  In the 1930s college basketball grew because of innovations along  with rule changes  Basketball also grew because of the need for football players for war,  big groups were not allowed to travel either  Since basketball has a small team it allowed them to travel more  freely   In 1934 Ned Irish hosted games and tournaments in Maddison  Square garden  In 1938 he invited 16 teams to compete in the National Invitational  Tournament   The NIT was the nations premiere college basketball tournament, its  winner was the national champion  George Miken, Depale University star was the best player of  basketball early games  Basketball was primarily a city games 1951 Scandals  In 1951 at least 32 players from 7 different schools accepted bribes  from gamblers to influence the outcome of 49 games  during this time games had predicted scores and gamblers payed  players to win but with less points predicted, aka point spread  many gamblers were sent to jail and one was sent for 12 years,  college players were not allowed to play anymore games because of  this scandal   when the public found out about the scandal they were shocked that  college players and citizens were compromised by gambling   90 cadets were dismissed from West Point because they were  accused of cheating on a test in 1951  Harry Truman ordered a thorough investigation on how college sports affects characteristics Reform  In 1905 there were many serious injuries in college football and lead  to rule changes  Stagg caused Robert Hitchens to raise academic standards in 1924  and abolish football in 1929 because he believed football interfered  with the admission   In 1929 the Carnage foundation issued a report that had evidence of  academic and financial corruption  All but 4 of 130 schools had systems to support the recruitment for  athletes, they found that athletes were receiving money because they were athletes thus starting athletic scholarships   Back then athletic scholarships were considered scandals because  athletes were being rewarded only on an academic competitive bases and because amateur athletes were being paid like professional  athletes     The “Golden Age” of American Sports The Golden Age of American Sports  The roaring 1920s “Golden Age” of American sports, middle and  working class people were able to purchase activities such as sports Mass Culture 7 Sports Heroes   The 1920s was a big time for celebrities to come into play, many of  them were sports celebrities   This was because of the good economy, rise of mass culture, and  advertising/promotional  Mass communication was used as advertisement for spectator sports  Today sports writers are meant to judge but during the 1920s  journalist talked up athletes as modern day gods “Tex” Rickard, Jack Dempsey, & Boxing’s Growth  Boxing was heavily dominated by promoters  Rickard raised the art of packaging sports, he arranged sports and  orchestrated press coverage to create additional drama  Rickard helped Jack Dempsey make millions  In 1919 Rickard arranged Dempsey for a match and became the  world heavy weight champion  In 1920 Dempsey was tried for dodging the draft, this gave him a bad  image but Rickard used this to his advantage  By defeating Carpentineum it helped raise his reputation into a  national hero  Long count­ just before Dempsey was about to win the match his  opponent rose at the last second and survived the whole round  By the end of the 1920s boxing became legal  Baseball’s Sliders into the Depression  In October 1929 the great depression began, people couldn’t afford to attend games  The use of TV and radio station lowered the attendance at games  13 teams had radio broadcast by 1936  Night baseball was a major innovation, in 1935 because most  workers worked during the day  By 1941 all but 2 Major League games installed lights in their stadium  Rickey pioneered the farm system, where a team’s role is to provide  experience and training to young players  By 1940 the Cardinals owned 32 minor league franchises   Branch Rickey assigned a large coaching staff to coach the many  different minor league teams   Spring training consist of training the fundamentals of hitting, fielding,  base running etc. for both major and minor leagues  From 1926­1946 the Cardinals became the best team because of  Rickey’s accomplishments  The “Gas House Gang” were gritty players, many were poor farm  boys Seabiscuit  Para mutual wager­ all bets were placed in a pool, it offered a new  source of revenue for the government   Horseracing population grew because of legalized wagering  Seabiscuit was a greatest thorough breaded race horse but didn’t  look the part where as War Admiral looked the part  In 1938 Seabiscuit’s handler arranged a race between War Admiral,  who won the 1937 triple crown and was considered the best race  horse at the time  The two horses look like they were exact opposites,   Seabiscuit won by 4 lengths, he became known as the “little horse  that could”  After the race Seabiscuit had an injury that lasted 2 years, by 7  Seabiscuit was known as the underdog for winning a race after  coming back from an injury Baseball at War  Baseball officials were going to cancel or shorten the 1942 season  due to the start of World War II  Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the green light letter, encouraging  baseball because it provided entertainment during the war  Many baseball players volunteered to serve, Ted Williams  volunteered and his career was interrupted twice by military service  Joe Nuxhall in 1944, became the youngest player to appear in a  major league game at 15 years old  Pete Gray played outfield for the St. Louis Browns despite his loss of  one arm  All­American Girls Professional Baseball League  Because of the war time labor shortage they created girl baseball  leagues  In 1923 It started out with 4 baseball teams  It started out as softball but the rules changed to similar rules as the  major league  Gender norms shaped female athletics, this league continued until  1924 and spread to 10 teams


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