2444 Sports History
2444 Sports History art 1906
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Melton on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to art 1906 at East Carolina University taught by jessica christie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art-Medieval and Renaissance in Art History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Sports on Campus Amateur code college athletes are amateur student athletes Basketball and football grew to come in conflict with the amateur code Athletics overshadowed admissions and academic frauds were committed to keep athletes National Collegiate Athletic Association was created because of the football scandal King football College football became big in the 1920s and big stadiums were built to hold tens of thousands of fans Michigan Stadium, aka “The Big House” opened in 1927 Star players and coaches became the public faces Professional coaches and athletic directors were immune from college presidents and faculty who wanted to limit football Harold “Red” Grange King football biggest star, led the University of Illinois to a national championship in 1923 In 1924 he led 39 to 14 victories against Michigan, which hadn’t been beaten since 1921 Grange scored 5 touchdowns during this game on 402 rushing yards and 60 passing yards This led Grantlan Rice to name Grange “the galloping ghost” In Grange’s last game he announced that he already signed with the Chicago Bears Charles C. Pyle helped Grange turn from an amateur player to a professional one Grange’s fame grew because of his involvement in advertisements and movies, he later became a sports caster on radio and later to TV Knute Rockne & Notre Dame Football In 1918 Rockne became Notre Dame’s coach He compiled 105 wins, 12 losses and 3 national championships Rochne developed a recruiting system relying on an informal network on Catholic churches and organization, this helped funnel out the best athletes from Catholic High Schools He developed a big fan based off of alumni, students, and the Subway Alumni (Irish Catholics who have never attended the university) Because of his use of mass media it helped his fan base the football games were broadcasted on radios without pay The current contrast with the broadcast corporation (Notre Dame broadcasting corporation) since 1991 allowed the exclusive right to advertise to televise Fighting Irish Football The right to televise Fighting Irish Football isn’t free, the current deal with NBC ($38 million) allows Notre Dame to get revenue without the need of conferences In 1928 Rochne gave his team a pep talk at halftime which led the team to a win Grantlan Rice wrote about one of the most famous football games, he wrote about “The Four Horseman of Notre Dame” which were 4 players on Notre Dame A university publicist posed the 4 players on horse’s for a picture and it was publicized worldwide The Rise of Men’s College Basketball In the 1930s college basketball grew because of innovations along with rule changes Basketball also grew because of the need for football players for war, big groups were not allowed to travel either Since basketball has a small team it allowed them to travel more freely In 1934 Ned Irish hosted games and tournaments in Maddison Square garden In 1938 he invited 16 teams to compete in the National Invitational Tournament The NIT was the nations premiere college basketball tournament, its winner was the national champion George Miken, Depale University star was the best player of basketball early games Basketball was primarily a city games 1951 Scandals In 1951 at least 32 players from 7 different schools accepted bribes from gamblers to influence the outcome of 49 games during this time games had predicted scores and gamblers payed players to win but with less points predicted, aka point spread many gamblers were sent to jail and one was sent for 12 years, college players were not allowed to play anymore games because of this scandal when the public found out about the scandal they were shocked that college players and citizens were compromised by gambling 90 cadets were dismissed from West Point because they were accused of cheating on a test in 1951 Harry Truman ordered a thorough investigation on how college sports affects characteristics Reform In 1905 there were many serious injuries in college football and lead to rule changes Stagg caused Robert Hitchens to raise academic standards in 1924 and abolish football in 1929 because he believed football interfered with the admission In 1929 the Carnage foundation issued a report that had evidence of academic and financial corruption All but 4 of 130 schools had systems to support the recruitment for athletes, they found that athletes were receiving money because they were athletes thus starting athletic scholarships Back then athletic scholarships were considered scandals because athletes were being rewarded only on an academic competitive bases and because amateur athletes were being paid like professional athletes The “Golden Age” of American Sports The Golden Age of American Sports The roaring 1920s “Golden Age” of American sports, middle and working class people were able to purchase activities such as sports Mass Culture 7 Sports Heroes The 1920s was a big time for celebrities to come into play, many of them were sports celebrities This was because of the good economy, rise of mass culture, and advertising/promotional Mass communication was used as advertisement for spectator sports Today sports writers are meant to judge but during the 1920s journalist talked up athletes as modern day gods “Tex” Rickard, Jack Dempsey, & Boxing’s Growth Boxing was heavily dominated by promoters Rickard raised the art of packaging sports, he arranged sports and orchestrated press coverage to create additional drama Rickard helped Jack Dempsey make millions In 1919 Rickard arranged Dempsey for a match and became the world heavy weight champion In 1920 Dempsey was tried for dodging the draft, this gave him a bad image but Rickard used this to his advantage By defeating Carpentineum it helped raise his reputation into a national hero Long count just before Dempsey was about to win the match his opponent rose at the last second and survived the whole round By the end of the 1920s boxing became legal Baseball’s Sliders into the Depression In October 1929 the great depression began, people couldn’t afford to attend games The use of TV and radio station lowered the attendance at games 13 teams had radio broadcast by 1936 Night baseball was a major innovation, in 1935 because most workers worked during the day By 1941 all but 2 Major League games installed lights in their stadium Rickey pioneered the farm system, where a team’s role is to provide experience and training to young players By 1940 the Cardinals owned 32 minor league franchises Branch Rickey assigned a large coaching staff to coach the many different minor league teams Spring training consist of training the fundamentals of hitting, fielding, base running etc. for both major and minor leagues From 19261946 the Cardinals became the best team because of Rickey’s accomplishments The “Gas House Gang” were gritty players, many were poor farm boys Seabiscuit Para mutual wager all bets were placed in a pool, it offered a new source of revenue for the government Horseracing population grew because of legalized wagering Seabiscuit was a greatest thorough breaded race horse but didn’t look the part where as War Admiral looked the part In 1938 Seabiscuit’s handler arranged a race between War Admiral, who won the 1937 triple crown and was considered the best race horse at the time The two horses look like they were exact opposites, Seabiscuit won by 4 lengths, he became known as the “little horse that could” After the race Seabiscuit had an injury that lasted 2 years, by 7 Seabiscuit was known as the underdog for winning a race after coming back from an injury Baseball at War Baseball officials were going to cancel or shorten the 1942 season due to the start of World War II Franklin D. Roosevelt issued the green light letter, encouraging baseball because it provided entertainment during the war Many baseball players volunteered to serve, Ted Williams volunteered and his career was interrupted twice by military service Joe Nuxhall in 1944, became the youngest player to appear in a major league game at 15 years old Pete Gray played outfield for the St. Louis Browns despite his loss of one arm AllAmerican Girls Professional Baseball League Because of the war time labor shortage they created girl baseball leagues In 1923 It started out with 4 baseball teams It started out as softball but the rules changed to similar rules as the major league Gender norms shaped female athletics, this league continued until 1924 and spread to 10 teams
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