Comm162 Week 9 notes
Comm162 Week 9 notes Comm162
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Comm162 3/2/2016 The Reinforcement Effect: • Getting people to change their voting preferences against their own interests • Actually, there is absence of manipulation having an affect • Exposure to campaigns strengthens people’s prevailing political loyalties à the data is really strong on this • Advertising is like preaching to the choir • But the people who are not that interested in politics have a higher chance of being persuaded • Democrats and Republicans become more and more committed to their nominees • Will the party poll together? • People have really short memories. Even after really divisive primaries, people will rally behind the nominee in the general election Dial studies • Measure people’s reactions to ads • There is a huge amount of polarization in people’s reactions to ads • Within six seconds, people would dial it to the max and that was the end Convention Bumps: • Happens in both parties – support shoots up after the DNC and RNC • But conventions bounce is shrinking because people already know who they are supporting with polarization. They don’t need the image of a unified party. Informational Effects – What campaigns tell us • Name Recognition • Trait Opinion – development of candidate “image” • Policy Placements – this is the highest level of learning (campaigns are not very good at this though) Voter Turnout • A function of lots of different things • Context – some people are just more likely to turn out than others • High socio-‐economic status means high turn out • That’s why even though there are more Democrats than Republicans, Republicans are more likely to vote • Partisans are more likely to vote than independents • Strong partisans are even more likely to vote • Efficacy – do you think your vote will actually make a difference? • Duty to vote – strong motivating factor • Campaigns: demobilizing effects à if there is too much negativity people might stay home, like Republicans saying, “I can’t bear to vote for Trump” or Democrats saying “I just can’t trust Hillary” • Logic for negative campaigning à you cannot accomplish conversion, but you might be able to get some opponents to just stay at home • VEP vs. VAP (Voting Eligible Population vs. Voting Age Population) • You cannot vote if you are in jail, which is a huge population • So voter turnout in America might not be as bad as we think • Voter ID laws – deters poor people • The louder the campaign, the higher the turnout • People turn up a lot more for presidential elections • Turnout rate for voters under 30 cut in half between 2008 and 2009 • While the share of the 60+ vote doubled • ^All of this can inject bias into the outcome Permanent Campaign: • In the modern era, since cable television there is increased reliance on the media for candidates, even after they get elected • Obama set a record where he appeared on all 5 weekend news shows • A perception that you might be able to shape public opinion and boost your popularity • Your image is seen as fundamental as your ability to govern • Power in Washington depends upon your popularity • Bargaining: cutting deals between democrats and republicans • Threatening: threatening your opponents if they don’t go along with your policy (This is more common now) • (Along with threatening) Posturing: White House takes a position and threatens to engage in high-‐profile media campaigns aimed at opponents • What has caused this change? Revolving door. The people who run the campaigns later get jobs in the White House Staff
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