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Comm162 Week 9 notes

by: Erica Evans

Comm162 Week 9 notes Comm162

Erica Evans
GPA 3.9

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Notes from 3/2
Campaigns, Voting, Media
Shanto Iyengar
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.

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Date Created: 03/05/16
Comm162   3/2/2016       The  Reinforcement  Effect:     • Getting  people  to  change  their  voting  preferences  against  their  own  interests     • Actually,  there  is  absence  of  manipulation  having  an  affect     • Exposure  to  campaigns  strengthens  people’s  prevailing  political  loyalties  à   the  data  is  really  strong  on  this     • Advertising  is  like  preaching  to  the  choir     • But  the  people  who  are  not  that  interested  in  politics  have  a  higher  chance  of   being  persuaded     • Democrats  and  Republicans  become  more  and  more  committed  to  their   nominees     • Will  the  party  poll  together?     • People  have  really  short  memories.  Even  after  really  divisive  primaries,   people  will  rally  behind  the  nominee  in  the  general  election       Dial  studies   • Measure  people’s  reactions  to  ads     • There  is  a  huge  amount  of  polarization  in  people’s  reactions  to  ads     • Within  six  seconds,  people  would  dial  it  to  the  max  and  that  was  the  end       Convention  Bumps:     • Happens  in  both  parties  –  support  shoots  up  after  the  DNC  and  RNC     • But  conventions  bounce  is  shrinking  because  people  already  know  who  they   are  supporting  with  polarization.  They  don’t  need  the  image  of  a  unified   party.       Informational  Effects  –  What  campaigns  tell  us     • Name  Recognition     • Trait  Opinion  –  development  of  candidate  “image”     • Policy  Placements  –  this  is  the  highest  level  of  learning  (campaigns  are  not   very  good  at  this  though)       Voter  Turnout   • A  function  of  lots  of  different  things     • Context  –  some  people  are  just  more  likely  to  turn  out  than  others   • High  socio-­‐economic  status  means  high  turn  out     • That’s  why  even  though  there  are  more  Democrats  than  Republicans,   Republicans  are  more  likely  to  vote     • Partisans  are  more  likely  to  vote  than  independents     • Strong  partisans  are  even  more  likely  to  vote     • Efficacy  –  do  you  think  your  vote  will  actually  make  a  difference?     • Duty  to  vote  –  strong  motivating  factor     • Campaigns:  demobilizing  effects  à  if  there  is  too  much  negativity  people   might  stay  home,  like  Republicans  saying,  “I  can’t  bear  to  vote  for  Trump”  or   Democrats  saying  “I  just  can’t  trust  Hillary”     • Logic  for  negative  campaigning  à  you  cannot  accomplish  conversion,  but   you  might  be  able  to  get  some  opponents  to  just  stay  at  home     • VEP  vs.  VAP  (Voting  Eligible  Population  vs.  Voting  Age  Population)     • You  cannot  vote  if  you  are  in  jail,  which  is  a  huge  population     • So  voter  turnout  in  America  might  not  be  as  bad  as  we  think     • Voter  ID  laws  –  deters  poor  people     • The  louder  the  campaign,  the  higher  the  turnout     • People  turn  up  a  lot  more  for  presidential  elections     • Turnout  rate  for  voters  under  30  cut  in  half  between  2008  and  2009     • While  the  share  of  the  60+  vote  doubled     • ^All  of  this  can  inject  bias  into  the  outcome       Permanent  Campaign:     • In  the  modern  era,  since  cable  television  there  is  increased  reliance  on  the   media  for  candidates,  even  after  they  get  elected     • Obama  set  a  record  where  he  appeared  on  all  5  weekend  news  shows     • A  perception  that  you  might  be  able  to  shape  public  opinion  and  boost  your   popularity     • Your  image  is  seen  as  fundamental  as  your  ability  to  govern     • Power  in  Washington  depends  upon  your  popularity         • Bargaining:  cutting  deals  between  democrats  and  republicans     • Threatening:  threatening  your  opponents  if  they  don’t  go  along  with  your   policy  (This  is  more  common  now)     • (Along  with  threatening)  Posturing:  White  House  takes  a  position  and   threatens  to  engage  in  high-­‐profile  media  campaigns  aimed  at  opponents     • What  has  caused  this  change?  Revolving  door.  The  people  who  run  the   campaigns  later  get  jobs  in  the  White  House  Staff    


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