General Biology 1- Txtbk Ch 3
General Biology 1- Txtbk Ch 3
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This 2 page Document was uploaded by Austin Eng on Wednesday July 9, 2014. The Document belongs to a course at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.
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Date Created: 07/09/14
Water and Life Monolay July 7 Z 14 221 PM 31 Polar Covalent Bonds in H20 Result in H Bonding 0 0 is more e neg which means valence spend more time near it polar covalent H attracted to 0 H bond 120 of a covalent bond 0 Unequal sharing makes water a polar molecule gt Properties of Water result from attractions of oppositely charge molecules 32 4 Emergent Properties of H20 Cohesion 0 H bonds hold substance togethercohesion makes H20 more structured than most gt Contributes to Water and dissolved nutrients transport in plants 0 Adhesion clinging of one substance to another gt Helps Water counter gravity 0 Surface Tension measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break Water surface gt Interface between Water and air is an arrangement of Water molecules H bonded to eachother and below Moderation of Temperature by Water Water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases stored hear to air that is cooler Temperature and Heat 0 Kinetic energy energy of motion greater speed greater KE gt Thermal Energy KE associated with random mvmt of atomsmolecules Temperature measure of average KE of molecules in a body regardless of volume Total TE depends on matter39s volume Heat thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another Calorie amt of heat It takes to raise 1 g of Water 1C Joule 239 calorie lcal 4184J Water39s High Specific Heat 0 Specific heat amt of heat that must be absorbed or lost to make 1g of H20 change by 1C gt Specific heat of H20 is 1calg0C 0 Water changes temp less readily than other substances gt Heat must be absorbed to break H bonds and released to form them gt A cal of heat does not cause a large change gt High specific heat stabilizes ocean temps Evaporative Cooling 0 Heat of Vaporization quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for lg to liquidgtgtgas 0 As liquid evaporates the surface of the liquid that remains cools evaporative cooling gt Contributes to stability of temp in Water gt Helps organisms not overheat Floating of Ice on Liquid H20 0 H bonds keep frozen molecules far enough part to make ice 10 less dense 0 Water reaches greatest density at 4C it expands as molecules move faster 0 Ice insulates Water Water Solvent of Life 0 Solution liquid of a homogeneous mixture of 2substances gt Solvent dissolving agent solute agent being dissolved gt Aqueous Solution solute in Water 0 Polarity of Water makes it versatile 0 H Chapter 3 Page 1 gt Hydration shell sphere of Water molecules around a dissolved ion gt Compound does not need to be ionic Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances 0 Hydrophilic attracted to Water gt Some molecules are so large that they cannot dissolve ie cotton cellulose 0 Hydrophobic nonionic and nonpolar repel Water ie oils Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions 0 Molecular mass sum of masses of all atoms in a molecule 0 Mole mol 603x1023 AVogadro39s 0 Molarity of moles of solute per liter solution 33 Acids and Bases Interactions With Organisms Hydrogen ion H hydroxide OH hydronium H30 Acids and Bases 0 Acids donates H to solution thus increasing H concentration 0 Bases reduce H accept H ions PH Scale 0 Molar quantity 1 is acidic 7 is neutral Water 14 is basic 0 pHlog H each number 10x Buffers substance that minimizes changes in concentrations of H and OH in solution 0 Blood carbonic acid if H in blood falls more carbonic acid is dissociates which replenishes H and Vice Versa Acidification 0 Ocean acidification CO2 dissolving in water and react to form carbonic acid gt Ocean is lpH unit lower than 420000yrs ago gt Scientists predict this will decrease carbonate ions is oceans by 40 Corals require these atoms for calcification Chapter 3 Page 2
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