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by: Jazmin Schimmel


Jazmin Schimmel
GPA 3.72

Julie Moore

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Julie Moore
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmin Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Julie Moore in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/202517/cbio-3100-university-of-georgia in Biology Molecular Cell & Dev at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study guide for Exam 1 2712 The first exam will be on 2712 The exam will take one hour but you will be given most ofthe class period to complete it We will have a short discussion for the first 5 minutes ofthe class period and then take the exam WE WILL USE SCANTRONS SO BRING A 2 PENCIL Basic information 1 The questions will include some or all of the following formats multiple choice fillintheblank truefalse matching short answer and short essay I haven t written the exam yet so any combination of these types of questions is possible Given the variety of question types as well as potential complexity of short essay questions it cannot be stressed enough how important it is to read the directions on the exam Condition yourself to calmly review all sections of the exam and read the directions before beginning to answer questions 2 There will be questions from each of the lectures up to and including the lecture on 13112 3 While the point ofthe exam is to assess students understanding of the major concepts knowledge of specific details is often required to demonstrate this understanding Thus exam preparation should be thorough See example questions below To earn top points on short answershort essay questions it is critical to answer all parts so please be prepared forthat 3 You should do all of the assigned reading It serves as support for the material in class and as such is fair game for the exam It is a nice way to review the material from the lectures 4 Any topic that we discussed in detail during class even if it is not in the powerpointsshould be considered to be material covered and is therefore fair game for the exam Material present in powerpoints but not discussed in class will not be covered on the exam One exception is material from the first lecture that provides overviewsdefinitions of different types of parasites 5 The bulk ofthe questions will focus on concepts and not details eg specific dates However there are some details that you will be responsible for Pay close attention to a Definitions if a word was defined for you in class then you should be familiar with it b Parasites know their names common and scientific and the names ofthe diseases that they Life cyclesparasite biology be sure that you understand the biology of each ofthe parasitesparasitic organisms that we have discussed so far lfthe life cycle transmission or mechanism of pathogenesis how the parasite causes disease ofthe parasite or the course and symptoms of the disease was discussed in class you should study your notes and the reading carefully to be sure you understand it fully if you can draw it then you know it Cell types particularly immune cells ifthe function of a specific cell type was mentioned you should understand that function and be able to match it to the cell type Names for those scientists who made major contributions you should recognize the name and that person s contribution C 8 IP 6 Important concepts concepts that you should be familiar with and able to recognize explain and apply include but are not limited to parasitism antigenic variation immune evasion economics and disease vaccination genetic analysis of parasites disease diagnosis disease monitoring public health disease prevention vs disease treatment vs disease eradication Here are some sample questions from old exams 1 Parasitism is defined as a The close association of two species for the purpose of growth or replication b A symbiotic relationship in which one partner suffers some harm B 8 9 Q d c An association that is beneficial for the growth and propagation of one partner and does not harm the other d The living of one organism on the dead remains of another organism Viruses by virtue oftheir strict requirement for host cells for growth replication and survival are a Facultative parasites b Eukaryotes c Obligate parasites d Commensalists Before the important medical and scientific breakthroughs of Robert Koch in the 1870s and 80s the Germ Theory of disease was not fully accepted All the following are reasons why the Germ Theory was not accepted EXCEPT a No one had been able to demonstrate or observe that bacteria or other germs can be found in diseased tissue b The fact that many microorganisms have different forms corresponding to different points in their life cycles was not well understood c It had not been conclusively demonstrated that specific pathogens or microorganisms cause specific diseases d Maintenance of pure bacterial stocks derived from infected tissues had not been achieved making it difficult to assign cause with effect in diseased individuals e All of the above statements apply Which of the following scientificmedical breakthroughs is NOT attributed to the scientistphysician Robert Koch a The identification of the rodshaped bacillus bacterium now known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent of tuberculosis b The observation that the anthrax bacterium forms spores c The use of photography to record the appearance of bacteria and infected tissue as seen through the microscope d The use of aerosolized phenol to sterilize the hospital operating room during surgery e All ofthe above advances can be attributed to Koch Which of the following statements about the biology of Yersinia pest395 the bacterium that causes plague is FALSE a The bacteria accumulate in the salivary glands of the flea vector so that the bacteria are transmitted when the flea tries to take a blood meal from a human The bacteria clog the flea s stomach in effect starving it so that a single flea byjumping from one host to another desperately seeking to take a blood meal spreads the bacteria Prairie dogs are natural reservoirs of the bacteria The bacteria using a needlelike structure inject toxic molecules into host cells thereby crippling the host immune res onse All of the above statements are true b 83 8 Which of the following types of plague infection is highly contagious and can result from exposure to an infected person a Bubonic d B and C b Septicemic Pneumonic e All ofthe above 0 What is the definition of definitive host What host serves this purpose for the malarial parasite i7 Plasmodium falciparum ls human malaria a zoonosis Why is malaria difficult to control How do macrophages kill bacteria after phagocytosing them How can bacteria escape death in the macrophage name two ways 10 List Koch s postulates Why is it not possible to apply these postulates to all infectious diseases Study guide for Exam 2 31011 1 The questions will be a combination of matching multiple choice truefalse fillintheblank and short answeressay N v There will be questions from each of the lectures beginning with the lecture on 210 up to and including the lecture on 33 3 You should do aH of the required reading It is fair game for the exam 4 The bulk of the exam questions will focus on concepts and not minute details eg you don t need to memorize specific dates or names of people unless otherwise indicated However there are some details that you will be responsible for While preparing for the exam you should pay close attention to a Definitions if a word was defined for you in class then you need to be familiar with it b Biology of diseasecausing agents be sure that you understand the biology of polio influenza cholera and cryptosporidiosis including transmission mechanisms of pathogenesis how disease is caused and the course and symptoms of the diseases You should have a basic familiarity with syphilis and leprosy c You will not need to remember specific names of individuals but it may help you to be able to recognize them or datestime periods from Dr Reinhart s lecture However you should be familiar with major concepts from this lecture including the meaning of trope examples of tropes and howthey are used manifested in literature and society in general etc Also you should be familiar with the major literary works he discussed namely Poor Henry and The French Disease d You should know about the history of the 1918 flu pandemic and be able to describe howthe 1918 virus was recently studied Also think about why the 1918 virus was a killer of young adults Be familiar with the details of how new strains of influenza virus develop each year and what the implications for this are for vaccine development and delivery You should know how these viruses get into and out of cells receptors proteins involved etc You should be familiar with issues surrounding the most recent H1 N1 virus and avian influenza e Vaccines be familiar with the history a vaccines in general terms how vaccines work immunologyl common misconceptions about vaccines and why vaccination is so important in populations what happens when vaccination rates go down You should also be aware of the medical social legal political issues surrounding vaccineimmunization requirements and the vaccinesautism controversies Think about proven adverse effects of vaccines vs perceived adverse affects and how these relate to overall epidemiology of disease and risk of illness or death Rubella and pertussis were highlighted in these discussions so you should be familiar with that material HPVGardasil was also discussed and the basic issues related to this vaccine should be understood Polio as indicated above you should be familiar with the biology of polio viruses the biology of the disease process and symptoms the history of polio and polio vaccine development issues with polio vaccination and the eradication effort goals problems History of medicine be familiar with the major diseases and their 1850 names covered by Dr McMurry Knowthe major differences in healthdiseasedeath reporting in 1850 compared to now as well as concepts of disease how diseases were definednamed etc Since we spent quite a bit of time discussing the 1850 census you should know how it was done how data were collected etc Cholera as indicated above you should be familiar with the biology of cholera the biology of the disease process and symptoms and details of diagnosis prevention and treatment The history of the 1854 London cholera epidemic is essential knowledge both in terms of how John 9 D v 339 v Snow did his work as well as what was revealed what the controversies were what the socialcivichealth conditions were at the time etc Modern cholera we didn t discuss Zimbabwe but did briefly cover Haiti i You should be familiar with the progression of activities in investigations of disease outbreaks and the major tools that epidemiologists use to conduct investigations and solve outbreak mysteries You should be able to reason your way through an outbreak investigation as below in the sample questions Sample questions from old exams 1 Why is it necessary to develop a new influenza virus flu vaccine every year a The immune response generated from the previous year s vaccine does not last more than a yeaL b The virus is constantly changing and is usually different enough each year to render the immune response generated in response to the previous year s vaccine ineffective c The growth of the vaccine virus in chicken eggs makes the vaccine unstable so it doesn t last more than a year d Scientists and public health officials worry that use of the same vaccine year after year will result in the development of resistant viruses that can t be cured with any of the available flu drugs e All of the above N v Which of the following statements accurately depicts an important difference between the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines a The Salk vaccine is injected into the muscle the Sabin vaccine is injected into the skin b The Salk vaccine was tested in a clinical trial the Sabin vaccine was not tested it was immediately put into use c There is a high risk of polio infection from the Salk vaccine the Sabin vaccine is completely safe d The Salk vaccine is a killed virus preparation the Sabin vaccine is an attenuated weakened polio virus 3 How does Vibrio cholerae cause diarrhea a The bacteria release a toxin that destroys the lining of the intestine b The bacteria attach to the wall of the gut and kill the intestinal cells c The cholera toxin disrupts the normal physiology of the gut wall stimulating a massive release of chloride ions d Sugars on the surface of the bacteria stimulate the release of fluids from the intestinal wall e All of the above 4 You are a physician living in Bangladesh Which of the following interventions will be most effective in reducing the number of deaths due to cholera in your community You discourage people from eating seafood during outbreaks You stockpile tetracycline an antibiotic in your doctor s office in preparation for epidemics You stockpile ORS oral rehydration solution packets in your doctor s office in preparation for epidemics You outfit your local hospital laboratory with all of the supplies necessary to rapidly diagnose cholera cases e You quarantine cases during outbreaks 333 O V 3 Two important proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are found on the surface of the influenza virus What are the functions of these two proteins and why are they essential for the viral life cycle 4 Why are pigs called influenza virus genome blendersquot Genomequot refers to the entire genetic complement all of the genes of an organism 5 After viral particles of influenza virus have budded from an infected cell their intention is to go on to infect new cells However they run into a unique problem What is this problem and how do the virions solve it 6 In The French Disease and its Cure with Guaiacum Woodquot Ulrich Von Hutten referred to which disease What was the cure and how was it administered give two specific details Did it work Von Hutten s message was larger in scope than simply this cure What was he trying to tell his fellow German countrymenYou are a pediatrician A young couple recently brought their first baby in to see you and during the visit you explained to them the vaccination schedule recommended for children by the CDC It quickly became clear that they had visited some of the many websites that erroneously argue that childhood vaccination is a bad idea they cited six common misconceptions about vaccination and were adamantly against vaccinating their baby Name three of the misconceptions they are likely to have mentioned and describe what arguments and facts you used to dispel these misconceptions 8 Name the three unique features of the human adaptive immune response Which in your opinion is the most important for vaccination Why 9 What was life expectancy in years in the early to mid 1800 s In general how has it changed to date and why Outbreak investigation You are a lead investigator in CDC s Epidemic Intelligence Service The Memphis Health Department called you at noon on July 4th to say that the Emergency Room at Presley General Hospital had just reported that 29 cases of severe watery diarrhea had been seen over the past two days 3rd and 4 h which is more than they normally have ltjust so happens that the annual weeklong Graceland Reunion is currently underway The Health Department is too busy dealing with other issues related to this massive influx of Elvis fans to spare staff to investigate the diarrhea cases You have made all of the necessary arrangements and are now arriving in Memphis with a team of EIS officers on the 5th of July 1 What is the very first thing you need to do to begin your investigation a Determine how many diarrhea cases have shown up at the hospital over the past month b Collect stool samples from all of the diarrhea cases to determine if there is an infectious cause and to identify it c Determine the ages and home addresses of the ill individuals d Mobilize public health officials to quickly respond to the outbreak By the following morning July 6 you ve completed the preliminary steps and now knowthat these 29 patients plus one other from the 4m began to appear at the hospital on July 2quot A quick PCR diagnostic stool test has shown that all 30 patients ages 6 months to 5 years all outoftowners are infected with a virulent strain of Vibrio cholerae You ve learned that although this hospital has had many cases of diarrhea recently the city hasn t seen a case of cholera diarrhea in ten years Also no other local towns are reporting cholera infections You are pretty confident but not sure that this is a local cholera outbreak and ask local public health officials to be on standby should the situation get worse 2 What should you prioritize to do next Prepare a press release to announce the cholera outbreak Develop a case definition identify all confirmed cases to date and gather as much information as possible from them c Commence testing of all municipal water sources in Memphis for cholera bacteria d Formulate a hypothesis for the cause of the outbreak 0399 vv By afternoon on the 6m you ve prepared a press release but a nosy reporter breaks the sto inaccurately for you The good news is that the Memphis water supply is bacteriafree Still no cases have been reported from outside of Memphis including in the hometowns of your cases You re tentatively relieved that no new confirmed cases of cholera have arrived at the Emergency Room since July 4 A questionnaire and interviews have guided your case definition all 30 confirmed cholera patients are children of Elvis fans You have a list of foods and drinks eaten at Graceland by everyone since they arrived all patients have eaten there exclusively Also with the oppressive heat most of the children have been spending a lot oftime in the various water activities at Graceland Your team hypothesizes that the outbreak is somehow related to the reunion 3 What should you prioritize for the next step in your investigation a Construct an epidemic curve to estimate when exposure to the cholera bacterium might have occurred b Interview tourists staff and management at Graceland about their health c Go to Graceland and randomly sample foods and beverages currently being served to test for cholera bacteria d Recommend that the Graceland Reunion be shut down Your team manages by the following day the 7m to complete interviews with other tourists and Graceland staff gather samples of foods and drinks including drinking water served at the reunion and construct an epi curve of the cholera cases Your curve suggests that exposure to the bacteria likely occurred on June 29m You decide to focus on reunion activities forthat date You still don t knowthe cause of the outbreak and you re worried about two of the cases that are severely dehydrated You were highly suspicious of Graceland and were preparing to recommend shutting down the reunion but changed your mind when lab test results came back showing that none of the tested foods or drinks including that available leftovers from the 29 had tested positive for cholera bacteria Thus your suspicion that something else might be going on is confirmed There is no connection between food or beverage ingestion and infection everybody sick or not has eaten and drunk the same things 4 Still stumped you decide to try a case control study You drawa spot map below forthe placesactivities visited by the 30 cases solid circles and 35 uninfected control kids open circles on June 29m Based on what you observe on the map propose a hypothesis for the likely sources of the outbreak Justify your hypothesis Study guide for Exam 3 4l12l11 1 The questions will be a combination of matching multiple choice truefalse fillintheblank and short answer We will use scantrons again so please bring a 2 pencil N v a v 5 There will be questions from each of the lectures beginning with Dr Rota s SARS lecture on 38 up to and including the opportunistic infections lecture on 45 You should do aH of the required reading It is fair game for the exam The bulk of the exam questions will focus on concepts and not details eg you don t need to memorize specific dates or names of people However there are some details that you will be responsible for While preparing for the exam in addition to carefully reviewing the notes and our discussions in class you should pay attention to a 039 v O v 9 Definitions if a word was defined for you in class then you need to be familiar with it Know your acronyms SARS AIDS RT etc What is a superspreader Biology of diseasecausing agents be sure that you understand and are familiar with the epidemiology and biology of 1 2 SARS coronavirus and Nipah virus 3 prions 4 worms 5 arboviruses West Nile Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis St Louis Encephalitis and LaCrosse virus 6 HIV and 7 opportunistic infections HHV8Kaposi s sarcomaToxopasma Cryptosporidium Pneumocystis carinii Plasmodium to the extent that they were discussed in class Also pay attention to disease symptoms diagnosis treatment and prevention strategies SARS and Nipah viruses Be familiar with the epidemiology of the initial SARS outbreak in Asia and the basic biology ofthe virus With regard to phylogeny don t get lost in the details you should understand what is known about how the virus changed as the outbreak spread and how closely related this virus is to other known coronaviruses particularly in animal reservoirs The case is the same with Nipah Where did these viruses come from How were they identified How are they transmitted to people how was Nipah different between Malaysia and Bangladesh What are the roles of animal reservoirs wild and domestic What are the important features of human infection with all of these viruses We talked briefly about measles virus at the end of Dr Rota s lecture you should know that measles is a highly infectious virus and that transmission occurs very easily via aerosol between casual contacts For prions you should understand that there is a normal prion protein PrPC and a bad misfolded one PrPSC How does PrPC become PrPSC Know about kuru CJD vCJD BSE and scrapie history transmission and clinical features including pathology what do these have in common and how are they different How can bad prions convert normal prions to bad ones How can eating BSE meat lead to vCJD For worms be familiar with the major classes of worms known by their common names as well as the important elements of their life cycles You are not expected to memorize scientific genus and species names but you may be asked to recognize a name and be able to match it to the disease it causes lf Dr Kaplan discussed a particular life cycle you should be familiar with it What is a paratenic host West Nilearboviruses you should know about the dynamics of West Nile virus spread in the US and how surveillance is done As mentioned above also be familiar with the other viruses and the insects discussed by Dr Mead You are not expected to remember the specific species names of the mosquito vectors but you should be familiar with mosquito breeding habits etc and how transmission between animals and humans occurs how when why While you aren t expected to remember the nitty gritty statistics for each virus you should know the general patterns of disease who is affected disease symptoms etc Commit to memory the amplifying intermediate hosts for all of the viruses discussed and know what this term means What are some of the arboviral threats we should be worried about now 9 HIV lectures know the biology of the virus and the opportunistic organisms discussed as mentioned above Be familiar with the history of the beginning origins of and spread of the epidemic globally and in the US important issues with intravenous drug use mothertochild vertical transmission and how HIV interacts with and affects the immune system Review your immunology Be familiar with what happens as HIV infection progresses and how AIDS develops as well as the CDC definition of AIDS Have a basic understanding of HIV drugs and the problems associated with these drugs Be prepared to describe processesevents that may drive rapid progression to AIDS and what is required for viral replication and expansion in the body Don t worry about HIV vaccines Be familiar with the opportunistic infections discussed in class including how they differ from each other and have in common Sample questions from old exams 1 The SARS epidemic Began in Japan Was spread to many countries from a single source a patient visiting a hotel in Hong Kong Could not be controlled by effective barrier nursing Killed more than 10000 people in China alone All of the above 051065 2 SARS is transmitted by Direct contact with infected persons Aerosol Contact with an infected surface and then selfinoculation eating without washing hands etc The fecaloral route All of the above 051065 3 The infectious organism that causes SARS Was immediately identified early in the epidemic by the first test tried PCR Could not be identified using antibodybased tests Was barshaped when viewed by electron microscopy ls similar to viruses known to infect animals All of the above 0510575 4 What is believed to be the basis or cause for the outbreak of mad cow disease in Europe Are humans susceptible to mad cow disease Support your answer with two pieces of evidence 5 What is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy TSE Describe the disease don t just give an example of a TSE Assuming you are a pathologist examining the body of a person you think may have suffered from this disease which tissue will you examine and what will you expect to observe 6 Hookworm infection may make you lazy but it won t kill you a True b False 7 quot 39 39 39 of the Taenia solium in the brain of human victims is a direct result of Consumption of undercooked pork containing T solium cysticerci cysts Accidental ingestion of the eggs of T solium Humans accidentally acting as aberrant intermediate hosts of T solium Allowing pigs to be coprophagic eaters of feces b amp c sham 8 Onchocerciasis river blindnessquot has been an economic disaster in developing countries because a It is impossible to prevent or cure b It drives people away from fertile river valleys where the blackfly vector thrives c It preferentially affects adult males who are the most important breadwinners in such societies d All of the above 9 Which of the following statements regarding West Nile virus is TRUE a The virus has progressively spread from the northwest US to the southeast b The only way to confirm infection in animals is by testing for antibodies against the virus c Anopheles mosquitoes are the primary vector for the virus d None of the above 10 Which of the following is NOT a known means of transmission of West Nile virus Breast feeding Coughing aerosol Solid tissue transplantation Blood transfusion Intrauterine fetal infection gees 11 Although it is thought to have been always present in the United States West Nile virus has only recently emerged as a major public health problem a True b False 12 Birds are a known reservoir host for West Nile virus a True b False 13 The urban cycle of an insecttransmitted virus varies from a sylvatic cycle in that the former involves humans as the only vertebrate host a True b False 14 St Louis encephalitis in humans commonly results in permanent brain damage a True b False 15 Which of the following is NOT part of the CDC definition of AIDS A CD4 T cell count less than 200 cells per microliter of blood Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Infection with human immunodeficiency virus All of the above are part of the CDC definition 051057 16 Which of the following statements accurately reflects an aspect of the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus a The first step the virus takes after infecting a cell is inserting its RNA directly into the cellular DNA b The viral proteins are cleaved by a cellular protease to allow the production of mature viral particles c New viral RNA is made wheneverthe cell transcribes it own DNA d The infected cell constantly produces virus regardless of its activation state All of the above D 17 HIV causes immunodeficiency by doing what Infecting and killing T helper cells Making infected CD4 T cells the targets of cytotoxic T cells Infecting and killing B cells A and B All of the above 0510575 15 African monkeys when infected with simian immunodeficiency virus die from a disease very similar to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS a True b False 18 Kaposi s sarcoma a Is caused by a sexually transmitted herpes virus b Commonly occurs in all AIDS patients regardless of age c Is a slowly progressing cancer that is harmless even in AIDS patients d Occurs only in AIDS patients e All of the above 19 Crytosporidium a Causes severe diarrhea only in AIDS patients b Is difficult to treat because no drugs are currently available c Is an extracellular parasite d Is quickly killed by chlorine e ls transmitted via aerosol 20 Many people are infected with Toxoplasma but it is mainly AIDS patients and pregnant women who should be most concerned about it a True b False


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