ANAT & PHYSIOL I
ANAT & PHYSIOL I CBIO 2200
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 10 Axial Muscles and Appendicular Muscles Origin and insertion are found on the axial skeleton Involved in supportingrotation ofhead nonverbal communication breathing protecting internal organs Appendicular involved in limb movement Mycology the study of the muscular system three kinds of muscle tissue skeletal smooth and cardiac most of information presented pertains to skeletal muscles muscle specialized for one major purpose convert glucose to cellular energy 0 glucose gt ATP gtcellular energy 0 glucose gt glycogen gt ATP gt cellular energy Muscles specialized for one fundamental purpose to convert the chemical energy of ATP into the mechanical energy of motion Muscular system composed of skeletal muscle only 600 muscles in the human muscular system Functions of Muscles movement breathing communication urination childbirth etc stability prevent unwanted muscle movements antigravity muscles prevent us from falling over or slumping control of openings and passageway includes sphincters heat production skeletal muscles provide as much as 85 of the body s heat glycemic control if muscles don t do well at this increase glucose levels and can lead to diabetes Composition amp Actions originbony site of attachment that is relatively stationary less movable attachment belly thick middle part between origin and insertion inseltion more movable attachment origin and insertion are not always obvious No rule of thumb Structure muscle gt fascicles gt muscle fibers cells gt myofibrils gt thicldthin filaments fascia connective tissue covering muscle A sheet of CT that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and from subcutaneous tissue epimysium right next to muscle Fibrous sheath that surrounds the entire muscle On its outer surface the epimysium I mnt belly grades into the fascia On the guman ma m I n inner surface it issues projections between the fascicles to form the perimysium v Suuzun as39n 3 39 r 39 1 quot4 a mi V 9393 faquot zanvsrcn Sum muscle lllJEl pe mysiumthicker CT sheath wowm that wraps muscle bers together in bundles called fascicles Carries NW the larger nerves and b100d Figure 1 Muscle belly split intu variuus cnmpunem parts frum E enlials of Strenglh Training amp Cunditiuning National Strenglh amp Condiliuning Amciminn vessels as well as stretch receptors called muscle spindles endomysium thin sleeve of loose CT that surrounds each muscle ber Provides extracellular chemical environment for the muscle ber and associated nerve ending smooth muscle not as organized different laments Muscle Shape fusiformthick in the middle and tapered at each end Gastrocnemius biceps brachii parallelfairly uniform width and parallel fascicles Some elongated and some mores square shaped Carl span long distances and shorten more than any other muscle type Produce less force Sartorius rectus abdominis t angularconvergentfan shaped Broad at the origin and converging toward a narrower insertion Relatively strong Temporalis pectoralis major circularforms rings around certain body openings Constrict opening during contraction to prevent passage of material orbicularis oris orbicularis occuli pinnatefeather shapped Fascicles insert obliquely on a tendon that runs the length of the musclemuscle fascicles slanted toward tendon o unipennatefascicles approach tendon from one side extensor digitorum o bipennatefascicles approach tendon from both sides rectus femorisgt most common 0 multipennateshaped like a bunch of feathers with their quills converging on single point Generate the most force due to more muscle bers in given length Deltoid Compartments amcramku cmquot x rummenu mm v m Unipemme Comm Bipomme Pari rel fusilm Ltmm ery Fairer muss9M 3m Peanuts mapl Rams lemons i Ramsmhmns kegs mm thick fasciae that separates major compartments Mullipeum Circulu v Dem1 himars can indirect attachment to bone Muscle ends conspicuously short of its bony destination and the gap is bridged by a tendon o tendons brous band or sheath 0 aponeurosis broad sheet of tendonin skull hand and foot muscles 0 retinaculum a band of connective tissue that groups of tendons from separate muscles pass under carapal tunnel in the wrist direct eshy attachment to bone There is so little separation between muscle and bone that to the naked eye that red muscular tissue seems to emerge directly from the bone On a microscopic level there is a tiny gap spanned by collagen bers triceps a group of functionally related muscles enclosed and separated from others by CT fascia intermuscular septa especially Attachments brachii brachialis some muscles insert on fascia or the collagen bers of the dermis Functional Groups action an affect it produces four categories of muscle action in arm O O O O 0 agonist prime mover that produces most of the force during a particular joint action brachialis synergist helps prime mover May stabilize a joint or modify the direction of a movement so that the prime mover action is more coordinated and speci c biceps brachii antagonist works against agonist Most often maintains some tension on a joint that limits the speed or range of the prime mover This can prevent injury or inappropriate actionstriceps brachii fixator holds something still while muscles moves Prevents a bone from moving rhomboids antagonistic pairmuscles that act on opposite sides of a joint Brachialis and triceps brachii intrinsic muscle entirely contained within a particular region having both its origin and insertion located there Extrinsic muscle acts upon a designated region but has its origin elsewhere Muscle Innervation O innervation refers to the identity of the nerve that stimulates the muscle spinal nerves arise from spinal cord emerge through the intervertebral foramina and innervate muscles below the neck Identified by numbers and letters plexusweblike network of spinal nerves adjacent to the vertebral column cranial nerves arise from base of brain emerge through the skull foramina and innervate muscles of the head and neck I numbered CNI CNXII I innervate headneck area CNI diaphragm Neuromuscular Junction synapse motor end plate sits on the muscle Blood Supplv to the Muscular Svstem 124 L ofbloodmin at rest to muscular system 5 total During heavy exercise muscular system s share is greater than 34 116 Lmin Nomenclature of Muscles Muscle action exion extension etc Speci c body regions bones anteriorposterior Muscle attachment sternoclidomastoid Orientation of muscle bers oblique Muscle shape deltoid like delta Muscle size gluteus maximus minormajor Muscle headtendons of origin of tendonsheads Triceps mceps guadriceps List of Muscles Groups Know the names of muscles in these groups Read the paragraphs associated with these muscle groups carefully You will be responsible for information presented in these narratives Be able to determine the group that a particular muscle belongs to 1 Muscles of Facial Expression Table 101 except corrugator supercilii Facial Nerve CNVH o Innervates all muscles except one 0 Temporal zygomatic buccal mandibular cervical Occipz39talz39ssretracts scalp xes galeaaponeurotic so frontalis can act on eyebrows Levatorpalpebraesuperioris not innervated by CNVII Elevates upper eyelid opens eye Lies deep to the orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oculi sphincter of the eyelids closes eye in blinking squinting and sleep aids in ow of tears across eye Nasalz39s widens nostrils narrows internal air passage between vestibule and nasal cavity Orbicularis oris encircles mouth closes lips protrudes lips as in kissing uniquely developed in humans for speech Not a sphincter muscle Levatorlabiisuperioris elevates and everts upper lip in sad sneering or serious expressions Levatorangulioris elevates angle of mouth as in smiling Zygomaticus major draws angle of mouth upward and laterally in laughing Zygomaticusminor elevates upper lip exposes upper teeth in smiling or sneering Risorius draws angle of mouth laterally in expressions of laughing horror or disdain Depressor angulz39orz39s draws angle of mouth laterally and downward in opening mouth or sad expressions Depressor labiiinferioris draws lower lip downward and laterally in chewing and expressions of melancholy or doubt M entalz39s elevates and protrudes lower lip in drinking pouting and expressions of doubt or disdain elevates and wrinkles skin of chin Buccinators compresses cheek against teeth and gums directs food between molars retracts cheek from teeth when mouth is closing to prevent biting cheek expels air and liquid Platysma draws lower lip and angle of mouth downward in expressions of horror or surprise may aid in opening mouth widely F rontalis elevates eyebrows in glancing upward and expressions of surprise or fright Draws scalp forward and wrinkles skin of forehead Clinical View bells palsy idiopathic facial nerve paralysis o prednisone often used to reduce swelling 0 level and timing of recovery varies 2 Muscles 0f Chewing and Swallowing Table 102 Extrinsic muscles of tongue 0 Primary functions eating mastication swallowing deglutition and talking 0 Have origin inside of the mouth and named for insertion outside mouth I Genioglossusmnilateral action draws tongue to one side bilateral action depresses midline of tongue or protrudes tongue large muscle helps draw tongue to one side chin to tongue H yoglossussdepresses tongue hyoid to tongue Styloglossus draws tongue upward and posteriorly styloid process to tongue Palatoglossusselevates roof of tongue and closes oral cavity off from pharynx forms palatoglossal arch at rear of oral cavity soft palate to tongue Muscles of Chewing O O O O O Temporalis elevation retraction and lateral medial excursion of the mandible M asseterselevation of the mandible with smaller roles in protraction retraction and lateral and medial excursion medial pterygoz39alselevation protraction and lateral and medial excursion of the mandible lateral pterygoz39al depression in wide opening of the mouth protraction and lateral and medial excursion of the mandible innervated by mandibular nerve a branch of the trigeminal CN V Intrinsic muscles of tongue originate and insert on the tongue itself 0 Four pairs that have origin inside the mouth superior longitudinal muscles inferior longitudinal muscle I verticalis muscle I transverses muscle Muscles of Chewing Muscles that produce movements of mandible 0 several aspects of chewing swallowing and vocalizing are aided by I eight pairs of hyoid muscles associated with the hyoid bones 4 pairs of suprahyoid muscles 4 pairs of infrahyoidmucles three pairs of pharyngeal constrictors which contract to drive food into the esophagus during swallowing Suprahyoid muscles all elevate the hyoid bone 0 O O O digastric depresses mandible when hyoid is xed opens mouth widely as when ingesting food or yawning elevates hyoid when mandible is xed I Two bellies geniohyoid depresses mandible when hyoid is xed elevates and protracts hyoid when mandible is xed mylohyoid spans mandible from side to side and forms oor of mouth elevates oor of mouth in initial stage of swallowing stylohyoid elevate and retract hyoid elongating oor of mouth roles in speech chewing and swallowing are not yet clearly understood Infrahyoid muscles 0 omohyoid depresses hyoid after it has been elevated o stemohyoid muscle from sternum to hyoid Keep hyoid bone in place as open mouth 0 Thyrohyoid lower the hyoid bone as swallow o Stemothyroid depresses larynx after it has been elevated in swallowing and vocalization aids in singing high notes Muscles of the Pharynx 0 Wrap around from back to front 0 They are always contracting Stops air from going down stomach They are closing off access to the stomach As swallow these constrictors relax Drive food into esophagus 0 Superior middle and inferior 3 Muscles Acting on the Head Table 103 May cause contralateral movement of the head toward the opposite side or an ipsilateral movement toward the same side as the muscle Flexors of the Neck 0 Stemocleidomastoid primer mover of neck Unilateral action tilts head slightly upward and toward the opposite side as in looking over one s contralateral shoulder The most common action is probably rotating n the head to the left or right Bilateral action draws the head straight forward and down as when eating or reading Aids in deep breathing when head is fixed 0 Scalene anterior middle and posterior unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral exion or contralateral rotation tilts head toward same shoulder or rotates face away depending on action of other muscles Bilateral contraction exes neck If spine is fixed scalene elevates ribs 12 and aid in breathing Extensors of the Neck located mainly in the nuchal region 0 Trapezius most superficial Extends and laterally exes neck 0 Splenius capitis and splenius cervicis acting unilaterally produceipsilateral exion and slight rotation of head extend head when acting bilaterally o Semispinaliscapitis and semispinaliscervicis extend and contralaterally rotate the head I SemispinalisCervicis Origin TlT6 Insert C2C5 4 Muscles 0f Respiration Table 104 Breathing requires the use of muscle enclosing thoracic cavity Diaphragm prime mover of inspiration responsible for about 23 of air intake contracts in preparation for sneezing coughing crying laughing and weight lifting Contraction compresses abdominal viscera and aids in childbirth and expulsion of urine and feces extemalintercostals when scalene fix rib 1 external intercostals elevate and protract ribs 212 expanding the thoracic cavity and creating a parietal vacuum causing in ow of air exercise a braking action during expiration so that expiration is not overly abrupt intemalintercostals in inspiration the intercartilagenous part aids in elevating the ribs and expanding the thoracic cavity in expiration The interosseous part depresses and retracts the ribs compressing the thoracic cavity and expelling air the latter occurs only in forceful expiration not in relaxed breathing innermostintercostals presume to have the same action as the internal intercostals Intercostal musclesare very thin must be peeled back to get to innermostmust be very careful when dissectingextemal intercostals fibers are pointed in a different direction than the inner intercostals Other muscles of chest and abdomen that contribute to breathing o Stemocleidomastoid scalene of neck 0 Pectoralis major and serratus anterior of chest 0 Latissimusdorsi of back 0 Abdominal muscles internal and external obliques and transverse abdominis 0 Some anal muscles 5 Muscles 0f the Anterior Abdominal Wall Table 105 Little skeletal support in abdominal cavity Tendinous intersections give rectus abominis six pack look Tendons of oblique and transverse muscles are aponeuroses Rectus sheath vertical sleeve Linea semilunaris marks the lateral boundary where the rectus sheath meets the aponeurosis Inguinal ligament cordlike aponeurosis of the external oblique External abdominal oblique supports abdominal viscera against pull of gravity stabilized vertebral column during heavy lifting maintains posture compresses abdominal organs thus aiding in forceful expiration of contents during childbirth urination and vomiting unilateral contraction causes contralateral rotation of waist Internal abdominal oblique same as external oblique except that unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral rotation of waist Transverse abdominal compresses abdominal contents with same effects as external oblique but does not contribute to movements of vertebral column Rectus abdominis exes lumbar region of vertebral column producing forward bending at the waist 6 Muscles 0f the Back Table 106 Superficial muscles 0 Most prominent I Trapezius I Latissimusdorsi broadest muscle of the back Deep muscles 0 Erector spinae extension and lateral exion of vertebral column the longissimuscapitis also produces ipsilateral rotation of the head I Ilicostalis longissimus spinalis o Semispinalisthoracis extension and contralateral rotation of vertebral column 0 Quadratuslumborum aids respiration by fixing rib 12 and stabilizing inferior attachments of diaphragm Unilateral contraction causes ipsilateral exion of lumbar vertebral column Bilateral contraction extends lumbar vertebral column 0 Multifidus stabilization of adjacent vertebrae maintenance of posture control of vertebral movement when erector spinae acts on vertebral column 7 Muscles 0f the Pelvic Floor Table 107 Divided into three layers Penetrated by anal canal urethra and vaginawhich open into a diamondshaped region between the thighs called the perineum Bordered by pubic synthesis coccyx issiealtuberoscities o Anterior half is urogenital triangle o Posterior half is anal triangle Super cial Perineal Space just deep to the skin 0 Ischiocavemosus maintains erection of the penis or clitoris by compressing deep structures of the organ and forcing blood forward into its body 0 Bulbospongiosus expels remaining urethra after bladder has emptied Aids in erection of penis or clitoris In male spasmodic contractions expel semen during ejaculation In female contractions constrict vaginal orifice and expel secretions of greater vestibular glands Middle Compartment 0 External urethral sphincter retains urine in bladder until voluntarily voided o Compressor urethrae aids in urine retention found in females only 0 External anal sphincter retains feces in rectum until voluntarily voided Pelvic Diaphragm deepest compartment 0 Levatorani compresses anal canal and reinforces external anal and urethral sphincters supports uterus and other pelvic viscera aids in the falling away of the feces vertical movements affect pressure differences between abdominal and thoracic cavities and thus aid in breathing o Coccygeus aids levatorani 8 Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Table 108 Compartment syndrome 0 M yoglobz39n in the urine 0 Treatment I Fasciotomy cut fascia to relive pressure Anterior Group 0 Pectoralis major with serratus anterior draws scapula laterally and forward around chest wall with other muscles rotates scapula and depresses apex of shoulder as in reaching down to pick up a suitcase o Serratus anterior with pectoralis minor draws scapula laterally and forward around chest wall protracts scapula and is the prime mover in all forward reaching and pushing actions aids in rotating scapula to elevate apex of shoulder fixes scapula during abduction of arm Posterior Group 0 Trapezius stabilizes scapula and shoulder during arm movements elevates and depresses apex of shoulder acts with other muscles to rotate and retract scapula o Levator scapulae elevates scapula if cervical vertebrae are xed exes neck laterally if scapula is xed retracts scapula and braces shoulder rotates scapula and depresses apex of shoulder o Rhomboideus minor retracts scapula and braces shoulder xes scapula during arm movements 0 Rhomboideus major same as rhomboideus minor 9 Muscles Acting on the Arm Table 109also know components of Rotator cuff Axial muscles 0 Pectoralis major exes adducts and medially rotates humerus as in climbing or hugging Aids in deep inspiration Latissimusdorsi adducts and medially rotates humerus extends the shoulder joint 0 as in pulling on the oars of a rowboat produces backward swing of arm in such actions as walking and bowling with hands grasping overhead objects pulls body forward and upward as in climbing aids in deep inspiration sudden expiration such as sneezing and coughing and prolonged forceful expiration as in singing or blowing a sustained note on a wind instrument Scapular muscles originate on the scapula o Deltoid anterior bers ex and medially rotate arm lateral bers and abduct aim posterior bers extend and laterally rotate arm involved in arm swinging during such actions as walking or bowling and in adjustment of hand height for various manual tasks 0 Teres major extends and medially rotates humerus contributes to arm swinging o Coracobrachialis exes and medially rotates arm resists deviation of arm from frontal plane during abduction Rotator Cuff reinforces joint capsule and holds the head of humerus in the glenoid cavity Is easily damaged by blows to the shoulder o Supraspinatus aids deltoid in abduction of aim resists downward slippage of humeral head when arm is relaxed or when ca1rying weight O Infrapsinatus modulates action of deltoid preventing humeral head from sliding upward rotates humerus laterally O Teres minor modulates action of deltoid preventing humeral head from sliding upward as arm is abducted rotates humerus laterally O Subscapularis modulates action of deltoid preventing humeral head from sliding upwardas arm is abducted rotates humerus medially 10 Muscles Acting on the Forearm Table 1010 Muscles with Bellies in the Arm brachium o Brachialis prime mover of elbow exion O Biceps brachii rapid or forceful supination of forearm synergist in elbow exion slight shoulder exion tendon of long head stabilizes shoulder by holding humeral head against glenoid cavity 0 Triceps brachii extends elbow long head extends and adducts humerus Muslces with Bellies in the Forearm o Brachioradialis exes elbow o Anconeus extends elbow may help to control ulnar movement during pronation O Pronator quadratus prime mover of forea1m pronation also resists separation of radius and ulna when force is applied to forearm through wrist as in doing push ups O Pronator teres assist pronator quadratus in pronation but only in rapid or forceful action weakly exes elbow o Supinator supinates forearm 11 Muscles Acting on the Wrist and Hand Table 1011 Anterior Compartment 0 Superficial layer I Flexor carpi radialis exes wrist anteriorly aids in radial exion of wrist I Flexor carpi ulnaris exes wrist anteriorly aids in ulnar exion of wrist I Flexor digitoriumsuperfacialis exes wrist metacarpophalagneal and interphalangeal joints depending on action of other muscles I Palmaris longus anchors skin and fascia of palmar region resists shearing forces when stress is applied to skin by such actions as climbing and tool use Weakly developed and sometimes absent 0 Deep Layer I Flexor digitorumprofundus exes wrist metacarpophalngeal and interphalangeal joints sole exor of the distal interphalangeal joints I Flexor pollicislongus exes phalanges of thumb Posterior Compartment 0 Super cial layer I Extensor carpi radialislongus extends wrist aids in radial exion of wrist I Extensor carpi radialisbreVis extends wrist aids in radial exion of wrist I Extensor digitorium extends wrist metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints tends to spread digits apart when extending metacarpophalangeal joints Extensor digitiminimi extends wrist and all joints of little nger Extensor carpi ulnaris extends and xes wrist when st is clenched or hand grips an object aids in ulnar exion of wrist 0 Deep Layer I Abductor pollicislongus abducts thumb in frontal palmar plane extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint Extensor pollicisbreVis extends metacarpal l and proximal phalanx of thumb Extensor pollicislongus extends distal phalanx l aids in extending proximal phalanx l and metacarpal l adducts and laterally rotates thumb Extensor indicis extends wrist and index nger Hemias Hernia any condition in which the Viscera protrudes through a weak point in the muscular wall of the abdominal caVity Inguinal hernia most common type rare in women 0 Viscera enter inguinal canal or even the scrotum Hiatal hernia stomach protrudes through diaphragm into thorax Chapter 13 1 Anatomy of Spinal Cord cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull 18 cm thick and 45 cm long average Gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves a Surface anatomy i Longitudinal grooves on anterior and posterior sides 1 Anterior median ssure and posterior median sulcus ii Spinal cord divided into cervical thoracic lumbar and sacral regions 1 Cervical enlargement cord is a little thicker Cord gives rise to nerves of upper limbs 2 lumbar enlargement cord is a little thicker Gives rise to nerves to pelvic region and lower limbs iii Medullary cone conusmedullaris tapering point of cord iv Caudaequina bundle of nerve roots occupying to vertebral canal from L2 to L5 Innervates the pelvic organs and lower limbs b Functions i Conduction bundles of nerve bers conduct info up and down the cord ii Locomotion repetitive coordinated contractions of several muscle groups in the limbs 1 Central pattern generators neural circuits produce the sequence of outsputs to the extensor and exor muscles that cause alternating movements of the lower limbs iii Re exes involuntary stereotyped responses to stimuli Involve brain SC peripheral nerves c Meninges of the Spinal Cord i Connective tissue membranes Separate soft tissue of the CNS from the bones of the vertebrae and skull Super cial to deep ii Dura mater loose tting sleeve called dural sheath around SC Tough collagenous membrane 1 Epidural space space between vertebral bones and sheath Occupied by blood vessels adipose tissue loose CT iii Arachnoid mater simple squamous epithelium l Arachnoid membrane adheres to inside of dura 2 Subarachnoid space loose mesh of collagenous and elastic bers spanning gap between A mater and P mater Filled with CSF 3 Lumbar cistern inferior to medullary cone Occupied by cauda equine and CSF iv Pia mater delicate translucent membrane that closely follows the contours of the SC 1 Terminal lum brous stmnd Within the lumbar cistern 2 Coccygeal ligament anchors the cord and meninges to vertebra Co 1 3 Dentriculate ligament extensions of the pia at regular intervals along the cord anchor cord and limit side to side movement cwuigm e n McGnm ill Campmu Inc Plnmslivl mum cw quotmimicquot nv dlspl39v Wluls mine a Foswmr meman smcus Central canal Pcstsllorronllsls Fusmnm mnl gangunn Spinal nerve Emdunl sum mamquot m subauul space d Spina bi da i 1 1000 babies born With this condition ii Comm on in lumbarsacral region iii Spinia bi da occulta looks like a dimple No spinal cord in out bubble No functional problems iv Spinabifida cystica sac protrudes from spine and may contain meninges CSF and parts of SC Inferior SC function is absent causing paralysis of lower limbs and urinay bladder V Folic acida B vitamin as part of a healthy diet for all women of child bearing age reduces risk too late once you re pregnant e Crosssectional anatomy of spinal cord i ii Gray matter neuron cell bodies with little myelin Contains somas dendrites and proximal parts of the axons of neurons Sight of synaptic contact between neurons 1 Pair of posterior dorsal horns 2 Posterior dorsal root 3 Pair of thicker anterior ventral horns 4 Anterior ventral root 5 Gray commissure Central canal Posterior median sulcus Dorsal column Dorsal root of sptnal nerve Dorsal horn Gray commrssure Dorsal root Lateral ganglwn column Lateral horn Ventral horn spinal nerve Ventral column America median llssure White matter bright pearly color abundantly myelinated axons l bundles of axons 2 columns of funiculi 3 pairs a posterior dorsal lateral anterior ventral columns 3 tracts or fascicule subdivisions of each column a do not try to remember all names and types f Spinal Tracts Ascending tracts carry sensory information up the cord Descending tracts conduct motor impulses down g General anatomy of Nerves and Ganglia 39 Spinal cord communicates with the rest of the body by way of spinal i ii IICTVCS Nerve cordlike organ composed of numerous nerve fibers bound together by CT 1 Have higher metabolic rate and need a plentiful blood supply Sensory afferent nerves Motor efferent nerves Endoneurium thin sleeve of loose CT that covers basal laminanerve ber Fascicles nerve fibers gathered in bundles vii Perineurium sheath that wraps the fascicles viii Epineurium dense irregular CT and protects nerve from stretching and injury ix Mixed nerves most are mixed Contain both S amp M bers Egtlt Dorsal root ganglia collection of the somas of the sensory neurons of a spinal cord Cluster of neurosomas outside CNS II Spinal Nerves a 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral l coccygeal b Proximal branches forming spinal nerves i Posterior dorsal root if sensory input to spinal cord 1 Posterior dorsal root ganglion contains somas of the sensory neurons carrying signals to the SC a Divides into 68 rootlets that enter the posterior horn of the cord ii Anterior ventral root is motor output of spinal cord 1 Cell bodies inside spinal cord or brain CNS 2 Cauda equine formed from roots no not arising from L2 mu 5pm 7 to C0 ramus quotHquot c Distal branches of spinal nerve i Anterior ramus ii Posterior ramus quotmm 39 thinner Mquot iii Meningeal branch tiny III Nerve Plexuses a Cervical plexus innervate neck area gives rise to phrenic nerve i Receives bers from anterior rami nerves ClC5 b Brachial plexus arm supply nerves to shoulderarm i Formed predominately by the anterior rami of nerves C5Tl c Lumbar plexus some of abdominal wall Lower back upper thigh i Formed from anterior rami of nerves LlL4 d Sacral plexus pelvis i Formed by anterior rami of nerves L4 L5 SlS4 e Coccygeal pleux S4 S5 coccygeal f Shingles i Chickenpox l Caused by varicellazoster virus ii Virus remains for life in the posterior root ganglia iii Shingles herpes zoster appears around age 5060 but can appear sooner 1 Virus becomes reactivated IV Cutaneous Innervation and Dermatomes a Dermatome speci c area of skin that send sensory input to each spinal nerve except Cl Often overlap 50 V Somatic Re exes a Nature of re exes i Four important properties of a re ex l Require stimulation 2 Are quick 3 Are involuntary 4 Stereotyped ii Somatic re exes use a re ex arc l Pathway of a re ex arc a Somatic receptors in skin muscle of tendon b Afferent nerve bers carry info to posterior horn of the SC or the brainstem c Integrating center involves intemeurons one or more intemeurons in the integrating center Issue a signal to the muscle d Efferent nerve bers carry motor impulses to skeletal muscle e Effectors carry out response iii Classic example patella knee re ex kneejerk b The Muscle Spindle stretch receptor i Muscle spindle stretch receptor embedded in skeletal muscles Inform the brain of muscle length and body movement Proprioceptors sense organs specialized to monitor the position and movement of body parts iii Especially abundant in muscles that require ne control iv Named for fusiform shape 410 mm long Spindles concentrated at ends of ber v A muscle spindle has 312 modi ed muscle bers and afew nerve bers vi Intrafusal bers muscle bers within spindle 1 Modi ed muscle cells that have sarcomeres and contractile ability only at the two ends a Nuclear chain bers 5 Single le of nuclei in noncontractile region b Nuclear bag bers fatter twice as long 23 vii Extrafusal bers make up the rest of the muscle and do the work c 3 classes of nerve bers ii39 iv Several secondary group II afferent up to 8 Take message to brain Intermediate size bers with slower conduction speed One primary group Ia afferent Take message to brain Arise from anulospiral endings Large fast nerve fiber and sensitive to small changes in muscle length and sudden body movments Gamma motor neuron innvervate in receptor itself Originate in anterior horn of SC and lead to the ends of the intrafusal fibers Alpha motor neurons innvervateextrafusal fibers d The Stretch Re ex i ii39 lt v39 When a muscle is stretched it fights back and contracts while maintain increased tonus and making it stiffer than unstretched muscle 1 Helps maintain equilibrium and posture 2 Head tilting forward when falling asleep Muscles contract to raise the head Mediate primarily by the brain Monosynaptic re ex arcs only one synapse between the efferent and afferent neuron Little synaptic delay and very prompt response Reciprocal inhibiton re ex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting antagonists Tendon re ex re exive contraction of a muscle when its tendon is tapped l Knee jerk patellar re ex monosynaptic one synapse between the afferent and efferent neurons Afferent synapses directly on the efferent re ex a Tap on patellar ligament excites nerve endings of muscle spindle in quadriceps femoris b Stretch signals travel to spinal cord via primary afferent fiber and dorsal root c Primary afferent neuron stimulates alpha motor neurons in spinal cord d Efferent signals in alpha motor nerve fiber stimulate quadriceps to contract producing knee jerk e At same time a branch of the afferent nerve fiber stimulates inhibitory motor neuron in spinal cord f The neuron inhibits alpha motor neuron that supplies hamstring muscles g In book Primary afferent fibers synapse directly with the efferent alpha motor neurons forming a monosynaptic re ex arc Depends on reciprocal inhibition re ex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting the antagonist Chl Book Notes Inspection simply looking at the body s appearance Palpation means feeling a structure with the hands Anatomy is the study of structure and physiology is the study of function Auscultation is listening to the sounds made by the body heart and lungs Dissection the careful cutting and separation of tissues Cadaver a dead human body Comparative anatomy the study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends Exploratory surgery opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it Medical imaging methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery Radiology the branch of medicine concerned with imaging Gross anatomy can be seen with the naked eye whether by surface observation radiology or dissection To see individual cells take tissue specimens thinly slice and stain them and observe them under microscope called histology aka microscopic anatomy lquot 39 39 39 39 39 39 of tissues for signs of diease Cytology is the study of the structure and function of individual cells Ultrastructure fine detail down to the molecular level revealed by the electron microscope PHYSIOLOGY 39 quot 39 quot 39 39 39 wus system endocrinologyhormonesand pathophysiology I Ln mechanisms of diease Comparative physiology study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance respiration and reproduction also basis for the development of new drugs and medical procedures quotfather of medicinequot Greek physician Hippocrates Aristotle one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology believed that diseases and other natural events could have either supernatural causes Which he called theologi or natural ones which he called phsici or physiologi Claudius Galen physician to the Roman gladiators wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient ear saw science as a method of discovery not as a body of fact to be taken on faith Jewish physicians were the most esteemed practitioners of their art none more famous than Maimonides wrote 10 influential medical books Among Muslims most highly regarded medical scholar was bnSina aka Avicenna or the quotGalen of slamquot his textbook quotThe canon of Medicine Andreas Vesalius during his time there was the Italian Renaissance which created an environment more friendly to innovative scholarship he broke with tradition by coming down from the cathedra and doing the dissection himself was first to publish accurate illustrations for teaching anatomy William Harvey remembered for his studies of blood circulation he and Michael Servetus were the first western scientists to realize that blood must circulate continuously around the body Robert Hooke designed scientific instruments of various kinds and made many improvements in the compound microscopes objective lensa tube with a lens at each end magnified image ocular lens aka eyepiece near observers eye magnifies the first image still further he was the first to see and name cells Antony van Leeuwenhoek invented a simple singlelens microscope Hooke and Leeuwenhoek microscopes produced poor images with blurry edges spherical aberration and rainbow distortions chromatic aberrations Carl Zeiss and business partner Ernst Abbe greatly improved the compound microscope adding the condenser and developing superior optics Matthias Schleiden and zoologist Theodor Schwann concluded that all organisms were composed of cells became the first tenet of the cell theory Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes Scientific method refers less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity careful observation logical thinking and honest analysis of one s observations and conclusions Inductive method first by Bacon process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them What we know of anatomy is a product of the inductive method We describe the normal structure of the body based on observations of many bodies Hypotheticodedictive methodwhere most physiological knowledge was obtained Several elements of experimental design address these issues Sample size number of subjects such as humans or dogs Controls treated vs untreated Control group treatment group Psychosomatic effects effects of the subject s state of mind on his or her physiology give control group a placebo Experimenter bias doubleblind method neither experimenter or volunteer knows if they are getting the treatment or placebo Statistical testing Peer review a critical evaluation by other experts in that field Scientific fact is info that can be independently verified by any trained person A law of nature is a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behaveit is the result of inductive reasoning based on repeated confirmed observations A theory is an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts laws and confirmed hypotheses Law vs theory Law is a rule created and enforced by people we must obey it or risk a penalty however a law of nature is a description laws do not govern the universe they describe it Charles Darwin most influential biologist who ever lived quotOn the origin ofspecies by means ofnatural selection book that quotshook the world Evolution change in the genetic 39 39 ofa of I I I a Natural Selection theory of how evolution works states essentially this quotSome individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors Nature forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others are called selection pressure Adaptations are features of an organism s anatomy physiology and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment Model an animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem The human thumbs became fully opposable they could cross the palm to touch the fingertips Opposable thumbs made the hands prehensile able to grasp branches by encircling them with the thumb and fingers The eyes moved forward that allowed for r39 I r r 39 eyehand coordination Bipedalism standing and walking on two legs easier these advantages allowed this Organismcompleted individual Organ g p oforgans 39 39 r39 39 or digestion human body has 11 ntegumentary skeletal muscular nervous endocrine circulatory lymphatic respiratory urinary digestive and reproductive Organstructure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function skin largest Single organ can belong to two organ systems pancreas is both endocrine and digestive Tissuemass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function Cellssmallest units nothing simpler than a cell is considered life is enclosed in a plasma membrane composed of lipids and proteins Organelles are microscopic structures in a cell that carry out individual functions Moleculesorganelles and other cellular components are compose it is a particle composed of at least two atoms the smallest particles with unique chemical identities Reductionism theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components Holismis the complementary theory that there are quotemergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of its separate partshuman beings are more than the sum of their parts Biological viewpoint life is not a single property it is a collection of properties that help to distinguish living from nonliving Organization living spend great amount of energy to maintain order and a breakdown of this order is accompanied by disease and often death Cellular composition metabolism is the sum of all this internal chemical change two classes of reactions anabolism complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones example protein synthesis and catabolism complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones example protein digestion Metabolism requires excretion which is the separation of waste from the tissue and their elimination from the body Responsiveness and movementthe ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli changes in their environment called responsiveness irritability or excitability Homeostasis stable internal conditions Development any change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism two major processes 1 differentiation the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task 2 growth Reproduction Evolution all species exhibit genetic change from generation to generation happens because of mutations changes in DNA structures Reference man and women notes Homeostasisthe body s ability to detect change activate mechanisms that oppose it and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions Claude Bernard observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly Walter Cannon coined term homeostasis for this tendency to maintain stability The internal state of the body is best described as a dynamic equilibrium balance change In which there is a certain set point or average value for a given variable Negative feedback a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it Feedback loops Vasodilation the widening of blood vessels Vasoconstriction a narrowing of the blood vessel Receptor is a structure that sense a change in the body Integrating control center is out the mechanism that processes this information relates it to other available info and makes a decision about what the appropriate response should be Effector is the cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action Positive Feedback loops a selfamplifying cycle in which a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction normal way of producing rapid change Anatomists agreed on a list of terms titles the NominaAnatomica NA which rejected all eponyms and gave each structure a unique latin name to be used worldwide Scientific words are usually composed of one or more of the following elements At least a root word stem Combining nouns A prefix may be present A suffix Key unifying principles behind all study of human anatomy and physiology Cell theory all structure and function result from the activity of cells Homeostasis the purpose of most normal physiology is to maintain stable conditions within the body Evolution the human body is a product of evolution Hierarchy of structure human structure can be viewed as a series of levels of complexity Unity of form and Function form and function complement each other physiology cannot divorce from anatomy Atlas A In anatomical position the forearm is supinated that is rotated so the palm faces anteriorly when forearm is pronated palm faces posteriorly A person is supine if lying face up and prone if lying face down Directional terms Proximal used to denote something relatively close to the limb s point of attachment and distal to denote something farther away Axial region consist of the head neck cervical region and trunk The trunk divided into the thoracic region above the diaphragm and the abdominal region below Abdominal regions images on powerpoint Appendicular region consists of the upper and lower limbs also called appendages or extremities Upper limb includes the arm brachial region forearm antebrachial wrist carpal region hand manual and fingers digits Lower limb includes the thigh femoral leg crural ankle tarsal foot pedal and toes digits A segment of a limb is a region between one joint and the next Cranial cavity is enclosed by the cranium braincase and contains the brain The vertebral canal is enclosed by the vertebral column backbone and contains the spinal cord Meninges cranial and vertebral are continuous with each other and are lined by three membrane layers Coelom a space that forms within the trunk during embryotic development Diaphragm muscular sheet that the coelom subsequently becomes pertitioned into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity Both cavities lined with thin serous membranes it is lubricated The heart is enfolded in a twolayered membrane called the pericardium Visceral pericardium inner layer of the pericardium forms the surface of the heart itself Perietal pericardium the outer layer separated from the visceral pericardium by a spaced called the pericardial cavity which is lubricated by pericardial fluid Thoracic cavity contains the lungs on left and right side each lined with serous membrane called pleura visceral pleura is external surface of lung and parietal pleura lines inside of rib cage narrow space between them are called pleural cavity lubricated by pleural fluid abdominopelvic cavity consist of Abdominal cavity superiorly and pelvic cavity inferiorly Abdominal cavity contains most of the digestive organs as well as the spleen kidneys and ureters Organ systems Systems of protection support and movement ntegumentary skeletal and muscular Systems of internal communication and integration Chapter 6 Integumentary System Skin hair nails cutaneous glands Dermatology study of integumentary system most well treated examined easily rst line of defense vulnerable Functions resistance to trauma and infection keratin and mantle low pH barrier functions waterproof protection against UV radiation vitamin D synthesis rst reaction in process happens in skin sensation thermoregulation regulate internal temp according to the environment gtxlt gtxlt nonverbal communication transdermal absorption absorbing patches put on skin covers almost two square meters made of epidermis and dermis epidermis stratif1ed squamous epithelium keratinized Dead cell layer on top No blood vessels nerve endings Dermis connective tissue hypodermis CT under dermis thick skin palmssoles of feet Sweat glands no hair 05 mm thickness of epidermis thin skin sweat glands hair 01 mm epidermis Cells of Epidermis Stem cells undifferentiated found in stratum basale Living keratinocytes actively dividing in stratum spinosum Dead keratinocytes in stratum comeum 0 Die off in stratum granulosum Melanocytes produce skin pigment melanin Only exist in stratum basale Tactile merkel cells touch receptors Dendritic cells langerhans immune cells of skin Layers of Epidermis Super cial to deep 1 Stratum comeum last step of production of Keratin Help with abrasion Bacteria protection Layers constantly aking off Generally leave live skin cells too 2 Stratum lucidum translucent Only found in thick skinKeritinocytes are packed with eledin 3 Stratum granulosum appear darker and purple due to accumulation of keratin keratohyalin granules Converted into eledin in this layer Still have cells with nuclei 4 Stratum spinosum several layers of kerationocytes Will start to see the production of keratin Get endridic cell immune not nervous cell 5 Stratum basale stem cells and kerotinocytes Must constantly replace Lose nucleus and gain keratin The Dermis Connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis Contains 0 Reticular bers Blood vessels Sweat glands Nerve endings bers Hair follicles 000 o Sebaceous glands oil Dermal papillae dermis contains these 0 Like the hills Epidermal ridges o The valleys The papillae and ridges create ngerprints Papillary layers super cial zone of dermis Reticular layer 0 Deeper and much thicker layer of dermis o Collagen bers have broken making stretch marks striae Hair follicles and nail roots 0 Embedded in the dermis 0 Smooth muscle piloecrector or arrector muscles associated with the hair 0 When muscle is stimulated it pulls on the hair and causes goose bumps Hypodermis Under the dermis Subcutaneous tissue Drugs introduced by injection Subcutaneous fat contains more than dermisepidermis o Reservoir for energy 0 Provides insulation 0 Tends to be thicker in females Skin Color Three pigments Melanin 0 only one produced in the skin 0 Polymer of tyrosine AA 0 In order to hook tyrosine together must use enzyme tyrosinase 0 Black 0 Melanocytes in stratum basale and spinosum 0 Two major forms of melanin I Eumelanin brownishblackish I Theomelanin reddishyellow Hemoglobin 0 Red pigment used in bloods that carries oxygen Carotene o A yellow pigment comes from veggies in the yelloworange range 0 Concentrates the stratum corneumand hypodermis Skin pigment not based on melanocytes 0 Amount of melanin 0 Ratio of melanin to melanocytes 0 Exposure to the sun to get more melanin Skin color 0 Darker skinned people produce more melanin and spread it out 0 Light skinned people produce less melanin which surrounds the nucleus 0 Used as a diagnostic value I Cyanosis blueness of skin code blue not breathing respiratory arrest I Erythema abnormal redness of skin cold weather embarrassment I Pallor pale or ashen color too little blood ow possible a cut vessel I Albinism genetic lack of melanin defect in tyrosinase enzyme Jaundice yellowing of skin and sclera look at whites of eyes of darker people Excess bilirubin in the skin gets reabsorbed in the blood Hematoma bruise Mass of clotted blood showing through skin 0 Not problematic unless because of major injury or lack of oxygen Hair and Nails Hair nails and cutaneous glands are accessory organ of the skin Hair and nails are composed of mostly dead keratinized cells 0 When you condition cells the akey dead cells lay at Pilus another name for hair pili is plural version Structure of the hair 0 Hair is divisible into 3 zones along its length I Bulb only where cells divide living cells I Root the remainder of the shaft that is under the skin I Shaft pa1t of hair above epidermis o M edulla central core contains soft keratin only pa1t that does 0 Cortex several layers 0 Cuticle like shingles on microscopic level single layers pa1t that is split end Figure 67 Structure of Hair Follice Outer connective tissue sheath Inner epithelial root sheath right next to outer CT sheath Dermal papilla area of dermis that butts up against hair shaft itself Will have nerve and blood vessels provide nutrition Will divide through mitosis The O O 0 growth center 0 Hair matrix cells that are dividing get away from nutrition source and die Types of Hair 0 Three kinds over course of our lives I Lanugo fine downy unpigmented hair that appears on the fetus Replaced by vellus I Vellus children woman I Terminal longer coarser and usually more heavily pigmented o Eyelashes pubic hair hair on head facial hair 0 Will not grow as well as older appearing thin Hair color 0 Due to varying concentration of pigment granules in the cells of the cortex I brown and black hair eumelanin I red hair has eumelanin but higher concentration of pheomelanin I blonde hair not as much pheomelanin as red not much eumelanin I grey and white hair lack of melanin cortex replaced by absence of melanin or air Hair Cycle consists of three developmental stages 0 Anagen I The start of a new cell growing in the follicle pushing out old hair I Formation of the bulge surround hair and keep there I After 8 years will pull away and become club hair 0 Catagen I Degenerative phase 0 Telogen I 13 months of resting and shedding o Alopecia thinning of the hair or baldness No replacement of terminal hair Nails 0 Hyponychium epidermis of the nail bed under the bed 0 Eponychium cuticle narrow zone of dead skin that commonly Cutaneous Glands 5 glands Sudoriferous sweat o Merocrine I Eccrine sweat glands I Most numerous skin glands palm sole forehead I Simple coiled tubular glands I Myoepithelial cells water perspiration o Myo muscle 0 Apocrine I Occur in groin anal region axilla areola bearded area in mature males Scent glands that respond to stress and sexual stimulation Develop at puberty Pheromones Bromhidrosis disagreeable body odor produced by bacterial action on fatty acids Sebaceous 0 Found all over the body except in thick skin 0 Sebum oily section produced by sebaceous glands o Lotions are made of Lanolin sheep sebum Ceruminous 0 Found only in external ear canal o Secretion of cerumen and dead cells that create cerum o Secrete ear wax that protects the ear and helps to kill bacteria Mammor 0 Milk producing glands that develop only during pregnancy and lactation o In females it actually produces milk Skin Cancer Induced by the UV rays of the sun Most often on the head and neck Three different types named from epidermal cells that originate in o Basal cell carcinoma I Most common type least dangerous because seldom metastasize I Forms from cells in stratum basale I Starts as a raised shiny bump cell 39 stratum J I Second most common I Arise from keratinocytes from stratum spinosum I Chance of recovery good I Tends to metastasize to lymph nodes I Appear on scalp start off as scaly smooth bump also cave in o Malignant melanoma melanocytes I Skin cancer that arises from melanocytes often in a preexisting mole I Metastasizes rapidly if unresponsive to chemotherapy usually fatal ABCD Rule for recognizing melanomas Chapter 11 Universal Characteristics of Muscles Responsiveness excitability Conductivity electrical charges travel rapidly along muscle bers leading to contraction Contractility shorten substantially when stimulated Extensibility able to stretch again between contractions Elasticity tendency of muscle cell to return to the original length when tension is released Skeletal muscle voluntary striated muscle that exhibits alternating light and dark transverse bands called striations Striations result from the overlapping arrangement of their internal contractile proteins A typical skeletal muscle is 100 nanometers in diameter and 3 cm long some are as thick as 500 nanometers and as long as 30 cm Collagen is neither excitable nor contractile but it is somewhat extensible and elastic Collagen can resist excess stretching and protect the muscle from injury Structure of a Muscle Fiber cell F asciclesbundles of muscle bers cells Inside cell are myo brils that are made of myo laments Multiple nuclei attened Myoblasts stem cells Fuse together to produce each muscle ber Some remain as unspecialized satellite cells between the muscle ber and endomysium Satellite cellsunspecialized give rise to myoblasts When a muscle is injured satellite cells can multiply and produce new muscle bers to some degree Mitochondria packed into spaces between myo brils Sarcolemma plasma membrane of muscle cell Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle ber Occupied by myo brils Myo brils about one nanometer in diameter consist of glycogen startchlikecarbohydgrate that provides energy for the cell during heightened levels of exercise storage form of glucose and myoglobin red pigment composed of 02 0 Each myo bril is a bundle of parallel protein micro laments called myofilaments 3 types of myo laments I Thick myosin made of several hundred myosin molecules Look like golf clubs Heads on one half of the lament angle to the left and the heads on the other half angle to the right In the middle is a bare zone with no heads I Thin actin consist of two intertwined strands of fibrous F actin Composed of a string of globular G actin Look like a string of pearls Each G actin has an active site that can bind to the head of a myosin molecule Also consists of 4060 molecules of tropomyosin 0 Regulatory proteins associated with thin laments o Contractile proteins myosin and actin do the work of shortening the muscle ber Regulatory proteinsact like a switch to determined when the ber can and cannot contract 0 I Tropomyosin sit on actin and block Ca2 binding sites when the muscle is relaxed 56 at atime I Troponin smaller calciumbinding protein that binds to tropomyosin In a relaxed muscle troponin sits on tropomyosin When excited troponin binds to Call and changes these so they roll out of the way and reveal the Ca2 bonding sites Elastic titin huge springy protein connectin o ank each thick lament and anchor it to the Z disc Helps to stabilize the thick lament 0 Right along side ofmyosin O 0 Spring like action helps prevent overstretching of muscles at least 7 other accessory proteins occur in the thick and thin laments Most clinically important is dystrophin an enormous protein located bw the sarcolemma and the outermost myo laments Key element of transferring the forces of the myo lament movement to the CT of the muscle as a whole Genetic defects lead to muscular dystrophy Sarcopaslmz39c reticulum SR smooth Allows communication Fonns a network around each myo bril Reservoir of calcium ions T tubule signals the SR when to release these calcium bursts Terminal cistemae dilated end sacs of SR Serves as reservoir for Call Transverse T tubules sarcolemma between terminal cistemae Triads2 terminal cistemae and l Ttubule together Arrangement allows rapid and spontaneous exposure to Ca2 Striations alternating light and dark transverse bands across a myo bril A bands anisotropic dArk Consists of thick laments lying side by side Darkest part is where the thick and thin laments overlap H band is in the middle of the A band H band part of A band that thin laments do not reach M line in the middle of the H band where thick laments originate I bands isotropic lIght outer ends of the sarcomere Thin laments only Z disc dark narrow bisects 1 bands Provides anchorage for the thin laments and elastic laments Sarcomere each segment of a myo bril from one Z disc to another Functional contractile unit of the muscle ber Muscle shortens because each sarcomere shortens as the Z discs are pulled closed together Sarcomere 96 96 as Organized a precise way in skeletal and cardiac muscle They distance between two Z disks delimits a sarcomere A band consists of thick and thin Re ects polarized light H band middle part of A band Thick lament only In middle of H band is Mline Bisects Region of transverse proteins Iband between A bands Elastic and thin bands Has Z disk in middle Individual sarcomeres shorten Neither laments change they just move to overlap each other no length change During shortening dystrophin and other linkng proteins transfer pull to extracellular tissues Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy The NerveMuscle Relationship Denervation atrophy shrink due to poisoned severed or unused nerve connections that are not restored Somatic motor neuronsserve skeletal muscle Cell bodies are in the brainstem and spinal cord Motor unit one nerve ber and all the muscle bers innervated by it Motor Neurons and Units gtxlt gtxlt gtxlt gtxlt Skeletal muscles are innervated by somatic motor neurons Somatic motor neurons can innervate multiple bers Somatic motor fibersaxons of somatic motor neurons innervated by one motor neuron Motor unit one nerve ber and all the muscle bers innervated by it An effective muscle contraction usually requires the activation of several motor units at once Smooth muscle innervated by visceral motor neurons Average motor unit 200 muscle bersnerve bers Small motor unit 36 muscle bersnerve ber Fine control eyes hand Large motor unit 1000 muscle bersneuron Strength more important than control gastrocnemius Bene ts of having multiple motor units in a muscle other motor units take over while the fatigued ones recover and the muscle as a whole can sustain longterm contraction Neuromuscular Junction gtxlt gtxlt Where nerve connects to muscle connects to muscle ber Motor end plate where nerve connects to ber Axon of motor nerve Synapse point where a nerve ber meets its target cell When the target cell is a muscle ber it s a NM or motor end plate Sarcolemma of the NMJ is irregularly indented so one nerve ber stimulates the muscle ber at several points with the NM Synaptic knobbulbous swelling at the end of the nerve ber knoblike appearance at the end of an axon to attach to muscle Synaptic cleftacetocholine released into here space between muscle and knob 60100 nanometers Wide Schwann cellenvelops the entire junction and isolates it from the surrounding tissue uid myelin sheath covering axon Synaptic vesiclesspheroidal organelles that are lled with Ach found in the synaptic knob Exocytosis fusion of acetocholine to membrane before travelling across cleft Acteylcholjnesterase AChE stops muscle from contracting Breaks down Ach after Ach has stimulated the muscle cell Important for allowing muscle to relax Nerve impulses travels down when it reaches knob it causes calcium ion channel to open voltage gated calcium ion channels open due to change in ion voltage Calcium goes into knob and causes acetocholine to merge with synaptic vesicles and exocytosis occurs expelling acteocholine into synaptic cleft 50 million ACh receptors in one muscle ber Incorporated into the plasma membrane Very few are found elsewhere 0 Junctional folds of sarcolemma increase SA that holds receptors therefore increasing likelihood of acetocholine bonding to muscle Muscle beneath the folds speci cally designed to the synthesis of Ach receptors and other proteins of the local sarcolemma Presynaptic membrane on knob postsynaptic membrane on muscle Basal lamina separates Schwann cell from the surrounding connective tissue Partially composed of collagen and glycoproteins Virtually fills the synaptic cleft Myasthenia gravis 39 autoimmune disease De ciency of Ach receptors Produce Ach like molecules that bind to receptors but do not excite movement Most common in women age 2040 Appears rst in facial muscles eyelids droop Trouble swallowing or walking Double vision Can be lethal if not treated o Treatments I Cholinesterase inhibitors Ach more available I Immunosuppressive agents reduce production of antibodies I Thymus removal thymectomy reduce overall immunorepressors I Plasmaphersis like dialysis Reserve any antibodies that target Ach from our blood Electrically Excitable Cells 96 96 Muscle bers and neurons Electrophysiology the study of the electrical activity of cells Voltage electrical potential a difference in electrical charge from one point to another polarized in an unstimulated resting cell there are more anions on the inside of the plasma membrane than on the outside Excess of sodium in the ECF and excess of potassium in the ICF Resting membrance potential about 90 mV maintained by sodiumpotassium pump Depolarization When a nerve or muscle is stimulated and the ion gates open diffusing sodium down its concentration 8mm mm Wumg39lmn v mm grad1ent The quotW nvvvu and nut EIFLl n01 catlons override um am the negative charges in the r n wide v An ICF and the ELEM plasma mun by snmllcr membrane am an in tlm becomes m w in 7quot A quotL A nhllu ma pos1t1ve Repolarizationsodium gates close and potassium gates open Potassium diffuses down concentration gradient turns the membrane negative again Action potentialzthis quick up and down voltage shift from negative RMP to positive value and back to negative again Sodium potassium pump maintains balance Keeps gradient Without this it would be very positive on inside and very negative on the outside In a stimulated muscle cell sodium will rush in and make inside of muscle more positive Must overcome the threshold certain amount of stimulation needed for reaction to take place 55 put enough sodium to get this number 0 l Depolarization 2 Repolarization 3 Hyperpolarization overshoots 90 0 Sodium gates open When potassium gates are closed Opposite Keeps traf c ow Behavior of Skeletal Muscle Four major phases of contraction and relaxation Exeitationprocess in which action potentials in the nerve ber lead to action potentials in the muscle ber 1 Arrival of nerve signal to synaptic knob and calcium ions enter the synaptic knob 2 Calcium stimulates release of Acetocholine Ach About 60 vesicles release 10000 molecules of Ach each 3 Ach diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to receptor proteins on the sarcolemma 4 Opening of ligandregulated ion gate sodium diffuses into the cell and potassium diffuses out The rapid uctuation creates the endplate potential 5 Opening of voltageregulated ion gates creation of action potential causes Nazl and K channels to open as well Create an action potential muscle ber is now excited Excitation Contraction Coupling events that link the action potentials on the sarcolemma to activation of the myo laments thereby preparing them to contract 6 Action potential propogated down T tubules into sarcoplasm 7 Ion gates open in T tubules Gates in the SR open and calcium released from terminal cisternae in middle of cisternae of T tubules sarcoplasm 8 Binding of calcium to troponin of the thin laments 9 Shifting of tropomyosin exposure of active sites on actin myosin head can now bond to actin Contraction muscle ber develops tension and may shorten o Sliding filament mechanism myo laments do not become shorter during contraction rather the thin laments slide over the thick ones and pull the Z discs behind them causing each sarcomere as a whole to shorten 10 Myosin ATPase hydrolyzes the ATP that is bound to the myosin head Energy released by this process cocks the head and keeps the ADP and phosphate group bound to it 1 1 Cocked myosin binds to exposed active site on the thin lament fonning a cross bridge between the myosin and actin 12 Myosin releases the ADP and phosphate and exes into a lowenergy position The myosin head pulls actin along in a power stroke 13 Myosin releases actin upon boning to more ATP It will hydrolyze ATP recock and attach to a new active site Relaxation returns to its resting length 14 Cessation of nervous stimulation and Ach release 15 Ach breakdown by acetylocholinesterase AChE 16 Calcium is pumped back from the cytosol into the cisternae Calcium binds to calsequestrin and is stored until the ber is stimulated again ATP is needed for muscle relaxation 17 Loss of calcium ions from troponin 18 Return of tropomyosin to position blocking active sites of actin Muscle ber ceases to produce or maintain tension a Ca2 removed from troponin is pumped back into SR muscle ber returns to resting length Rigor Mortis hardening of muscles and stiffening of body Muscle relaxation requires ATP within 3 hours of death 0 ATP is available because the body made it up until death There is enough to release calcium but not enough to break the cross bridge This cause contraction without relaxation ATP Sources ATP supply depends on availability of 0 Oxygen 0 Organic energy sources glucose glycogen fatty acids Two main pathways of ATP synthesis 0 Anaerobic fermentation 2 moleculesglucose produce ATP in absence of oxygen Produces toxic end product lactic acid major factor in muscle fatigue 0 Aerobic respiration 36 molecules of ATP glucose produce ATP with continual supply of oxygen Products are carbon dioxide and water Creatine phosphate accumulate in muscle Quick movement need ATP immediately Will use this because it s already stored in muscle Creatin kinase makes creatine phosphate Creatine ATP Donates phosphate to ADP to form ATP Myokinase transfers phosphate from one ADP to another converting the latter to ATP Phosphagen system ATP and CP together provide nearly all the energy use for short bursts of intense activity Glycogen lactic acid system produces enough ATP for 3040 seconds of maximum activity Pathway from glycogen to lactic acid Fatigueprogressive weakness and loss of contractility that results from prolonged use of the muscles Multiple causes 0 ATP synthesis declines as glycogen is consumed o Resting membrane potential cannot be maintained due to ATP shortage o Lactic acid lowers the pH of the sarcoplasm inhibits enzymes 0 Accumulation of extracellular potassium makes muscle less excitable o Ach is consumed leaving motor nerve bers less able to stimulate nerve bers Maximum oxygen uptake the point at which the rate of oxygen consumption reaches a plateau and does not increase further with an added workload VOZmaX proportional to body size Greater in males than females Oxygen debtthe difference between the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the elevated rate following an exercise 11L of extra oxygen consumed after strenuous exercise is used for o Replacing the body s oxygen reserves 0 Replenishing the phosphagen system o Oxidizing lactic acid 0 Serving the elevated metabolic rate Neuromuscular Toxins and Paralysis spastic paralysis a state of continual contraction of the muscle 0 pesticides contain cholinesterase inhibitors 0 tetanus lockj aw is a form of spastic spastic paralysis caused by clostridium tetani I Tetanus toxin blocks glycine release in the spinal cord and causes overstimulation and spastic paralysis of the muscles Flaccid paralysis a state in which the muscles are limp and contract 0 Curare looks like Ach and sits on receptor but does not stimulate it o Botulism food poisoning caused by a neuromuscular foxin secrete by the bacterium clostridium botulinum I Blocks release of Ach causing accid paralysis I Botox cosmetic LengthTension Relationship amount of tension generated by a muscle and the force of its contraction depends on how stretched or contacted it was before it was stimulated If the muscle laments are already overlapped you don t get maximum contraction Overly stretched does not give maximum contraction either Muscle tone the state of partial contraction monitored continually by the CNS Threshold Latent Period and Twitch Myogram muscle tension v time Threshold minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential Gastrocnemius nerve graft of a frog studied to get this info Twitch a quick cycle of contraction when stimulus is at threshold or higher Part of muscle Latent period a delay of about 2 milliseconds between the onset of the stimulus and the onset of the twitch This is the time required for excitation excitationcontraction coupling and tensing of the elastic components of the muscle Contraction phase Relaxation hase p Muscle Twitch Internal tension the force generated during the latent period but causes no shortening of the muscle Relaxation phase Latent period Muscle tension gt Time f stimulation Ti me External tension produced once the elastic components are taut during the contraction phase Contraction phase muscle produces external tension and moves a resisting object or load Relaxation phase SR quickly reabsorbs calcium and tension in muscle declines Contraction is quicker than relaxation Contraction Strength of Twitches Twitches vary depending on o Stimulation frequency Stimuli arriving close together produce stronger twitches The concentration of Ca2 in the sarcoplasm How stretched the muscle was before it was stimulated Temperature of the muscle warmed up muscle contracts more strongly pH Below normal pH leads to weaker twitches State of hydration of a muscle OOOOO Recruitment multiple motor unit MMU summation Higher voltages excite more and more nerve bers and thus stimulate more motor units to contract This is how the nervous system produces varying muscle contractions Up to 10 stimuli per second recovery period between twitches 1020 stimuli per second produces m staircase phenomenon Little recovery time Tension rises each time 2040 stimuli per second produces incomplete tetanustension increase but baseline tension also increasing temporal summation Complete tetanus 4050 stimuli per second No relaxing at all constant tension then fatigue Twitches fuse into a smooth prolonged contraction Temporal summation each new twitch piggybacks the previous one and generates higher tension Results from two stimuli arriving close together wave summation Incomplete tetanus a state of unstained uttering contraction Isometric and Isotonic Contraction Isometric contraction without a change in length Important in maintaining joint stability at rest and is a prelude to movement Isotonic contraction with a change in length Begins when intemal tension builds to the point that it overcomes the resistance Muscle shortens moves the load and maintains the same tension from then on o Concentric contraction muscle shortens as it maintains tension 0 Eccentric contraction muscle lengthens as it maintains tension 39 Classes of Muscle Fibers Slow oxidative SO slowtwitch red or type Ifibers deep red color exhibit relatively long twitches and do not fatigue easily Fast glycolytic FG fasttwitch white or type II bers quick forceful contractions relatively pale fatigue easily Important in stop and go activity Muscular Strenoth and Conditioning Depends on O 0000 O Muscular size bigger muscle more strength Fascicle arrangement Size of active motor units large motor units produce stronger contractions Multiple motor unit summation more motor units for stronger contraction Temporal summation The lengthtension relationship Fatigue Resistance exercise contraction of muscles against a load that resists movement Endurance aerobic exercise improves the fatigue resistance of the muscles Cross training incorporates elements of performance and musculoskeletal health Cardiac Muscle Characteristics of cardiac muscle 0 O O O 0 Contracts with a regular rhythm Muscle cells of a heart chamber must contract in unison so the chamber can expel blood effectively Each contraction must last long enough to expel blood from the chamber Most function in sleep and wakefulness Must be highly resistant to fatigue Striated like skeletal muscle but myocytes cadiocytes are shorter and thicker Each myocyte is joined by intercalcated discs dark lines that allow each myocyte to directly stimulate its neighbors Contains pacemaker that rhythmically sets a wave of electrical excitation Autorhythmic ability to contract rhythmically and independently Always uses aerobic respiration Sarcoplasmic reticulum less developed but T tubules are larger Fibrosis Can contract without need for nervous stimulation Autonomic nervous system does send nerve bers to the heart Uses aerobic respiration almost exclusively Smooth Muscle Rachael Jones Lecture Notes Ch 13 Atlas A see red text below for Alexia s textbook notes Chapter 1 Anatomy the study of human structure and form what you see Physiology study of function biochemistry biology chemistry genetics Together they are the foundation for advanced study in healthcare exercise physiology pathophysiology etc Focuses on development and homeostasis stable conditionquot lntro History AampP is based on observation historically People relied on what they saw Also based on location Examining the structure of the human body 4 things 1 Inspection observation through looking at something 2 Palpation feeling the body 3 Auscultation listening to the body often with a stethoscope 4 Percussion tapping on body partscavities to check for fluids or abnormalities Cadaver dissection used because no one can volunteer to be cut open for study limitations you can t give a cadaver a drug and observe the effects therefore we use animals as proxies comparative anatomy Inspection the study of form exploratory surgery surgery to look for undetermined problem or an anomaly applies only to living subjects Gross anatomy term for what you see with your eye when dealing with cadavers it is always gross anatomy never exploratory surgery cytology study of cells examine for abnormalities in cell structre electronmicroscopy microscopic anatomy histology study of tissues for abnormalities also histopathology tumos cancers etc Ultrastructure electron microscope to see fine details Medical imaging radiology xrays etc Physiology subdisciplines neurophysiology nervous system endocrinology hormones pathophysiology mechanisms of diseases comparative physiology animal testing because we can t experiment on humans Scientific Method Observation gt Inductive Reasoning and Questions gt Hypothesis gt Carry Out Experiments gt Make Predictions deductions to test and eliminate some predictions gt prove disprove or modify the hypothesis developed by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes and set standards for scientific truth Inductive Method was developed by Francis Bacon used for making numerous observations Asmalltobig approach first you make many small observations and then you generalize it Most knowledge of anatomy is obtained this way since you observe body structures HypotheticoDeductive Method more physiological knowledge gained this way Investigator asks a question formulates a hypothesis Bigtosmall approach you make a generalization and then you test to see if correct A good hypothesis should be 1 Consistent with what s already known and 2 testable and falsifiable with evidence Human Structure Hierarchy of complexity Organisms gt organ systems gt organs gt organ tissues gt cells gt organelles gt molecules gt atoms Reductionism theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components First espoused by Aristotle Holism theory that there are emergent properties of the whole organism that can t be predicted from the properties of the separate parts Humans are more than a sum of their parts Anatomical Variation No 2 humans are exactly alike 70 of people have the most common structure and 30 are anatomically variant variable number of organs missing muscles extra vertebrae variation in organ locations Physiological Variation We use a standard man and woman Reference Man 22 years old 154 lbs 70 kg light physical activity consumes 2800 KCalday Reference Woman 22 years old 128 lbs 2000 Kcalday Important bc need to adjust meds to the patient since not everyone matches the reference person esp with anesthesia Characteristics of Life distinguishing living from nonliving 1 Organization tissues to organisms etc 2 Cellular Composition 3 Metabolism Breakdown and buildup of molecules including anabolism and catabolism 4 Responsiveness and Movement respond to environment Homeostasis attempt to keep conditions stable Development embryo to adult Reproduction Evolution undergo mutations and adapt to environment CONGU39I Homeostasis body s ability to maintain same conditions body detects change and activates mechanisms to oppose it Loss of homeostasis causes illness or death Claude Bernard 18181878 first to observe that constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis dynamic equilibrium state of body fluctuates in limited range around a set point a Stimulus the signal that stimulates the receptor Receptor receives the stimulus Control Center integrator processes signal and sends instructions Effector carries out the instructions 10039 Negative feedback Stimulus causes a response in the opposite direction such as how a thermostat works Example Body Temperature receptors skin sends signal to brain control centerintegrator brain signals sweat glands effector to dilate and sweat Example Baroreceptors sensory nerve endings in heart that can make you faint if you sitstand up too fast Sitting up in bed causes a drop in blood pressure in head and upper torso Cardiac center sends signal to increase heart rate and return BP to normal Failure of this loop may produce dizziness or fainting Positive Feedback self amplifiying cycle leads to greater change in the same direction Feedback loop is repeated Usually produces a rapid response Example Childbirth blood clotting protein digestion fever and generation of nerve signals Produces rapid changes Blood Clotting a vessel breaks Chemicals are released which summon more chemicals to the area until the clot closes the wound Childbirth during birth the head of fetus stimulus on cervix receptor causes brain control center to release oxytocin effector which causes a contraction Contraction causes head of fetus to press harder on cervix so cycle continues History of Anatomical Terms naming confusion in the Renaissance same structures with different names in different countries standard international anatomical terms are from Terminological Anatomicaquot TA 90 of medical terms are from Greek and Latin roots terminology is based on word elements Root Prefix and Suffix Acronyms formed from 1st letter or 1st few letters of a series of words Calmodulin comes from calium modulating protein Important to spell medical terms precisely because sometimes a single letter can change the meaning of a word Example atrium vs atreum Atlas A Anatomical Position Palms supine facing up pronepronate facing down on back or standing flat on feet facing forward eyes open anatomical frame of reference always relative to patient left and right indicates patient s left and right not yours It never changes PositionDirectional Terms Superior everything above the waist Inferior everything belowthe waist Posterior towards the back Dorsal Anterior towards the front Ventral Rostral towards the head an injury going from waist to head rostally Caudal tail away from head Medial drawa line between eyes Going toward this midline is medial Lateral going away from the midline lpsilateral on the same side of the body Contralateral on the opposite sides of the body Superficial close to surface of skin Deep away from surface of skin Proximal closerto point of attachment in reference to limbs only Distal farther from point of attachment in reference to limbs only Major Body Regions Axial head neck trunk trunk divided into thoracic and abdominal regions Thoracic Region contains the Thoracic cavity which contains pleural cavities lungs and pericardial cavity heart Abdominal Region contains abdominal cavity digestive organs spleen kidneys and pelvic cavity bladder rectum reproductive organs Appendicular Region upper and lower limbs think appendage Abdominal Quadrants Right Upper Quadrant Left Upper Quadrant Stomach 10th rib Right Lower Quadrant Left Lower Quadrant Or can be divided into 9 regions Rt Hypochondriac Epigastric Left Hypochondriac 10th Rib Liver Gallbladder 10th Rib Rt Lumbar Umbilical Left Lumbar Lg Intestine Small intestine Large intestine Rt lnguinal Hypogastric Left lnguinal Urinary Bladder Anatomical Planes Frontal Plane makes planes from front to back typical view of chest xrays to see both lungs at once Transverse Plane bisects in planes from top to bottom typical view of brain scans so you can see both hemispheres Sagittal Plane makes planes from right to left Midsagittal Plane a special sagittal plane which bisects body into exact equal halves humans are bivalves there s only one line you can do this with in the human body side view shows bladder and uterus Body Cavities a Cranial Cavity and vertebral canal b Thoracic cavity lungs and heart Divided into i Pleural Cavity ii Pericardial cavity area around heart c Abdominopelvic cavity intestines bladder reproductive organs rectum Organ Systems total of 11 in human body a lntegumentary skin b Skeletal bone c Muscular muscles Nervous brain and nerves Endocrine hormones Cardiovascular heartblood vessals Lymphatic lymph nodes Respiratory lungs Digestive stomach intestines liver gallbladder Urinary urinary bladder kidneys Reproductive sex organs uterus Xh3939339l quot3900 Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Matter is made up of atoms Biochemistry the study of molecules that compose living organisms Elements defined as the simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 118 elements on the periodic table bodies are organic or carbonbased Major carbonbased organic molecules 1 Carbohydrates 2 Fats Lipids 3 Proteins 4 Nucleic Acids Atomic number of element number of protons in nucleus only 24 elements have a biological role but especially 6 major ones Major elements oxygen carbon hydrogen nitrogen calcium phosphorus Trace elements found in small amounts Se Si Sn V Zn Chromium Cobalt Cu F l Mn Mo Minerals they turn to ash when you burn them source of electrolytes Ca phosphorus sulfur potassium sodium chlorine magnesium lron Electrolytes and lons Calcium chloride CaCl2 gt Ca2 2Cl Disodium phosphate Na2HPO4 gt 2NA HPO42 MgCI2 gt M KCL NaHCO3 NaCI Primary lons are Na K Ca2 MgZ Chapter 5 Four Broad Categories of Tissue Differ by 1 Type and function 2 Characteristics of matrix how they connect 3 Amount of space occupied by cells v ECFmatrix ie little ECF in epithelial more ECF in connective Epithelial Connective Nervous Muscular Introduction More than 250 types of cells Organs made up of 2 types of tissues no less than two Histology microscopic anatomy Tissue a group of similar cells and cell products Matrix extracellular material composed of fibrous proteins and clear gel ground substance tissue fluid ECF tissue gel Embryonic Tissues Three primary germ layers 1 Ectoderm outer gives rise to epidermis and nervous system 2 Endoderm inner mucous membranes respiratory system 3 Mesoderm middle becomes gelatinous tissue called mesenchyme connective tissues muscle blood and bone Interpreting Tissue Sections Preparation of histological specimens 0 Fixative formalin Cannot move Change once fixed 0 Section reduces 3D structure to 2D slice 0 Stains different colors You must know where the slice was taken and on what plane 0 Tubular ovular twisted produce different looks at different places 0 Longitudinal section ls tissue cut along direction of organ 0 Cross section cs or xs or transverse section ts tissue cut to length of organ 0 Oblique section tissue cut at an angle between cross and longitudinal sections Epithelial Tissue Flat sheet of closely adhering cells One or more cells thick Usually exposed to the environment skin mouthgt anus Lines most glands Mostly cell little ECF Basement membrane layer between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue Anchors the epithelium to the CT below it Collagen heprin sulfate Basal surface touches basement membrane Apical surface exposed to outside Superficial Three classes 1 5 Simple contains one layer of cells Named by shape of cells All cells touch the basement membrane a Squamous rapid transport in blood stream b Cuboidal ducts of glands Liver kidney salivary glands c Columnar increase SA for absorption in GI tract secretions Pseudostratified all cells touch the basement membrane but not all touch apical surface a Squamous b Cuboidal c Columnar nuclei at different intervals goblet cells mucous secreting cell Stratified more than one layer Range from 220 or more layers Same cells lay directly on top of each other Lowest layer touches basement membrane but the rest do not Named by the shape of the apical cells a Squamous most widespread in body Deepest layers can t usually undergo mitosis Finally die and flake off exfoliation or desquamation i Keratinized dry Palms soles of feet face Dead cells found at surface of keratinized stratified epithelia ii Nonkeratinized moist Tongue esophagus b Cuboidal found in sweat gland ducts ovaries testes c Transitional multilayered that changes from round to flat when stretched Found in bladder ureter and umbilical cord Urethra d Stratified columnar is very rare Cell Shape 1 Squamous flat 2 Cuboidal square 3 Columnar rectangular 4 Transitional distinct layers with different cells that seem to stack Connective Tissue Occupies space to connect and support epithelial Epithelium relies on CT for blood supply Cells are spread out lots of ECF Highly vascular Most abundant Protects Tendons ligaments bone cartilage Heat protection Adipose tissue energy storage Blood is a fluid CT transportation of nutrients Four broad categories 1 Fibrous Connective Tissue a Cells Fibroblasts make fiber and ground cells macrophages engulf invading bacteria serve as scavengers leukocytes WBCs attack bacteria iv plasma cells secrete antibodies v mast cells secrete heparin to inhibit clotting and secrete histamine to dilate blood vessels Can cause congestion v adipocytes store triglycerides fat molecules not necessarily llfat tissue b fibers collagenous made of collagen most abundant 20 of all proteins Tendons and ligaments Deep layers of skin reticular collagen fibers with glycoproteins attached iv elastic protein elastin Most flexible We cannot absorb collagen through epidermis c Ground substance the filler d Types 2 Adipose Tissue Glycosaminoglycans GAG composed of unusual disaccharides called amino sugars and uronic acid Regulate water and electrolyte balance in tissues 1 Chondroitin sulfate most abundant Helps with cartilage firmness 2 Hyaluronic acid liquid in joints synovial fluid forjoint lubrication 3 Heparin inhibit blood clotting Proteoglycan holds tissues together Adhesive glycoproteins different structure that binds tissue Loose few cells more filler 1 Areolar disorganized fibers 2 Reticular silver stain to see fibers Used formalin to stiffen Winds up digesting ECF so looks like empty space Dense more cells less filler Regular wavy appearance Iquot Irregular capsule of kidney Disorganized fibers a Lipids and triglycerides in our bodies b Microscopic image appears that cell is hollow Nuclei pushed against wall c Energy storage constantly recycled d Eating high fat diet increases amount of fat in the body and the chance of lipids becoming caught in the blood vessels atherosclerosis 3 Supportive a Cartilage flexible rubbery matrix Produced by chrondroblasts Chondrocyte mature chondroblastthat are trapped in lacunae 1 Stops synthesizing cartilage at that point Perichondrium elastic and hyaline cartilage Serves as reservoir for chondroblast iv No blood vessels hard to heal v Matrix rich in GAG collagen vi Named according to type of fiber present 1 Hyaline glassy appearance Usually covered by perichondrium a ease of movement AKA articular cartilage Where bones roll over each other 2 Elastic must be specially stained Permanganate iodine 3 Fibrocartilage not covered by perichondrium ntervertebral discs Shock absorption a May get confused with muscle fibrocartilage has more nuclei and has lined up lacunae 4 Bone a Osseous Structural support b Spongycancellous bone looks spongy Marrow of bone in the middle Contains trabecullae spicules Usually covered by compact bone c Compact bone no blood vessels Edge of bone Arranged in osteons d Osteon contains i Ostocytes lay in lacunae 1 Mature osteoblast that lays down bone but stops once trapped Haversian canal central canal blood vessels and sometimes nerves iquot Canaliculi channels between lacunae for communication iv Nucleus at osteocytes v Periosteum outer covering of bone Contains osteoblasts 1 The layers that make up the osteon e Spongy bone not as organized Lots of space to be filled with blood and the matrix comm am a spongyrcanceuous am Lzmnae mum an asteucyTEs Osman c cumpacnmne 39 Wraaxuzeu uumv bane s B uudmmdcr a P zsmzSerumgwessuppun mdwtytub uud b Farmede ememsrceHszndcerrzgmean L Erythrucyle RBCS nu nuc ew u Leukucvtes WBCsMumJubed nudew m P ste etdumngcerr2gmems Newuusnssue 9 Exmmbmty membrane sthe bzswsfurthewr exmtztmn a Dwfferenceuntheumswdeufthece VSJHEWSMEUHHECEH 9 neweseHszndghz ceHsneurughzuutadeneuruns 9 neurunsmeweceHscumpuseduf a neuruaumzceHbudy a dendntes renews messages 0 exam newe ber messagetrzve sduwntu carry m my ceHs ALDr Lorenzo39s Oilquot Myelln sheath r 2mm m Win a s we Muscle Tissue a a a a a excitable membrane potential muscle changes result in contraction shortening ofthe cell skeletal muscle must have nerve stimulation to contract exert force create movement genemte body heat Skeletal thin threadrlike nuclei pushed to the side 0 Contains multiple nuclei adjacent to plasma membrane 0 Voluntary muscle 0 Usually attached to bone 0 Striations bands created by types of proteins found here 0 Le tongue and esophagus Cardiacmyocytescardiocytes o C located 39 39 39 0 Heart tends to store a lot of glycogen o Onlyfound in heart 0 Intercalated discs cells use to connect together 0 Promotes rapid communication 0 Striated and involuntary o Tend to be short Smooth o Tend to have a fusiform shape 0 Generally has one nucleus and no striations o Involuntary Visceral muscles CTv Muscle tissue more empty space in CTthan in MT Cell Junctions Connections between one cell and another 0 Metastatic cancer cells 4types ofjunctions 0 Tight region which adja nt r linked by dh 39 i proteins I Near apical poles of cell I Seals off intracellular space I Difficult for somethingto passbetween cells 0 Desmosomes patch that holds cells together I Servestokeep cells from pulling apart I Resists mechanical stress I Hooklike Jrshaped proteins arise from cytoskeleton o Gap communicating Formed bya ringlineconnegtlton Found in cardiac cells Consists of6 transmembrane proteins arranged like segments of an orange Near basal surface I Pore allows ionswaterglucoseAAother solutesto pass through W a U quotm 39 5 m m o Hemidesmosomes of a desmosome I Connects cellto basement membrane anchor Glands as as as as as as as as as a Keeps epithelium rrom being sheared orr Cellorgan elimination rrom the body Secretion Excretion lnl ugn adrenal gland pituitary gland Exocrine have ducts that allow for secretion outside of body ltear ducts mammary ducts etc Some organs have both Exocrine gland structure 0 I I U dllLl a all smaller lobules o Stroma capsule trabecullaesSupport part 0 grand r secreting it Usually cuboidal lmostly or simple columnar lei tract Simple unbranched ducts Compound branched ducts shape or gland o lti e of lumen of secretory cells 0 Acinarquot mammary Branched ductscompound Secretory part ends in dilated sacks Lacrimal pancrease salivary O J part lumllzr Glands classified o by types or secretion serous liquid lmilk tears I Mucous produce glycoproteins mucin which absorbs water to form a sticky secretion called mucus I Mixed babies blowing bubbles I Cytogenic secrete whole cells Testes sperm and ovaries egg 0 By their modes of secretion I Merocrine glands eccrine glands Release secretion by exocytosis Tear ducts gastric pancreas I Holocrine cell accumulates product and whole cell disintegrates oil glands in cell 0 scalp I Apocrine misnomer Secrete by exocytosis Generally have foul odor when mixed with bacteria axillary mammary groin o By membranes I Line body cavities and cover viscera soft internal organs I Cutaneous membrane the skin largest membrane in the body Stratified squamous epithelium Dermisthick layer of CT relatively dry I Mucous mucosa line passages that open to external environment Esophagus nose 3 layers epithelium lamina propria CT nerves and muscularis mucosae superficial to deep Layer of smooth muscle Help with movement resp tract Mucous can trap particle matter I Serous internal Peritoneal thoracic cavities Simple squamous epithileum that rest upon areolar CT and produce serous fluid ie plasma broken down Keeps cavities lined with layer of moisture prevent sticky o Endothelium blood vessels 0 Mesothelium organs I Synovial line joint cavities Knees Secrete synovial fluid Lubricatesjoints Only CT Tissue Growth Increase in the number of cells or the existing cells grow larger Hyperplasia number of cells increase Hypertrophy size of cells grow larger Neoplasia development of tumor neoplasm o Benign or malignant 0 New growth 0 Slow growing not a lot of trouble 0 Take over the tissue they reside in o Malignant purpose to stay alive and hijack blood supply The tumor is eating away and taking nutrients Tissue Development Tissues can change types within certain limits Differentiation taking an unspecified set of cells and specializing them Embryo has undifferentiated cells By Day 4 they begin to differentiate They can only become certain cells 0 Mesenchyme to muscle Metaplasia changing from one type of mature tissue to another o Psuedostratified columnar epithelium of bronchi of smokers turns to stratified squamous epithelium I Becomes drier no longer moist Dry coughing due to stiffness Stem Cells undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function 0 Embryonic stem cells I Totipotent source in cells of very early embryo Can become any type of cell Ethical issue with this I Pluripotent source is cells of inner cell mass of embryo After Day 4 can become many types of cells but not all placentaumbical cells 0 Adult Stem Cells I Some are multipotent most are unipotent I Each tissue has stem cells not yet functioning but destined to become only one type of cell I Mutlipotent blood cells WBCs RBCs I Can we take adult stem cells and reverse llthe fatequot of differentiation Tissue Repair Damaged tissue can be repaired in two ways Regeneration liver skin to some degree Fibrosis with extensive damage body replaces old cells with fibrotic tissue scar tissue o Damage to heart can cause abnormalities in blood pumping Can cause residual build up and cause pulmonary hyper tension 0 Damage to lungs can cause inability to fully exchange gases COPD fibrotic tissue in lungs When you cut yourself shows blood you cut your dermis Mast cells will secrete histamine causes blood vessels to dilate so blood with macrophagesWBCsRBCsplatelets can get to area for clotting and infection protection Granulation tissue fibrosis in CT blood vessels reconnect Repairing under the clotted blood scab Tissue Shrinkage and Death Atrophy reduction in the number or size of cells 0 Senile through normal aging cells shrink o Disuse from lack of use astronauts do not use musclebone because of zero gravity environment Can lose bone mass in only two weeks Necrosis cell tissue dies Can be traumatic injury but usually pathological toxins infection 0 Infarction sudden tissue death due to loss of blood flow 0 Gangrene dry or gas Reduced blood supply I Decubitus ulcer bed sore or pressure sore Can form gangrene I Gas gangrene anaerobic bacterial infection Smelly Can t necessarily feel it Programmed Cell Death 0 Apoptosis programmed cell death I Phagocytosis by macrophages and other cells I every cell has built in suicide program I Two proposed mechanisms 0 TNF tumor necrosis factor 0 Fas activated endonuclease enzyme chopschews DNA and protease destroys protein 0 Dies because no longer can divide or produce proteins Tissue Engineering Artificial production of tissue and organs in the lab for implantation in the human body 0 Framework of collagen or biodegradable polyester fibers 0 Attempt to mimic CT Organ Systems and Organization of the Body Exercise 2 39239 Organ systems gt There are eleven organ systems in the body gt llRun Mrs Lidecquot 1 Reproductive o Gonads o The accessory Organs 2 Urinary o The Kidneys 0 Urinary Bladder o The ureters o Urethra 0 Plays an important role in 3 Nervous 0 Brain and spinal cord 0 Numerous nerves The nervous system Muscular 0 Individual Muscles o Other functions of muscle Respiratory o Nose 0 Larynx o Trachea o Lungs Function of the system Skeletal 0 Each bone is considered an organ with The skeletal system Lymphatic Lymphatic system 0 Lymph nodes 0 Spleen o Thymus o Tonsils Major function of the lymphatic system Q Protect body from foreign particles such as gt gt gt o Immune system 39239 Consisting of an assemblage of cells that 9 5 ntegumentary o The skin The system also contains associated structures such as o The skin protects the body from Digestive Parts of the digestive system 0 Mouth 0 Esophagus o Stomach o Intestine 0 Liver Function of digestive system Endocrine System is composed of organs that produce9 o Hormones Hormones are vital in regulating Endocrine organs that are primarily endocrine glands 1 2 o Endocrine glands Organs that have dual functions 0 Pancreas o Gonads O Endocrine O Exocrine Cardiovascular Makeup of the cardiovascular system 0 Heart 0 Blood amp Blood vessels 0 Lymphatic systemsometimes included9 Cardiovascular system is primarily involved in ox ac G u nap ulvs mulpr 39l uisma 5y m 5 Ramon mum poem system v Anatomical Positions gt Vital in cIinicaIsettings because gt Anatomical positions used for humans Anteriorview view gt Anatomical lgtosition used for quadrupedstanimals 39 Lateralview Anatomical lgtlanes lgtlanes oi sectioning importance because 1 Transvershorizontalplane 2 CoronalFrontal plane 3 Sagittal plane O Median cut 0 Midsagittal plane 0 Pa rasagittal plane 39239 Directional terms I Directional terms used for Humans Term Superior Lateral Superficial Deep Ventral or Anterior Dorsal or posterior Superior nght Superior Amenm Fos enov quotmam 39 Vanlral msial inmnm W Proximal Distal ossmi Proximal 00 Body cavities gt Contains 2 major body cavities I Dorsal cavity I Divided into 1 Cranial cavity 2 Vertebral canal I Ventral cavity I Divided into 9 1 Thoracic cavity 0 Whichisdividedinto I Mediastinum I Pleural Pericardial cavities Z Abdominopelvic cavity Dividedinto I Abdominal Pelvic cavities Eng my me rm Paicardlal mm mm Dsiicmim Funeral ilanwoium Vanlvai saw may Mamian w W A Regions of the body gt In anatomical usage chzrmzl tawny I Arm gt Anatomicalterminology Upper oxlromlly Anlobmchlnl r loroarm Carpal r wrlsl Palmar rt palm Lower extremity Coxnl I hlp 39 Pnlollnr 10mm Cnphnllc I head 7 Fnclnl r face 7 7 gt Umblllcal I r Abdomlnal I lngulnal r gmln Mons pubis External gonlmlln Lower oxlmmlly Femoral r lhlgh Cruml I Inc Plantar Iuduco solo 4ead houlder ace rmpit orehead rm Iye Ibow Iar orearm nose Wrist n outh Palm cheek Fingers chin buttocks s u t ig eck Anterior knee Chest Posterior knee Breast Ankle Abdomen Foot I Naval I Genital area I Groin Cranlal r Nuchal I back at neck Inlencapuiar r Scapu at r Venobral r Lumbar v Sacral r G luieal r buttock Darsum ol hand Pellmml r Femoral r gt Abdominal region I Divided into either Four quadrants I Clinicians typically use 1 Right upper quadrant 2 Left upperquadrant 3 Right lower quadrant 4 Left lower quadrant Nine regions I Anatomists generally use 1 Right hypochondriac 2 Left hypochondriac 3 Epigastric Chapter 8 Skeletal System Iv Axial skeleton skull auditory ossicles vertebral column thoracic cage sacrum and hyoid bone located under the chin 0 Central supporting axis of the body ilk Appendicular skeleton upper limbs pectoral girdle lower limbs pelvic girdle 4v ABOUT 206 bones in the body 70 ofpeople O O Sesamoid bones patella Develop within tendons due to stress on the body Sutural b0neswormian Extra bones in the skull Between plates ie skull 4 270 bones at birth bones fuse together in skull 4 Surface markings ridges spines bumps depressions canals pores slits cavities and articular surfaces The Skull 39i Most complex part of the skeleton is 22 bones joined together by sutures immovable joints Visible on the seams of the surface 4 Contains several cavities 0 00000 cranial cavity surrounded by 8 bones which encloses the brain nasal orbital eye sockets oral buccal Mouth Middle and innerear cavities Paranasal sinuses frontal sphenoid ethmoid and maxillary Lined by mucous membranes and filled with air Act as chambers that add resonance to the voice 5 Foramina openings in the skull for blood vessels nerves etc i 14 facial bones support teeth facial and jaw muscles Cranial bones O O O Cranium braincase Protects the brain and associated sense organs Rigid structure with the forarnen magnum spinal cord entrance I Foramen Magnum where the brain stem meets the brain I Meninges separate cranial bones from brain Three membranes 0 Dura mater thicket toughest rmly attached Calvaria skull cap Cranial base Cranial base divided into three basins fossas that comprise the cranial oor I Anterior cranial fossa crescent shaped accommodates frontal lobes of brain Middle cranial fossa shaped like outstretched wings accommodates temporal lobes deeper than anterior fossa Posterior cranial fossa deepest houses cerebellum O O O O O 1 frontalforms anterior wall has ridge called the supraorbital margin The center of each margin is perforate by a single supraorbitalforamen which provides a passage for nerve arteries and veins Smooth area above the root of the nose is called the glabella 2 parietalform most of the cranial roof and part of its walls Contains a sagittal suture coronal suture lamdoid suture and squamous suture Parietal foramen and temporal lines 2 temporal lower wall and part of the oor of the cranial cavity Can be divided into four parts I Squamous part I Tympanic part I Mastoid part I Petrous part 1 occipital forms the rear of the skull and much of its base 1 sphenoid can be best seen from the superior perspective Body has a saddlelike prominence named sellaturcica that holds the pituitary gland I Greater wings I Lesser Wings 1 ethmoid anterior cranial bone located between the eyes Has 3 major portions I Perpendicular plate divides nasal cavity into right and left nasal fossae I Cribriforrn plate forms the roof of the nasal cavity I Labyrinth large mass constitutes ethmoid sinus gives rise to nasal conchae 4L Facial bones have no direct contact with the brain or meninges 0 00000 O O 2 maxillae largest facial bones Form upper jaw 2 palentine form rest of hard palate part of nasal cavity and orbital oor 2 zygomatic angles of the cheeks 2 lacrimal form part of the medial wall of each orbit Smallest bones of the skull 1 V0merforms interior half of nasal septum 2 inferior nasal conchae I Broken up into superior middle both part of ethmoid and inferior separate bone portions 2 nasal rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose 1 mandible strongest bone of the skull only one that can move noticeably two separate bones at birth but joined by mental symphysis lr Bones associated with the Skull 0 O Auditory ossicles malleus incus and stapes H yoz39d does not articulate with any other bone in the body U shaped I Fractured hyoid bone is evidence of strangulation 5 Skull in Infancy and Childhood O O O Spaces between the unfused cranial bones are called fonatels Skull grows more rapidly than the rest of the skeleton during childhood Skull reaches full size by about age 89 The Vertebral Column 3 Functions attachment limbs movement support for bacldbrainskull i 33 vertebrae with intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage between most of them 4e 71 cm long average adult column intervertebral discs account for 14 of the length i General structure of vertebrae O 0000 Body centrum of vertebrae a mass of spongy bone and red bone marrow covered with a thin shell of compact bone Weight bearing portion of the vertebrae Rough surfaces for attachment Vertebral foramen triangular canal that forms passageway for spinal cord Vertebral arch borders foramen made of lamina and pedicles Spinous process projection directed posteriorly and downward Transverse process extends laterally provides point of attachment for ligaments and spinal muscles Superior articular processes projects upward to meet inferior articular process of above vertebrae Restrict twisting that could damage spinal cord Intervertebral foramen allows passage of spinal nerves that connect with the spinal cord Found between two joined vertebrae 4amp Five vertebral groups 0 O Cervical 7 0 Atlas articulates with cranium at atlantooccipital joint Cartilage forms superior articular facet No body Supports head 0 Axis articulates with Cl at atlantoaXial joinHas dens This is speci cally what articulates with atlas Held in place by transverse ligament Small body Spinous process is bifrdforked 0 C7 called vertebra prominens Spinous process is long and forms a prominent bump on the lower back of the neck Thoracic 12 0 Spinous process angled downward 0 Lack transverse foramina and bifid process 0 Body is somewhat heartshaped and more massive than cervical vertebrae but not as large as lumbar 0 Costal facets for attachment of ribs 39239 Does the same rib articulate with both transverse and superior facets of one vertebrae No 0 Vertebrae T1 to T10 have transverse costal facet 0 Rib inserts between two vertebrae Articulates with inferior costal facet of upper vertebra and superior costal facet of lower vertebra o Lumbar 5 0 Superior articular processes face medially 0 Thick stout body and blunt squarishspinous process 0 Especially resistant to twisting o Sacrum 5 fused bones 0 Boney plate that forms posterior wall of pelvic girdle Five bones begin to fuse at age 16 and are fully fused at age 26 Anterior surface of sacrum smooth and concave Sacral canal ends in the sacral hiatus Contains spinal nerve roots Sacral prometory articulates with L5 00000 Superior articular processes on Sl articulate with L5 0 alae winglike extensions on lateral ends 0 Coccyx 4 fused bones 0 Tip of sacrum 0 Fuse into single triangular bone by age 2030 0 Horns comua on Colligaments attach here keep pelvic girdle together 0 Can be fractured during childbirth 0 Provides place of attachment for pelvic muscle is At night you re about 1 shorter than you will be when you wake up due to loss of H20 in discs over course of day due to pressure Lateral Side Posterior Back 4 Normal curves of the spine Spinal Column Spinal Column 0 Primary curvature one continous C shaped curve at birth cervical 39 0 Thoracic and pelvic 0 Secondary curvature develop later Thoracic 0 S shaped vertebral column with four normal curvatures 39239 Cervical develops when you start holding your head Lumbar up 39239 Thoracic exists from birth 53mm primary v Coccyx 39239 Lumbar develops when a toddler begins walking 39239 Pelvic exists from birth primary r Abnormal curves of the spine O Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature Most common usually in thoracic region Can be corrected with surgery Kyphosis widow s back Hunchback Usually from osteoporosis Can always be caused by osteomalacia or spinal tuberculosis Lordosis sway back Exaggerated lumbar curvature 4i Intervertebral Discs 0 0 OOO Nucleus pulpous inner gelatinous area Annulus fibrosus outer ring of ber 23 discs first found between C2 and C3 Last found between L5 and sacrum Support weight of body absorb shock Herniation the annulus has worn awaybeen broken so the nucleus pulpous spills out and comes in contact with spinal nerves Causes pain Can be due to excessive stress I Some only slightly herniated so no pain Spina bifida failure to form a complete vertebral arm I M yelomem39ngocele most common type Outpocketing of covering of spinal cord and spinal cord in cyst Hard to surgically repair Spinal cord not completely protected M eningoceles cyst without the cord in the cyst spina bifida occulta incomplete formation dimple in skin Not usually surgically treated because it s not serious Most often in lumbar area Spinal uid fills cystpocket 5 Thoracic Cage O 0000 Thoracic vertebrae sternum and ribs Rhythmically expanded by respiratory muscles to draw air into lungs Costal margin lower border of ribs Raising cage lowers pressure allowing lungs to expand Ribs protect thoracic organs spleen liver kidneys Stemum I Breast bone I M anubrium articulates with clavicles Broad superior portion I Body gladiolus I Xiphoid process abdominal muscles attach here Can break during CPR Can puncture liver if broken Ribs 12 pairs Head portion of rib that articulates with thoracic vertebrae Costal cartilage helps anterior attachment Increase in length from 17 then become progressively smaller from 1012 Rib l C shaped and short Ribs 210 Head articulates with body of vertebrae than narrows to a neck that widens again to form the tubercle Beyond the tubercle each rib makes a sharp curve around the side of the torso called the angle The rib attens and widens into a shaft that ends distally and attaches to costal cartilage Ribs llampl2 do not have tubercles and do not attach to the transverse processes of the vertebrae Have no transverse costal facets Different ribs touch superior inferior costal cartilage of one vertebrae Superior articular facet articulate with inferior CF of T Inferior articular facet articulates with superior CF of Tl True ribs 17 Directly attached to the sternum False ribs 812 Attached to sternum but not directly Share the same cartilage attachment Floating ribs 1112 Articulate with bodies of T11 and T12 but do not attach to the cartilage that attaches to the sternum Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle o Shoulder girdle supports arm 0 Clavicle collar bone Most broken bone I Sternoclavicular stemumclavicle joint I Acromioclavicular scapularclavicle joint 0 Scapula shoulder bone I Glenohumeral shoulder joint Most dislocated o Rotator cuff lots of ligaments 41 Upper Extremity o Brachium humerus o Antebrachium radius andulna I Interosseous membrane between radius and ulna o Carpals 8 wrist bones scaphoid lunatetriquetrum pisiform trapezium trapezoid capitate hamate o Metalcarpals listed 15 polluX not included intermediate 0 Phalange o Manushand 5L Pelvic Girdle o Bowlshaped formed by 2 coccyl oscoxae ossacoxae inominate bone bones I Sacrum and cocch too 0 Ilium ischium and pubis fuse together at birth to make one bone 0 Pubic symphysis brocartilage CBIO 2200 Tuesday August 21st Chemistry of Life Measures of concentration How much solute in a given volume Weight Per volume weight of solute in given volume of solution IV saline 85 g NaCl per liter of solution Biological purposes milligrams per deciliter MgdL deciliter100 mL Percentages Weightcolumes of solute in solution IV DW 5 wv dextrose in distilled water 5 g dextrose and ll to 100 mL water Molarityiknown number of molecules per volume Moles of solute liter of solution Physiologic effects based on number of molecules in solution not on weight An acid is a proton donorreleases H plus ions in water A base is a proton acceptor accepts H plus ions pH is a measure derived from the molarity of H plus A pH of 7 is neutral pH HOH A pH if less than 7 is acidic solution Hgt OH A pH of greater than 7 is basic solution OHgtH pHa measurement of molarity of H on a logarithmic scale pH scale invented by Soren Sorensen in 1909 to measure acidity of beer pHlogh thus pHlog lOnegative 33 A change of one number on the pH scale represents a 10fold change in H concentration A solution with pH of 40 is 1 times as acidic as one with pH of 50 Our body uses buffers to resist changes in pH Slight pH disturbances can disrupt physiological functions and alter drug actions pH ofblood ranges from 735 to 745 Deviations from this range cause tremors paralysis or even death EX wine 2435 water 7 household ammonia 105110 Chemical reactionsa process in which a covalent or ionic bond is formed or broke Chemical equationisymbolizes the course of a chemical reaction Reactants on leftiproducts on right Classes of chemical reactions Decompositionsdissolving salt in water large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones Synthesisi two or more small molecules combine to form a large one Exchange reactionsitwo molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms Stomach acid and sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas combine to form NaCl and H2CO3 Reversible reactions Can go in either direction under different circumstances Symbolized with doubled headed arrow Most common equation discussed in this book Respiratory urinary and digestive physiology Reaction rates affected by Concentration Reaction rates increases when the reactants are more concentrated Temperature Reaction rates increase when the temperature rises Catalystssubstances that temporarily bond to reactants hold them in favorable position to react with each other and may change the shapes of reactants in ways that make them more likely to react Speed up rations without permanent change to itself Hold reactant molecules in correct orientation Catalyst not permanently consumed or changed by the reaction All chemical reactions of the body Catabolism Energyreleasing exergonic decomposition reactions Breaks covalent bonds Produces smaller molecules Releases useful energy Anabolismenergy storing endergonic synthesis reactions REQUIRES ENERGY INPUT PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN OR FAT Driven by energy that catabolism releases Catabolism and anabolism are inseparably linked Organic chemistryithe study of compounds containing carbon Four categories of carbon compounds Carbohydrate Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids composed of nucleotides Macromoleculesivery large organic molecules Very high molecular weights Proteins DNA Polymersimolecules made of repetitive series of identical oor similar subunits monomers Starch is a polymer of about 3000 glucose monomers Monomerssingular subunits Polymerizationj oining monomers to form a polymer Dehydration synthesis condensation is how living cells form polymers A hydroqu OH group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from another Producing water as abyproduct Hydrolysisioppoiste of dehydration synthsis A water molecule ionizes in OH and H The covalent bond linking one monomer to the other is broken OH is added to one monomer His added to the other Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule Splitting a polymer lysis by the addition of a water molecule hydro Four categories of carbon compounds Carbohydrate Hydrophilic organic molecule CH sub 2 0 sub 11 11 number of carbon atoms Names of Carbohydrates often built from Root sacchar Suf x fose Both mean sugar or swee Monosaccharide or glucose Three important monosacchrides Glucose galactose and fructose Produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates Glucose is blood sugar Disaccharidesugar molecule composed of two monosaccharides Three important disaccharides Sucroseitable sugar glucosefructrose Lactosesugar in milk glucosegalactose Maltoseigrain products clucoseglucose Oligosacchridesshort chains of 3 or more monosaccharides Three polysaccharides of interest in humans Gylcogengenergy storage in animals made by cells of liver muscles and brain Starchienergy stored in plants human diet Cellulosegstructural molecule of plant cell walls ber in our diet Lipids Hydrophobic organic molecule Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Less oxidized than carbohydrates and thus has more calories gram Five primary types Fatty acids Triglycerides Phospholipids Eicosaniods Steriods Triglycerides Neutral Fats Three fatty acids covalently bonded to threecarbon alcohol called glycerol Each bond formed by dehydration synthesis Triglycerides at room temperature Liquidoils good Solidfat not good Primary functionienergy storage insulation and shock absorption adipose tissue Classi ed Saturatedgcarbon atoms saturated with hydrogen Unsaturatedgcontains CC bonds without hydrogen double bonds one would be monosaturated Polyunsaturatedicontains several CC bonds Essential fatty acidsgobtained from diet body cannot synthesize Transfatty acids Raises the risk of heart disease Bad for you Cisfatty acids Eicosaniods720 carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid Hormone like chemical signals between cells Includes prostaglandinsiproduced in all tissues Role in in ammation blood clotting hormone action labor contractions blood vessel diameter Steriodia lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in four rings Cholesterolithe parent steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized Cortisol progesterone estrogens testosterone and bile acids Synthesized only by animals Important component of cell membranes Required for proper nervous system function One kind of cholesterol Does far more good than harm Good and bad cholesterol actually refers to droplets of lipoprotein in the blood Complexes of cholesterol fat phospholipid and protein HDLi good Lower ratio of lipid to protein May help prevent cardiovascular disease LDLi bad High ratio of lipid protein Contributes to cardiovascular disease Protein Proteinia polymer of amino acids Most versatile molecule in the body Amino acids has a central carbon with three attachments Amino group NH sub 2 carboxyl group and radical group R group 20 amino acids used to make the proteins are identical except for the radical group gives amino acid its identity and dictates its function Peptideany molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds Peptide bondsjoins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next Formed by dehydration synthesis Peptide named for the number of amino acids Dipedtides have 2 Tripeptdes have 3 Oligopeptides have fewer than 10 to 15 Polypeptides Proteins Primary structuresequence of amino acids Secondaryalpha helix or beta sheets formed by hydrogen bond Tertiaryhow does the protein fold Quaternarydoes the protein is it made up of subunits to function Three components of nucleotides Nitrogenous base single or double carbonnitro gen ring Sugar monosacchrides One or more phosphate groups ATPibestknown nucleotide Adenine nitrogenous base Ribose sugar Phosphate groups 3 ATPBody s most important energyitransfer molecule Brie y stores energy gained from exergonic reactions Releases it within seconds for physiological work Holds energy in covalent bonds Take in glucose with oxygen breaks down to carbohydrates and water which release energy which is used for ADPP and ATP which is available for the body Stages of glucose oxidation Glycolysis Anaerobic fermentation no 0 available Aerobic respiration 0 available Mitochrondrion eP NH Cyanide halts ATP synthesis Guanosine triphosphate GTP Another nucleotide involved in energy transfer Cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP Formation triggerd by hormone binding to cell surface cAMP becomes second messenger Activates metabolic effect inside cell Chapter 15 I Overview of ANS a b O Selfgoveming happen automatically Visceral motor division aka ANS i Sympathetic division 1 Prepares body for physical activity ii Parasympathetic division 1 Calms many body functions Responsible for body s visceral re exes i Visceral re ex arc l Receptors 2 Afferent neurons 3 Intemeruons 4 Efferent neurons 5 Effectors d Most organs innervated by pa 1 quot in and quot quot bers quot they have cooperative same effect but sometimes they have antagonist opposite effect 11 Autonomic effects on target organs a Neurotransmitters and their receptors i How can different autonomic neurons have different effects constricting some vessels but dilating others Effects determined by 1 Types of neurotransmitters release and 2 Types of receptors found on target cells Cholinergic bers 1 All preganglionic neurons release ACh in paraampsym ii39 iv Cholinergic receptor receptor of ACh 1 All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release ACh sympathetic postganglionic release ACh or norepinephrine 2 Two types a Nicotinic receptors stimulated by nicotine Almost always excitatory b Muscarinic receptors Norepinephrine is secreted by many sympathetic postganglionic neurons 1 Adrenergic bers lt 2 Adrenergic receptors a Alphaadrenergic receptors usually excitatory b Betaadrenergic receptors usually inhibitory Pages 562575 Visceral Re exesNeurotransmitters Chapter 16 1 Hearing a Properties and types of sensory receptors i Sensory receptor i Transduction energy the brain can use iii Receptor potential 1 Strong receptor potential gt action potential iv Sensation V Must turn sound waves into something that the brain can read nerve stimuli b General properties of receptors i Sensory receptors transmit 4 kinds of information 1 Modality 2 Location 3 Intensity 4 Duration c Hearing i Outer ear 1 Auricle cartilage 2 Auditory canal passageway from outer ear to tympanic membrane 3 EXtemal acoustic meatus opening of auditory canal ii Inner ear 1 Housed in bony labyrinth 2 Membranous labyrinth a Filled with endolymph b Floating in perilymph 3 Vestibule a Saccule b Utricle 4 Cochlea organ of hearing Transduction of sound waves a Damage to hairs can cause hearing loss Snail like Scala vestibule 996 Scala media cochlear duct has hairs that are in contact with basilar membrane When basilar membrane is stimulated it move stimulating the hairs which end in Atlas A Superior above waistline In erior below waistline Anterior front of body ventral Posterior back of body dorsal Rostra head towards the head Cauda tail towards the tail Median midline Lateral going away from the midline Ipsilateral same side of the body Contralateral on opposite sides of the body Superficial closer to the surface of the body Deep farther more inward body AXia region head neck amp trunk thoracic abdominal Appendieular region limbs Right Epigastric Left Hypochondriac Hypochondriac Right Umbilical Left Lumbar Lumbar Region Right Hypo gastric Left Inguinal pubic Inguinal Organs Liver Stomach gallbladder R kidney L intestine S L Kidney intenstine Pancreas Urinary bladder urethra CBIO 2200 Tuesday August 21st Chemistry of Life Measures of concentration How much solute in a given volume Weight Per volume weight of solute in given volume of solution IV saline 85 g NaCl per liter of solution Biological purposes milligrams per deciliter MgdL deciliter100 mL Percentages Weightcolumes of solute in solution IV DW 5 wv dextrose in distilled water 5 g dextrose and ll to 100 mL water Molarityiknown number of molecules per volume Moles of solute liter of solution Physiologic effects based on number of molecules in solution not on weight An acid is a proton donorreleases H plus ions in water A base is a proton acceptor accepts H plus ions pH is a measure derived from the molarity of H plus A pH of 7 is neutral pH HOH A pH if less than 7 is acidic solution Hgt OH A pH of greater than 7 is basic solution OHgtH pHa measurement of molarity of H on a logarithmic scale pH scale invented by Soren Sorensen in 1909 to measure acidity of beer pHlogh thus pHlog lOnegative 33 A change of one number on the pH scale represents a 10fold change in H concentration A solution with pH of 40 is 1 times as acidic as one with pH of 50 Our body uses buffers to resist changes in pH Slight pH disturbances can disrupt physiological functions and alter drug actions pH ofblood ranges from 735 to 745 Deviations from this range cause tremors paralysis or even death EX wine 2435 water 7 household ammonia 105110 Chemical reactionsa process in which a covalent or ionic bond is formed or broke Chemical equationisymbolizes the course of a chemical reaction Reactants on leftiproducts on right Classes of chemical reactions Decompositionsdissolving salt in water large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones Synthesisi two or more small molecules combine to form a large one Exchange reactionsitwo molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms Stomach acid and sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas combine to form NaCl and H2CO3 Reversible reactions Can go in either direction under different circumstances Symbolized with doubled headed arrow Most common equation discussed in this book Respiratory urinary and digestive physiology Reaction rates affected by Concentration Reaction rates increases when the reactants are more concentrated Temperature Reaction rates increase when the temperature rises Catalystssubstances that temporarily bond to reactants hold them in favorable position to react with each other and may change the shapes of reactants in ways that make them more likely to react Speed up rations without permanent change to itself Hold reactant molecules in correct orientation Catalyst not permanently consumed or changed by the reaction All chemical reactions of the body Catabolism Energyreleasing exergonic decomposition reactions Breaks covalent bonds Produces smaller molecules Releases useful energy Anabolismenergy storing endergonic synthesis reactions REQUIRES ENERGY INPUT PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN OR FAT Driven by energy that catabolism releases Catabolism and anabolism are inseparably linked Organic chemistryithe study of compounds containing carbon Four categories of carbon compounds Carbohydrate Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids composed of nucleotides Macromoleculesivery large organic molecules Very high molecular weights Proteins DNA Polymersimolecules made of repetitive series of identical oor similar subunits monomers Starch is a polymer of about 3000 glucose monomers Monomerssingular subunits Polymerizationj oining monomers to form a polymer Dehydration synthesis condensation is how living cells form polymers A hydroqu OH group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from another Producing water as abyproduct Hydrolysisioppoiste of dehydration synthsis A water molecule ionizes in OH and H The covalent bond linking one monomer to the other is broken OH is added to one monomer His added to the other Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule Splitting a polymer lysis by the addition of a water molecule hydro Four categories of carbon compounds Carbohydrate Hydrophilic organic molecule CH sub 2 0 sub 11 11 number of carbon atoms Names of Carbohydrates often built from Root sacchar Suf x fose Both mean sugar or swee Monosaccharide or glucose Three important monosacchrides Glucose galactose and fructose Produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates Glucose is blood sugar Disaccharidesugar molecule composed of two monosaccharides Three important disaccharides Sucroseitable sugar glucosefructrose Lactosesugar in milk glucosegalactose Maltoseigrain products clucoseglucose Oligosacchridesshort chains of 3 or more monosaccharides Three polysaccharides of interest in humans Gylcogengenergy storage in animals made by cells of liver muscles and brain Starchienergy stored in plants human diet Cellulosegstructural molecule of plant cell walls ber in our diet Lipids Hydrophobic organic molecule Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Less oxidized than carbohydrates and thus has more calories gram Five primary types Fatty acids Triglycerides Phospholipids Eicosaniods Steriods Triglycerides Neutral Fats Three fatty acids covalently bonded to threecarbon alcohol called glycerol Each bond formed by dehydration synthesis Triglycerides at room temperature Liquidoils good Solidfat not good Primary functionienergy storage insulation and shock absorption adipose tissue Classi ed Saturatedgcarbon atoms saturated with hydrogen Unsaturatedgcontains CC bonds without hydrogen double bonds one would be monosaturated Polyunsaturatedicontains several CC bonds Essential fatty acidsgobtained from diet body cannot synthesize Transfatty acids Raises the risk of heart disease Bad for you Cisfatty acids Eicosaniods720 carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called arachidonic acid Hormone like chemical signals between cells Includes prostaglandinsiproduced in all tissues Role in in ammation blood clotting hormone action labor contractions blood vessel diameter Steriodia lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in four rings Cholesterolithe parent steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized Cortisol progesterone estrogens testosterone and bile acids Synthesized only by animals Important component of cell membranes Required for proper nervous system function One kind of cholesterol Does far more good than harm Good and bad cholesterol actually refers to droplets of lipoprotein in the blood Complexes of cholesterol fat phospholipid and protein HDLi good Lower ratio of lipid to protein May help prevent cardiovascular disease LDLi bad High ratio of lipid protein Contributes to cardiovascular disease Protein Proteinia polymer of amino acids Most versatile molecule in the body Amino acids has a central carbon with three attachments Amino group NH sub 2 carboxyl group and radical group R group 20 amino acids used to make the proteins are identical except for the radical group gives amino acid its identity and dictates its function Peptideany molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds Peptide bondsjoins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next Formed by dehydration synthesis Peptide named for the number of amino acids Dipedtides have 2 Tripeptdes have 3 Oligopeptides have fewer than 10 to 15 Polypeptides Proteins Primary structuresequence of amino acids Secondaryalpha helix or beta sheets formed by hydrogen bond Tertiaryhow does the protein fold Quaternarydoes the protein is it made up of subunits to function Three components of nucleotides Nitrogenous base single or double carbonnitro gen ring Sugar monosacchrides One or more phosphate groups ATPibestknown nucleotide Adenine nitrogenous base Ribose sugar Phosphate groups 3 ATPBody s most important energyitransfer molecule Brie y stores energy gained from exergonic reactions Releases it within seconds for physiological work Holds energy in covalent bonds Take in glucose with oxygen breaks down to carbohydrates and water which release energy which is used for ADPP and ATP which is available for the body Stages of glucose oxidation Glycolysis Anaerobic fermentation no 0 available Aerobic respiration 0 available Mitochrondrion eP NH Cyanide halts ATP synthesis Guanosine triphosphate GTP Another nucleotide involved in energy transfer Cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP Formation triggerd by hormone binding to cell surface cAMP becomes second messenger Activates metabolic effect inside cell Chapter One 0 Anatomy is the study of form and structure 0 Physiology is the study of function 0 Examining the structure of the body 0 Inspection Palpation Auscultation Percussion OOO Cadaver dissection most of what we know about the body and its function come from cadavers is the cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships 0 Comparative anatomy I Study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences to anayxe evolutionary trends animals compared to humans 0 Ex pig heart valves are comparable to humans and have been used in humans 0 Inspection 0 Exploratory surgery 0 Medical imaging 0 Gross anatomy o Cytology cells 0 Histology tissue microscopic anatomy o Ultrastructure Q Histopathology o Physiology function 0 Subdisciplines I Neurophysiology I Endocrinology I Pathophysiology 0 Comparative Physiology I Limitations on human experiments 0 The HypotheticoDeductive Method I More physiology knowledge is gained by this method I Investigators ask a questions I Then formulate a hypothesis educated speculation or possible answer to the question 0 Characteristics of a good hypothesis 0 Consistent with that is already known 0 Testable amp possibly falsifiable with evidence 0 Scientific Method 0 Driven by observations 0 Observations 9 Inductive reasoning amp Questions testable hypothesis carry out experiments start to make some predictions deductions to test amp eliminate some predictions 0 Hierarchy of complexity o Organisms are composed of organ systems 0 Organ systems are composed of organs 0 Organs are composed of tissues 0 Tissues are composed of cells 0 Cells are composed of organelles o Organelles are composed of molecules 0 Molecules are composed of atoms 0 2 theories 0 1 reductionism I Given a large complex system body the only way to study that body is to study its simple components I an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things I position that a complex system is nothing but the sum of its parts and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents I Reductionism in science says that a complex system can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts For example the processes of biology are reducible to chemistry and the laws of chemistry are explained by physics 0 2 holism I Cannot predict anything about a body by studying its parts instead you need to look at the organism as a whole I the idea that natural systems physical biological chemical social economic mental linguistic etc and their properties should be viewed as wholes not as collections of parts This often includes the View that systems somehow function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts 0 Anatomical Variations 0 Variations do not always mean pathology 0 Anatomical pictures only represent about 70 of the population I Examples 0 Kidneys pelvic amp horseshoe 0 Heart aorta and branching variations 0 Characteristics of Life 0 Distinguisheslivingthings I Organization I Cellular composition I Metabolism I Responsiveness amp movement I Homeostasis I Development Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Chemistry biochemistry study of molecules that compose living organisms ltgt ie carbohydrates fats lipids proteins and nucleic acids 0 organic carbon based Elements 0 2 elements have a biological role 0 OCHNCaP make up 99 ofthe human body 0 Trace elements Co Cu I Mn Si Zn 0 Lesser Elements S K Na Cl Mg Fe 0 Minerals S K Na Cl Mg Fe Ca P inorganic elements that turn to ash when burned Electrolytes ltgt CaClQ NaQHPOl Mng KCl NaHCOs NaCl 0 Classi ed as ions Na Kt Ca 0 Used for structure and as enzymes Atomic Theory 0 John Dalton ltgt Matter cannot be destroyed can only be combined or rearranged ltgt Neils Bohr planetary model of the atom ltgt Isotopes have different number of neutrons o ie deuterium Hydrogen 2 Tritium Hydrogen 3 0 when isotopes become unstable and decay it can produce 39 alpha particles cannot penetrate skin 2 protons and 2 neutrons 39 beta particles penetrates a few mm of skin free electron 39 gamma particles dangerously penetrating From uranium and plutonium ltgt Madame Curie coined phrase radioactivity Nobel Prize 1903 Half Life 0 Physical time needed for 50 of substance to decay Hydrogen 3 is 12 years 0 Biological length of time to eliminate half ofa radioactive substance to be biologically eliminated from body 30 1118 ltgt Ionic cationamp anion ltgt Covalent share 0 Hydrogen H bonds to a molecule in another compound weak polar 0 Van der Waals weak bonds between neutral atoms m 0 50 70 of our bodies are made of water 0 Solvent cohesion adhesion chemical reactivity thermal stability 0 Hydrophilic substances dissolve in water 0 Hydrophobic substances do not dissolve in water Water ionizes selfand others Hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis Stabilizes internal temperature high heat capacity Effective coolant ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt 1 calorie amount of heat that raises temp of 1 g by 1 degree C o 1 Cal1 kcal 1000 cal Acids and Bases Acid HJr Base OH HOH ph of 7 HgtOH ph oflt7 HltOH ph ofgt7 pH measure molarity of H r change 1 number of the pH scale represents a 10 fold change in H r ltgtltgt ltgtltgtltgtltgt concentration 0 buffers resist change in pH 735 746 Reactions 0 decomposition breaking down a compound AB gtA B digestive processes synthesis creating molecules A B gt AB amino acids forming proteins exchange AB CD gt AC BD reversible COQ HQOlt gtH2CO3lt gtHCOS39 H metabolism ltgtltgtltgtltgt o cataboljsm energy releasing decomposition reaction 0 anabolism energy storing synthesis reaction Macromolecules ltgt polymers formed by dehydration synthesis Many units 0 monomers formed by hydrolysis One unit Covalently bonded together to form a polymer With removal of water 0 mer unit ie dimer and trimer Enzymes 0 Speed up the rates of reactions 0 Enzyme remains unchanged 0 Enzyme substrate complex highly speci c fit lock and key Carbon C Functional Groups 0 4lt categories of carbon compounds 0 Carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids Carbohydrates Hydrophiljc organic molecules dissolve in water CHeOn Root name sacchar sugar or suf x ose sugar 0000 Monosaccharides o Glucose galactose and fructose o Produced by digestion of complex carbs 0 Disaccharides 0 Sugar r J ofe ides o Sucrose table sugar glucose fructose o Lactose sugar in milk glucose galactose o Maltose grain products glucose glucose 0 We consume most of our sugar in the form of dissacharides 0 Olgiosaccharide 3 units 0 Polysaccharide large 50 units 0 3 found in humans 39 Glycogen made of glucose Energy storage in animals 0 Made by cells of liver muscles brain uterus and vagina 39 Starch energy storage polysaccharide in plants 39 Cellulose structural molecule of the plant cell walls Cannot digest Fiber Li ids ltgt Hydrophobic 0 Less oxidized than carbs so more caloriesgram 0 Five primary types 0 Fatty Acids 3 attached to glycerol backbone creates o Triglycerides neutral fats Oils are liquid room temperature fats are solid room temperature 39 Energy storage insulation shock absorption adipose tissue 39 Polyunsaturated fats liquid at room temperature double bonds 39 Saturated fats solid at room temperature no double carbon bonds 39 Essential fatty acids have to get from diet Body does not produce 39 Unsaturated fats only one Carbon double bond 0 Trans Fat amp CV Health 39 Raises risk of heart disease because of the way they connect in arteries 39 Cis fatty acids when 2 fatty acids double bond on either side 39 Trans fatty acids can stack on each other 0 Elcosanoids derived from fatty acid called arachidonic acid 39 Hormone like chemical signal between cells 39 Includes prostaglandins Have a role in in ammation blood clotting hormone action labor contractions blood vessel diameter 0 Steroids a lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in 4lt rings 0 Cholesterol the parent steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized 39 Cortisol progesterone estrogens testosterone bile acids 39 Synthesized only by animals 39 LDL low density lipoprotein takes fat from the liver and takes it to the arteries 39 HDL high density lipoprotein Cleans arteries follows behind LDL Proteins Chapter 3 Cell Form and Function Introduction Cells carry out our physiological functions 0 O Cytology scienti c study of cells Modern Cell Theory we are all made of cells Structure and function is due to cells Within a species the cell will act the same way Cell Shapes o Squamous at skin 0 Cuboidal cubes 0 Columnar rectangular o Polygonal polygon shaped o Stellate star shaped o Spheroid spherical white blood cells 0 Discoid disc shape RBCs o Fusiform spindle shaped smooth muscles 0 Fibrous stringlike nerves Cell Size 0 1015 micrometers in diameter 0 SA is proportional to the square of the diameter 0 Volume is proportional to the cube of the diameter Components of a Cell Light microscope reveals plasma membrane nucleus and cytoplasm the uid between nucleus and surface membrane Resolution of electron microscope reveals ultra structure of organelles cytoskeleton and cytosol intracellular uid ICF Plasma Membrane boundary of cell made of proteins and lipids Can allow and limit cell access Outside of the cell membrane exists ECF O O O Intracellular face faces cytoplasm Extracellular face faces outside of cell Phospholipid bilayer oily film of lipids with diverse embedded proteins I Hydrophilic head hydrophobic tail of phospholipids I 98 of molecules are lipids Phospholipids I 75 of membrane lipids are phospholipids amphiphilic molecules I GlycocalyX carbohydrate coating on membrane that serves as protection Integral membrane proteins I Transmembrane pass through membrane Most are glycoproteins I Peripherals adhere to the face of the membrane Tethered to the cytoskeleton I Functions 0 Receptors bind to ligands o Secondmessenger systems 0 Chemical first messenger binds to receptor Receptor activates G protein GTP binding protein 0 o G protein relays signal to adenylatecyclase in plasma membrane which converts ATP to cAMP with the loss of 2 phosphorus 2quotd messengercAMP cyclic AMP cAMP activates a kinase in the cytosol Kinase adds phosphate groups to other cytoplasmic enzymes Leads to various metabolic effects inside the cell 0 Enzymes breaks down chemical messengers Ion channels channel pore provides a passageway gate for ions to travel in and out of the cell Carriers Cellidentity markers glycoproteins identify foreign cells v own cells 0 Celladhesion molecules binds one cell to another Cell Surface the glycocalyX O 0 Unique fuzzy coat external to the plasma membrane Functions protection cell adhesion immunity to infection fertilization defense against cancer embryonic development transplant compatibility Microvilli O O Cilia O 0000 O 0 Extensions of a cellular membrane 12 micrometers that serve to increase a cell s SA to usually specialize in absorption brush border actin microfilaments are centered in each microvilli Hairlike projections off cell no cytoplasm Composed of microtubules 9 2 structure Sensory nasal cavity kidney inner ear trachea retina Not all have movement inner ear cilia do Motile cilia respiratory tract uterine tubes ventricles of brain efferent ductile of testes I Characterized by power strokes followed by recovery strokes Core is axoneme consisting of two central fibrils surrounded by nine peripheral fibrils Movement of cilia requires ATP o Cystic brosis cilia do not have normal movement Hereditary disease in which cells make chlorine pumps but fail to install them in the plasma membrane Thick mucus plugs layers I Causes difficulty breathing and digesting Flagella o Prokaryotic cells commonly found with one or more agella 0 Tail of sperm only function agella in humans 0 Whiplike structure with axoneme movement is snakelike o Composed of microtubules Membrane Transport Barrier gateway between cytoplasm and ECF Selectively permeable Passive transport v active transport Carrier mediated v noncarrier mediated Non Carrier Mediated o Filtration process in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure force exerted on a membrane by water Simple diffusion the net movement of particles from an area of high 0 concentration to an area of low concentration I Moves up down concentration gradient I Passive transport 0 Only hydrophobic substances and some gases can diffuse through lipid bilayer o Hydrophilic substances can diffuse through channel proteins 0 facilitated diffusion o By changing protein or openingclosing channels you control diffusion o Osmosis ow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other I Aquaporins channel proteins in plasma membrane specialized for passage of water Osmotic pressure pressure required to stop osmosis across a semi permeable membrane Tom39cz39ty the osmotic pressure or tension of a solution usually relative to that of blood 0 Depends on concentration and permeability of a solute 0 Effects of tonicity on RBCs o H ypertom39c has ahigher concentration of nonpermeating solutes outside the cell so cells lose water and shrivel crenate Hypenonic O Isolonic solution normal saline Causes no changes in volume or shape of cell Gradients are equal and net movement is zero 0 Hypotonic cells absorb water swell and may burst lyse Higher concentration of water outside cell so the water rushes in Movement of water not salt The membranes are only 0 permeable by water Isotonic Hypotonic Carrier Mediated Transport 0 O O Facilitated diffusion passive not consuming ATP Moving molecules down the concentration gradient high to low Active Transport does consume ATP usually moves molecules against concentration gradient low to high I Sodium potassium pump complex pumps sodium out of cell and pumps potassium into cell Characteristics of carriers I Speci city transport proteins specific for a certain ligand molecule I Saturation limited amount of solute can be taken at a time I Transport maximum TM Types of Transporters O O O Uniport one molecule at a time from one side to another transported molecule 0 A SVMPORT ANTlPORT L l coupled transport cortransported ion Symport carry two molecules at a time in the same direction lipid bilayer Antiport carries two I molecules opposite directions at same time UNIFORT I ie sodium potassium pump Vesicular Transport 0 Processes that move large particles uid droplem or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles 0 Endocytosis vesicular processes that bring material into cell I Phagocytosiszthe engulfing of microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles by phagocytes Vesicle pinches off from membrane 05 pm w c Receplarmedlaled endocymgh a m Copyuglu a Pearson E mquot w wishing awammmmmmqs I Pinocytosis mechanism by which cells ingest ECF amp contenm involves the formation of invaginations by the cell membrane which close and break off to form uid lled vacuoles in the cytoplasm Receptormediated endocytosis the uptake by a cell of material from the environment by invagination of its plasma membrane it includes both phagocytosis and pinocytosis Clathrin coated vesicle Invaginationzthe infolding of one part Within another part of a structure as of the blastula during gastrulation o Exocytosis discharging material from cell I Utilizes motor proteins energized by ATP I Vesicles in cytoplasm fuse with cell membrane Cell Interior structures inthe cytoplasm organelles cytoskeleton inclusions cytoskeleton collection of filaments and cylinders that determines the shape of a cell and lends structural support Composed of 39 39 39 quot fibers as as Chapter 1 2 I Overview of the Nervous System employs electrical and chemical means to send messages very quickly from cell to cell a Nervous Tissue i Body perceives and responds to multiple sensations ii Nervous system activities l Collects information 2 Processes and evaluates information 3 Initiates response to information iii We don t react to every little noise some responses aren t conscious iv 2 cell types in nervous tissue l Neurons basic structural unit of the nervous system a Excitable cells that transmit electrical signals 2 Glial cells nonexcitable cells that primarily support and protect neurons b Nervous system carries out its task in three ways 39 Receives information and transmits coded messages to the brain and spinal cord CNS Process information in brain and spinal cord can be processed on basis of past experiences iquot Brain and spinal cord send out commands primarily to muscle and gland cells Divisions of the Nervous System a Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord enclosed by the cranium and the vertebral column b Peripheral Nervous System PNS nerves and ganglia Nerve bundle of nerve fibers axons wrapped in fibrous CT emerge from CNS and carry signals to and from other organs of the body Ganglion knotlike swelling in a nerve where the cell bodies of neurons are concentrated Sensory division afferent Carries sensory signals from various receptors to the CNS lnforms the CNS of stimuli within and around the body l visceral division carries signals from the viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavities such as the heart lungs stomach and urinary bladder only internal organs 2 somatic division carries signals from receptors in the skin muscles bones and joints iv Motor division efferentCarries signals from the CNS to gland and muscle cells that carry out the body s responses l Visceral involuntary autonomic NS Carries signals to glands cardiac muscle and smooth muscle as Sympathetic arouses bocly for action Inhibits cligestion speecls breathing rate and heart rate b Parasympathetic calming affects Slowing heart rate stimulating cligestion 2 Somatic voluntary skeletal muscle Output procluces muscular contractions that are uncler voluntary control as well as involuntary contractions callecl somatic reflexes IIL Classes of Neurons Universal properties of nervesneurons is Excilubility irritability responcl to stimuli environmental changes ii Condudi ty across bocly signals can travel iii Secretion of neurotransmitters that propagate messages b Three classes of neurons is Sensory afferent neurons concluct singles from receptors to the CNS Detect stimuli such as light heat pressure chemicals ii Inlerneurons confined to the CNS AKA association neurons 90 of neurons Integrate information in the CNS Connect efferent ancl afferent signals iii Motor efferent neuronsconcluct signals from the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glan s IV Structure of a Neuron as Somu the control center of the neuron is so ca ecl neurosoma cell bocly or perikaryon ii Single centrally locatecl nucleus with a large nucleuolus iii Cytoplasm contains mitochonclria heurogligicell Claus quot7 lysosomes golgi 7 complex numerous inclusions ancl extensive cytoskeleton and ER 39 Nissl bodies iv Cytoskeleton consists V a of a clense mesh of lllc eus microtubules and v 77 neurofibrils bunclles 39 3 of actin filaments v Compartmentalizes rough ER into clark staining Nissl Boclies 39 39 where protein synthesis takes places in neurons Help iclentify neurons by secretions 39I Ribosomes attach alpolar liniernaninnl SensnlyNaumn Moloneumn aw vi No enlriolex will nor divide Born wirh all lhe nerve ell you will ever ave Vii 39 39 39 39 39 Innin linid Ar nl I 39 39 wirh lyxoxomex digexl worn on organelle and orher prodlmx Aullmlllale wirh age and puxhex lhe nlldellx ro one xide of lhe ell b Demhile ighly bramhed Thkk proexxex lhal bramh off xoma Primary xile for reeiving single from orher neuronx Th e more dendrilex a neuron ha Ihe more gt x o 5 i er Spedalized for rapid ondlldion of nerve xig nolx lo poinlx remole from lhe xomo ax on at rigger zoneAxon originalex here i axoplasmnyloplaxm lli axolemm iv a ploxmo membrane euron never ha more Ihan one and some in Ihe brainrenna have no e v Terminal arborizalion dixlal end of axonAn exlenxive omplex of fine bram ex vi synaplic knob found on emh bramh Linle xwelling lhal form a illndion wirh lhe nexr ell synaplic vesicles full of neurolranxmine Neuron lauified depending on i 39 nnmber ofproexxex from xoma highly bramhed dendrilex and one axon Moxr pe Moxl neuron of lhe brain and xpin 2 polar neuron al ord am he 1quot b olar neuron one dendrile and one axon Olfadory ell of Ihe naxal ovily neuron of lhe relina xenxory neuron o lhe inner ear 3 unipolar euroquot bramhed dendrilex axon xplilx inro xom more dendrilex Only a xingle proex from lhe xoma Found in spinal or a and x lead away ax on wilholll axonxoma and lolx of dendrilex Do nor Pygmllldal prodlne anion poiennal Foll e ad Unipolar Mninnoiar nd in lhe brain rerina renal mednlla Help rerina in peneplion of nlraxl Now w wmks Axonal Tranxpon wo way pm 9 Sage of proleinx organellex and orher malerialx along an axon b Anlerograde lmnspo move way from lhe xoma down lhe axon i Employ kinexin moror prorein lo drive movemenr Rehograde Inn on movemenl up lhe axon loward lhe xoma I Employ dyenin moror proreinio drive movemen d Two types i Fast uxonql transport occurs at a rate of 20400 mmday l Fast anterograde moves mitrochondria synaptic vesicles calcium ions enzyomes amino acids nucleotides toward distal end of axon 2 Fast retrograde returns used synaptic vesicles and other materials to the soma and informs soma of conditions at the axon terminals ii Slow uxonql transport occurs at a rate of O5l O mmday Always anterograde Moves enzymes and cytoskeletal components down the axon Damaged nerve fibers regenerate at a speed governed by this V Neuroglia a Protect neurons and help them function Binds neurons together and provides a supportive framework for the nervous tissue b CNS only four types occur Oligodendrocytes form myelin in CNS speed up single conductance Bulbous body with as many as l5 armlike processes Ependqul cells line brain ventricles Produce cerebral spinal fluid Resemble cuboidal epithelium lining the internal cavities of the brain and spinal cord No basement membrane Patches of cilia on their apical surfaces to help circulate the SCF Microgliq immune cells macrophages that police CNS Gobble up cellular debris Will replicate during brain infection Constantly probe tissue for cellular debris or other problems iv Astrocytesmost abundant have little feet that form bloodbrain barrier perivascular feet seal off brain so not all blood components can enter the brain Only the beneficial things P convert blood glucose to lactate and supply this to the neurons for nourishment Secrete nerve growth factors that promote synapse formation Communicate electrically with neurons Regulate chemical composition of tissue fluid 9955 Astrocytes form hardened scar tissue and fill space formerly occupied by the neurons astrocytosis or sclerosis Ollgodendrocyte Myeiinaled axoni 39 Ependymul Myeim sheath cut ventricie at Drain c PNS two types occur 39 Schwann cells myelin same as oligodendrocytes Assist in regeneration of damaged fibers Satellite cells support cells Fon11 electrical insulation around somas and regulate chemical environments of the neurons d Myelin i Myelin sheath an insulating layer around an nerve fiber 1 Formed by oligodendrocytes in CNS and Schwann cells in PNS a 20 protein and 80 lipid ii Myelination production of the myelin sheath Begins at week 14 of fetal development 2 Certain fats helpful during pregnancy not saturated 3 Myelination continues until adolescence 4 Neurilemma outermost coil that the Schwann cells spiral around the nerve fiber Basal lamina is external to this Forms bulge on the external surface of the wrapping iii Myelin sheath is segmented l Nocles of Ranvier segments of nerve fiber uncovered by myelin 2 Internocles part of nerve fiber covered by myelin 3 Initial segment short section of nerve fiber between the axon hillocllt and the first glial cell Axon hillocllt plus initial segment are referred to as the trigger zone iv ConducTion speed depends on The diameTer of The fiber and The presence or absence of myelin Large fibers have more surface area and conducT signals more rapidly Than small fibers Slow unmyelinaTed fibers are quiTe sufficienT for processes in which quick processes are noT particularly im porTanT v Diseases of Myelin SheaTh l DegeneraTive disorders 2 MulTiple Sclerosis a AuToimmune disease b OligodendrocyTes myelin sheaThs in CNS aTTacked by immune cells Myelin replaced by hardened scar Tissue sclerosis Messages move much more slowly Always proves faTal 730 years afTer diagnosis 909 f Usually diagnosed beTween 2540 years of age e RegeneraTion of Nerve Fiber i RegeneraTion of a damaged peripheral nerve fiber can occur if i lT s soma is inTacT 2 AT leasT some neurolemma remains DegeneraTion occurs aT spoT of damage iquot No feeling on finger aT The spoT where you iammed iT for a few days afTer iv No regeneraTion aT siTes wiTh scar Tissue v Nerve can sTill regeneraTe if sliced as long as soma and parT of neurolemma inTacT vi Process Fiber disTal To The injury cannoT survive because iT is incapable of proTein synThesis Macrophages clean up debris from degeneraTion Soma swells and The ER breaks up P P Schwann cells near The injury form a regeneraTion Tube Enabled a neuron To regrow To iTs original desTinaTion 4 RegeneraTion Tube guides The growing sprouT back To The original TargeT cells reesTablishing synapTic conTacT Soma shrinks back To original appearance vii ONLY in PNS NOT CNSproTecTed by bone so suffers less damage anyways Vll ElecTrical PoTenTial a difference in The concenTraTion of charged parTicles beTween one poinT and anoTher Can produce a currenT under The righT circumsTances A currenT is a flow of charged parTicles from one poinT To anoTher a If The baTTery has a poTenTial volTage we say iT is polarized b ResTing membrane poTenTial 70 mV i ElecTrolyTes are usually unequally disTribuTed beTween The ECF and ICF ii ResulTs from Three facTors lt zSlt viii X P 3 Diffusion of ions down their concentration gradients through the membrane Selective permeability of the membrane allowing some ions to pass more easily than others The electrical attraction of cations and anions to each other Channels leak sodium and potassium to establish RMP Potassium has the greatest influence because the membrane is more permeable to K sodium is about 12 times as concentrated in the ECF as in the ICF Not voltage gated Open channels for ions to travel across Gated respond to stimulation voltage gated Sodium higher on outside potassium highest on inside Active NaK pump accounts for about 70 of the ATP requirement of the nervous system Neuron Response 1 2 3 4 Receptive segment receives stimulus via dendrites a Chemical receives local potentials electrical light initial segment axon hillox Only place you can get an action potential a Local potentials must add up to depolarize membrane and create an action potential AP Conductive segment axon Transmissive segment will synapse on a muscle or another neuron c Local potentials Depolarization membrane voltage shifts to a less negative value Differences in local v action potential i 5905 Graded can vary in magnitude Decremental further they are from the stimulus the weaker they get Reversible if stimulation stops AP will not be released Either excitatory or inhibitory some neurotransmitters make the membrane potential more negative glycine and GABA open Cl39 channels allowing more negative ions to enter the cell Can hyperpolarize cells make membrane more negative If you have enough local potentials you can reach the threshold to create the action potential d Action potentials Occur only where there is a high enough density of voltageregulated gates Soma 5075 gates per pmz cannot generate an action potential Trigger zone axon hillock 350500 gates per pmz where action potential is generated How does a graded local potential differ from an action potential in terms of the types of channels involved and where it occurs l Sodium nges will open buT chemicdl noT volege nges will open firsT Occur in The dendriTes and cell body AcTion poTenTidls occur in The dxon dT The dxon hillock iv AcTion poTenTidl is d rdpid up and down shifT in The membrane volege Depoldrionion on slope up Nd nges open and enTer cell repoldrionion on slope down K nges open and exiT The cell Threshold 0T 55 mV PoTenTidl will reach 35 mV before falling again 2 HyperpoldrizoiTon occurs when K channels STG open Too long and resTing poTenTidl redches Too low will go back To RMP 55 mV 9 ChordcTerisTics of dcTion poTenTidl versus d locdl poTenTidl d Follows all or none low NoT grdded b Nondecremeanl do noT wedken as They Trdvel GWG from original siTe of sTimulus STrengTh doesn T chdnge c Irreversible if neuron redches Threshold The AP goes To compleTion CdnnoT be sTopped once iT is sTdrTed v AcTion PoTenTidl sTeps l Sodium ions drrive dT dxon hillock dnd depoldrize membrane 2 Local poTenTidl musT rise To Threshold 3 Neuron fires and produces AP PosiTive feedbdck cycle is credTed Tth makes The membrane volege rise I Gpldl 4 As membrdne poTenTidl pdsses 0 mV sodium nges dre indcTivoTed and begin closing Membrdne is now posiTive on The inside and nengive on The ouTside 5 When The volege peaks The ponssium nges are fully open Their ouTTlow exiT cell repoldrizes The membrane 6 Ponssium nges STG open longer Thdn sodium nges Membrane hyperpoldrizes 7 During hyperpoldrizoiTon sodium diffuses inTo cell ponssium is removed from cell vii Propdngion of AP down on dxon l SecTion of dcTion poTenTidl goes from repoldrionion To depoldrionion 2 Refruciory period The period of resisTdnce To sTimuldTion d Two phdses 39 Absoluie no deTer how much sTimuldTion you give iT There is no possibiliTy of d second generdTion of dcTion poTenTidl Relc ive possible To generdTe AP buT wiTh d loT of sTimuldTion before resTing poTenTidl has fully recovered ResTing membrdne even lower Thdn iniTidl VIII iii Fully recovered membrane ready for depolarization e Signal conducTance in myelinaTed nerve fibers Nodes of Ranvier NOR no myelin AP generaTed only here Sqliqiory conduciion sTimulus appears To jump over myelinaTed parTs of axon from NOR To nexT NOR No access To exTracellular sodium in myelinaTed parTs of axon DepolarizaTion can occur in The NOR f Chemical synapses A nerve signal can go no furTher when iT reaches The end of The axon Synapse beTween Two neurons I FirsT neuron in The signal paTh is The presynpaTic neuron a May synapse wiTh a dendriTe The soma or The axon 2 Second neuron is The posTsynapTic neuron 3 A neuron can have I0000 synapTic knobs DifferenT recepTors in differenT pa rTs of The body ACh recepTors sTimulaTe skeleTal muscle buT slow down cardiac muscle NeuroTransmiTTers have differenT effecTs in differenT parTs of The body NeuroTransmiTTers CI Synupiic cle 2040 nm gap beTween neurons b Some neurons have elecTrical synapses where adiacenT cells are joined by gap iuncTions and ions can diffuse direchy from one cell To The nexT Quick Transmission They cannoT inTegraTe informaTion and make decisions Chemical synapses can inTegraTe informaTion Through communicaTion of neuroTransmiTTers SynThesized in The presynapTic neuron Some open IigandregulaTed ion gaTes Some acT Through second messenger sysTems More Than IOO Types of neuroTransmiTTers Fall inTo 4 major caTegories according To chemical composiTion AceTylcholine aceTic acid and choline Amino acid neuroTransmiHers glycine gluTamaTe GABA beTa amino buTyric acid asparTaTe Monoumines biogenic amines synThesized from amino acids by The removal of The COOH group leaving The amino group NH2 group norepinephrine epinephrine seroTonin hisTamine dopamine I Cuiecholumines norepi epi dopa Neuropepiidesxhanges of 240 AA subsTance P cholecysTokinase beTa endorphin Typically acT aT lower concenTraTions Have longer IasTing effecTs STored in secreTory granules Some funcTion as neuromodulafors NeuroTransmiTTers funcTion aT The synapse by SynThesized by presynpaTic neuron Released in response To sTimulaTion Bind To specific recepTors on The posTsynapTic cell iv Alter the physiology of the cell i 3 kinds of synapses with different modes of action i Excitatory cholinergic synapse in NMJ Stimulates muscle Allows sodium potassium pump to work 5905 5 Inhibitory GABAergic synapse employs gammaamino butyric acid Arrival of a nerve signal at the synaptic knob opens voltage regulated calcium gates Calcium enters knob and triggers exocytosis releasing ACh Empty vesicles refill with ACh more vesciles release ACh ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to ligandregulated gates on postsynaptic neuron Sodium enters cell and depolarizes it GABA as its neurotransmitter i P P GABA receptors are chloride channels when GABA binds chloride enters and hyperpolarizes membrane RMP decreases rather than increases lnhibits depolarization firing of action potential Chloride channel chloride enters the cell and makes the inside more negative Neuron is inhibited Excitatory adrenergic synapse employs the neurotransmitter norepinephrine NE also called noradrenaline 9 0 NE binds to receptor on membrane Receptor is coupled with G protein Activates adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase is responsible for cAMP that produces several possible effects enzyme activation genetic transcription opening of ligandgated channels Act through second messenger system cAMP 2quotd messenger Mainly activates genetic transcription Slower to respond than cholinergic acid synpases Enzyme amplification only need l2 molecules to create a large effect relative to the stimulus Synaptic delay require only 05 msec from the arrival of a signal to the beginning of the AP in the postsynaptic cell k Cessation of the signal i Two steps for stopping synaptic transmission 1 2 Stop adding neurotransmitters a Cessation of signals in presynaptic nerve fibers Get rid of neurotransmitters that is already present a Diffusion neurotransmitter escapes from system into nearby ECF b Reuptake synaptic knob reabsorbs AA and monoamines by endocytosis c Degradation in the synaptic cleft ii physiologicdl events in the neuron segments receptive segment i postsyndptic potentidls 2 receptive segment 3 initial segment Neuromoduldtors i Hormones neuropeptides other messengesrs that modify synaptic transmission ii Enkephdlins small peptides that inhibit spinol interneurons from trdnsmitter pdin signals to the brain Postsyndptic Potentidls gtlt d Ability of neurons to process information store and recall it and make decisions is called neural integration b EPSPs Excitdtory Postsyndptic Potentidl i A voltage change that makes d neuron more likely to fire ii Glutdmdte dnd dspdrtdte dre excitdtory brdin neurotrdnsmitters that produce ESPs iii Enough locdl potentidls produced to reach dxon hillock and produce AP c lPSPs lnhibitory Postsyndptic Potentidl i Mdkes postsyndptic cell less likely to fire ii Glycine dnd GABA produce lPSPs and are inhibitory iii ACh excites skeletal muscle but inhibits cardiac muscle due to different types of receptors iv Credtes hyperpoldrizotion d ACh and norepinephrine ore excitdtory to some cells and inhibitory to others X Net Nerve lnput d Summation the process of adding up the post synoptic potentials and responding to their net effect 39 Occurs in the trigger zone dxon hillock Mdgnitude 60 mV v 52 mV Some incoming nerve fibers may produce EPSPs while others produce lPSPs iv Neuron s response depends on whether the net inputs excitdtory or inhibitory If you expect something to be hot you might not ierk your hand away from it Postsyndptic neuron like d little celluldr democrdcy v Neuron needs at least 30 EPSPs to reach threshold and fire 2 ways i Temporal summation stimuldtion comes in some place at different times so membrane has no opportunity to recover Lots of local potentidls add up to generate AP dt dxon hillock 2 Special summation stimuldtion comes at some time in different spdces different presyndptic neurons Add up to generate AP dt dxon hillock b Facilitation d process in which one neuron enhances the effect of another one i Excitdtoryenhdncing effect ii Neurons routinely work in groups to modify each other s dction XIII c Presynqptic Inhibition a process in which one presynaptic neuron suppresses the firing of another one Opposite of facilitation Reduces or halts unwanted synaptic transmission Neuron I releases inhibitory GABA Neuron I synapses to Neuron II which secretes ACh NI will secrete GABA to polarize membrane chloride floods from IIl potassium floods out Causes hyperpolarization of NH There is no depolarization at synaptic knob Neuron ll always excitatory Neural Coding a The way in which the nervous system converts information to a meaningful pattern of action potentials b Labeled line code most important mechanism for transmitting qualitative information Based on the fact that each nerve fiber to the brain leads from a receptor that specifically recognizes a particular stimulus types Each nerve fiber to the brain is a line of communication labeled as representing a particular stimulus quality c Recruitment bringing additional neurons into play as the stimulus becomes stronger d A mild stimulus excites sensitive low threshold nerve fibers As the stimulus intensity rises these fibers fire at a higher frequency Neural Pools and Circuits a Neural pools neurons function in large ensembles Consists of thousands to millions of interneurons concerned with a specific body function Info arrives at pool via input neurons and produce EPSPs Integrate information from several sources and decide which one to act upon b Neural circuit the pathways among neurons in a neural pool Wide variety of neural functions result from the operation of four kinds of circuits Diverging circuit one nerve fiber branches and synapses with several postsynaptic cells Input from one neuron can produce output through hundreds of neurons Muscles Converging circuit input from many nerve fibers funnel into one neuron or neural pool Allows input from your eyes ears etc to allow for sense of balance Respiration Reverberating circuit neurons stimulate each other in a linear sequence A to B to C to D Neuron C goes back to A to restimulate while output through neuron D continues until inhibitory signal exhaleinhale Parallel afterdischarge circuit input neuron diverges to stimulate several chains of neurons They all reconverge on a single output neuron Signals arrive at output neuron at different times and the output neuron can fire for a long time after input has ceased Closing your eyes and still seeing the shape of a lamp in your eyelids Memory and Synaptic Plasticity a Physical basis of memory is a paThway Through The brain called a memory Truce OI eng ram i New synapses form or exisTing synapses change To make Transmission easier or harder ii Synupiic plqsiiciiyz The abiliTy of synapses To change can Take as liTTle as l2 hours iii Synupiic poTenTiaTion The process of making Transmission easier iv The longer you have To change your synapses The beTTer chance you have of laying down long Term memory b Three kinds of memory i lmmediafe abiliTy To hold someThing in mind for iusT a few seconds ii shorTTerm lasTs from a few seconds To a few hours May be quickly forgoTTen if we sTop menTally reciTing iT 9 Working memory form of STM ThaT allows us To hold an idea in mind long enough To carry ouT an acTion such as calling a Telephone number LimiTed To shorT biTs of informaTion SynapTic faciliTaTion longerlasTing memories involve This Induced by TiTanic sTimulaTion The rapid arrival of repeTiTive signals aT a synapse FaciliTaTes synapse firing PosTTeTanic poTenTiaTion involves memories lasTing a few hours Memory only needs a slighT iog because synapse has already been exciTed iii longTerm lasTs us To a lifeTime and is less limiTed Than STM P5 DeclaraTive reTenTion of evenTs and facTs ThaT you can puT inTo words numbers daTes names eTc Procedural reTenTion of moTor skills Tying shoes Typing on a keyboard lnvolve differenT regions of The brain SomeTimes involves physical remodeling of synapses or The formaTion of new ones Through growTh and branching LongTerm poTenTiaTion molecular changes ThaT makes recepTors more sensiTive and can remodel The synapse iv CorrelaTe wiTh differenT modes of synapTic poTenTiaTion c Alzheimer s Disease i Show deficiencies of aceTylcholine ACh and nerve growTh facTor NGF ii Diagnosis confirmed by auTopsy P9P Early diagnosis difficulT l l of populaTion over 65 in US 47 by age 85 ATrophy or gyri folds in cerebral corTegtlt AccumulaTion of gammaamyloid in The form of neurofibrillary Tangles dense masses of broken and TwisTed cyToskeleTon and senile plaques aggregaTions of cells and alTered nerve fibers WhiTe maTTer affecTeddisappears more Than gray maTTer Chapter 9 Joints joint articulation arthrology study of articulation kinesiology study of movement Joints and Classi cation joint name atlantooccipital glenohumeral mdioulnar joint classi cation how freely the joint can move four maj or j oint categories 0 Boney joints synostosis immovable mandible skull st 1 rib cartilage joint can become boney with age 0 Fibroustints synarthrosis synarthrodial Sutures immovable or slightly movable joints depends on collagen 0 Found in temporal or parietal bone palentine processes of maxillae Gomphoses held in place by brous periodontal ligament Secures tooth inplace only found with teeth in body Syndesmoses interosseous membmne between radius and ulna and tibia and bula More moveable between mdius and ulna Collagen bers connect two bones o Cartilaginous joints am hiarthrosis or amphiarthrodial P Synchondroses bones boundby hyaline cartilage 0 Tempomry joint in the epiphyseal plate in children 0 First rib attachment to stem Symphyses pubic symphyses brocartilage joint between bodies of vertebrae and IV discs 0 Synovial joints diarthrosis or diarthrodial Two bones sepamte byjoint cavity Joint itselfis enclosed by joint capsule Most fre ely movable Most familiar but most structurally complex addto quality of life Most likely to develop pain il dysfunction Hyaline articular cartilage lines the joint cavity which is enclosed by the synovial membrane that Perlusleum Ligament mx may x Looms synuvM mm mm Wetter camla s mm Us Mm 2 me Symvlal 9 membrane A conmmm mmquot cumming anlmvnmm Auntsmummy mam m Jolnts and Lever Systems eontatns ar dls tempomandAbul the synovlal uld Fluldls neh m proterns albumln anol l aerol uld on the kneesquot mjury that eauses synovlal membrane to overproduce uld anol eauses bulldup that mrghtneeolto be olrawn out wth ale nee from the Jomt eapsule ar dlstal radloulnarjomt stemoelameular anol acromloclavlcular Jolnts o Xpands whole Jomt anol forms pad Memseus earulage absorbs sh Jolnts Does not form a Lhekn leesfemurplaceto Aeeessory struetures en ons museleto bone ee Ll nt bone to bone E full dlsc oek and pressure and stablllzes the expandlng whole Jolnt Foundln rest anolto stabrhze Bursa saek lled wth synovlal uld provldes extra cushlon h o Burslns shoulder Tendon sheaths tendon eoven eushlon ands ng Elongated bursa Provldes Warmmgup to exerclse lubncatesjolnts Lnaetrve Jolnts don39t prooluee as mueh synovlal uld Stypesofsynovlaljolnts Ball andsncket shoulolertornthrp Multramal Pivnt l ow hum roradlal mo oaxla1axls anol atlas Jomt Saddle trapezrumme arpal ofthum Blaxl Hinge lbow umeroulnarJolntsbthalanges Monoaxlal Pl nsUanklesacrollllcnbs 277 to sternum Cnndylnirl ellrpsorolal radio Blaxlal arpal anol metaearpophalangeal Long bones aet as levers pornt ealleol afulcrum Rotatron oeeurs when an etrort appheol overeomes resrstanee load at some other pornt Types ofLevers o ls class has fulcrum m mlddle between the etrort anolresrstanee EF Atlantoeerprtal Jomt ofneck Class 1 Enan Load G A Class 2 LM E mv o 2quotd class resistance bw fulcrum and effort FRE I Effort from muscle tone of gastrocnemius I Plantar exors I Wheel barrow 0 3rd class effort bw resistance and fulcrum REF I Flexing elbow I Has to do with the attachment of muscle Range of Motion degrees through which a joint can move Determined by 0 Structure of articular surfaces 0 Strength and tautness of ligaments and joint capsules 0 Action of muscles and tendons Axes of Rotation o Multiaxial joint shoulder joint has 3 degrees of freedom or axes of rotation o Other joints monoaxial or biaxial Movement Flexion and extension 0 Flexion decrease in angle Hip exion bringing knee closer to the trunk 0 Extension increase in angle 0 Hyperextension Abduction and adduction o Abduction move away from midline I Hyperabduction arms straight above head 0 Adduction move toward midline I Hyperaduction arms crossed Elevation and depression 0 Elevation lift up 0 Depression push down Protraction and retraction o Protraction forward movement on horizontal plane 0 Retraction pull back on a horizontal plane Cirumduction exion extension adduction and abduction moving arm in circles Supination and pronation 0 Primary forearm movements 0 Supination palm up 0 Pronation palm down Special movements of the head and trunk 0 Later exion exion of trunk toward ground 0 Hyperextension of dorsal toward ground 0 Extension Special movements of hands and digits 0 Abduction on ngers o Adduction of fingers o FleXion of thumb 0 Extension of thumb Special movements of the foot 0 Dorsi eXion foot closer to leg 0 Plantar eXion ballerina toes o Inversion turning soles medially o Eversion turning soles laterally Shoulder joint 0 Glenohumeral humeroscapular joint 0 Tend to give most trouble because it s so freely movable o Shoulder support by biceps brachii tendon anteriorly and also rotator cuff tendons o Rotator cuff muscles SITS I Supraspinatus I Infraspinatus I Teres minor I Subscapularis 0 Doesn t have a lot of support inferiorly o Injury most often happens while abducting arms and force comes superiorly 0 Five ligaments associated with this joint I Glenohumeral ligament 3 I Corcahumeral ligament l I Transverse ligament l o Bursas cushion this joint I Subdeltoid bursa I Subacromial bursa I Subcoracoid bursa I Subscapular bursa Elbow Joint o Elbow is hinge joint composed of two articulations I Humeroulnar joint hinge I Humeroradial pivot 0 funny bone is the ulnar nerve Knee Joint o Tibiofemoral knee joint I Largest and most complex joint 0 Patellofemoral joint gliding joint not encapsulated 0 Joint cavity contains 2 Cshaped cartilages Chapter 14 Brain amp Cranial Nerves 1 Brain Landmarks a 3 major portions of brain i Cerebrum 80 of brain Divided LR by corpus callosum 1 Major landmarks of cerebrum a Longitudinal fissue down midbrain Deep groove that separartes cerebral hempishpere b Gyri folds thick c Sulci grooves shallow 2 Five lobes a Frontal voluntary motor functions motivation foresight planning memory mood emotion social judgment aggression b Parietal general sense receiving and interpreting c Occipital primary visual center of brain d Temporal hearing smell learning memory vision emotion e Insula understanding spoken language sense of taste integrating sensory info ii Cerebellum Consists of R and left cerebellar hemispheres connected by vermis narrow wormlike bridge F olia slender transverse parallel folds White matter branching pattern called arbor vitae 10 of brain volume and 50 of neurons Granule cells most abundant neuron in brain 9959 Evaluation of certain kinds of sensory input and monitoring muscle movement Special reception Timekeeping center iii Brainstem l Diencephalon optic vessels Gives rise to a Thalamus ovoid mass i Gateway to the cerebral cortex ii Taste smell hearing equilibrium vision general senses touch pain pressure heat cold iii Motor control relaying signals from the cerebellum to cerebrum Provide feedback loops b Hypothalamus i Major control center of autonomic nervous system and endocrine system ii Connected to pituitary gland by infundibulum iii Functions 1 Hormone secretion growth metabolism stress 2 Autonomic effects HR BP 3 Thermoregulation heat loss centers help lose heat via vasodialation Heat promoting centers help retain heat via vasoconstriction 4 Food and water intake secrete hormones to regulate hydration 5 Rhythm of sleep and waking 24 hour circadian rhythm 6 Memory mamillary nuclei receive signals from hippocarnpus 7 Emotional behavior c Epithalmus i Pineal gland endocrine gland ii Habenula relay from the limbic system to the midbrain 2 Midbrain a Short segment of brainstem that connects the hindbrain and 2 1 3 Pons forebrain Contains cerebral aqueduct reticular formation motor nuclei for CN 111 and CN IV Tectum part of midbrain posterior to the cerebral aqueduct Four bulges i Supecorpora quadrigemina superior colliculi inferior colliculi Cerebral peduncles 3 main components Two stalks that anchor the cerebrum to the brainstem i Tegmentum dominated by the red nucleus Pink color due to high density of blood vessels Substania nigra dark gray to black nucleus due to high concentration of melanin in this area Relays inhibitory signals to the thalamus and basal nuclei Degeneration of these neurons leads to PD Cerebral crus bundle of nerve bers that connect the cerebrum to the pons carries corticospinal tracts communicate between cerebrum and midbrain ii39 a b C d e Measures about 25 cm long Consists of two pairs of thick stalks called cerebellar peduncles Connect cerebellum to pons and midbrain Anterior half dominated by tracts of white matter Cranial nerves VVIII end or begin here 39 Functions include sensory roles in hearing equilibrium taste Motor roles in the eyes facial expressions chewing swallowing urination Sleep respiration posture 4 Reticular formation a b C d Loosely organized web of gray matter that runs vertically through all levels of the brainstem Consists of more than 100 small neural networks without welldefined borders Helps brainstem communicate with cerebal cortex i Signalscommunication go through thalamus Function of these networks Somatic motor control tone movement posture skeletal muscle vision balance Auditory and visual signals Cardiovascular control includes cardiac and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata Pain modulation sensation and relief of pain Can block transmission of pain signals to the brain ii39 iv Sleep and level of alertness sleepiness l Damage to RF here can cause irreversible coma v Habituation brain lea1ns to ignore repetitive inconsequential stimuli while remaining sensitive to others block out background noises 5 Medulla oblongata a 09 2 1 D Begins at foramen magnum of the skull Anterior surface features a pair of ridges called pyramids Lateral to each pyramid is a prominent bulge called an olive Gracile and cuneate fascicule or spinal cord continue as two pairs of ridges on the medulla Cardiac center regulates rate and force of heart beat f 9 Pquot Vasomotor center regulates BP and ow by dilating and constricting blood vessels Respiratory center 2 regulate rhythm and depth of breathing Contains neural networks involved in coughing sneezing gagging swallowing vomiting salivation sweating movements of tongue and head b Gray and White Matter in brain i Gray matter referred to as cerebral cortex Dendrites here 1 Forms surface layer cortex over cerebrum and cerebellum 2 Forms nuclei deep within the brain ii White matter myelinated Axons located here 1 Contains tacks that communicate between brain and spinal cord 2 Lays deep to the cortical gray matter iii Cerebral White Matter 1 Three types of tracts or bundles a Fquot 0 Projection tracts extends vertically between higher and lower brain and spinal cord centers and carries information between cerebrum and the rest of the body Commissural tracts cross from one cerebral hemisphere through brides called commissures i Most pass through corpus callosum ii Anterior and posterior compartments Association tracts i Connect different regions within the same cerebral hemisphere Link perceptual memory centers of the brain iv Cerebral Grey Matter 1 Neural integration carried out by grey matter 2 Contains two principal types of neurons a b Stellate cells receive sensory information Pyramidal cells send out info 3 Found in three places a Cerebral cortex b Basal nuclei C Limbic system 4 Cerebral cortex is a layer covering the surface of the hemispheres that is only 23 mm thick c Embryonic Development i Nervous system develops from ectoderm Neural plate neuroectoderm thickens This will give rise to most neurons and all glial cells except microglial ii39 Neural groove neural plate sinks and its edges thicken iv Neural fold raised part of groove on each side v Neural tube process creates a hollow channel Separates and forms ventricles later vi Neural crest gives rise to the two inner meninges vii By week 4 forebrain midbrain hindbrain are developed d Basal Nuclei i Receives input from the substantia nigra of midbrain and the motor areas of the cortex 1 Involved in motor control ii Contains all in corpus striatum l Caudate nucleus 2 Putamen lentiform nucleus 3 Globus pallidus lentiform nucleus e The Limbic System i Important center of emotion and learning ii Most anatomically prominent components are l Cingulated gyrus 2 Hippocampus important in forming memory a Lesion causes problem storing memory long term 3 Amygdala important in emotion grati cation and aversion centers f Meningitis i In ammation of the meninges pia mater and arachnoid mater are most often affected ii Can be bacterial or viral invasion of CNS 1 Bacterial is more problematic because bacteria is resistant to the drugs we have Trouble crossing blood brain brarrier iii Signs bacterial like cold High fever stiff neck drowsiness headache can be fatal iv Diagnosed by examining CSF for bacteria 1 Lumbar puncture spinal tap g Functional Regions of the Cerebral Cortex i Broca amp Wemicke area 1 Lesion in these areas affect reading writing speaking and understanding of language ii Wemicke area permits recognition of spoken and written language and creates plan of speech CBIO 2200 Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology I Goals a Anatomy and physiology 39 Explain the importance of studying anatomy and physiology Define anatomy and physiology Explain the relationship between anatomy and physiology Homeostasis III Anatomy 1 Homeo same stasis state Negative feedback and positive feedback Anatomical terms to describe body sections body regions and relative positions Identify the major body cavities II Introduction a Anatomy is the study of human structure or form b Physiology is study of function biochemistry biology chemistry and genetics a Examining structure of the human body Inspection ii iii iv 1 Exploratory surgery 2 Medicalimaging a Radiology 3 Grossanatomy 4 Cytology 5 Histology microscopic anatomy a Histopathology 6 Ultrastructure a EM electron microscopy Palpation Auscultation Percussion b Cadaver dissection c Comparative anatomy Using animals when cadavers are not available i IV Physiology a Subdisciplines DU Neurophysiology physiology of nervous system Endocrinology physiology of hormones Pathophysiology mechanics of disease b Comparative physiology Limitations on human experimentation V Scientific Method driven by observations a Observations gt Inductive reason and Questions gt Hypothesis must be testable gt Carry out experiments gt Start to make predictions deductions to test and eliminate some predictions Francis Bacon in England and Rene Descartes in France Science and Scientific Methods set standards for truth d The Inductive Method i Described by Francis Bacon 1 Making numerous observations 2 Knowledge of anatomy obtained by this method ii The HypotheticoDeductive Method 1 More physiological knowledge gained by this method 2 Investigator asks a question 3 Formulates a hypothesis 4 Characteristics of a good hypothesis a Consistent with what is already known b Testable and possibly falsifiable with evidence VI Hierarchy of Complexity a Atoms gt Molecules gt Organelles gt Cell gt Tissues gt Organs gt Organ systems gt Organism b Reductionism theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components i First espoused by Aristotle c Holism there are llemergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts i Humans are more than the sum of their parts d Anatomical Variation i No two humans are exactly alike 1 70 most common structure 2 30 anatomically variant 3 Variable number of organs a Missing muscles extra vertebrae renal arteries e Characteristics of Life What Distinguishes Living from Nonliving Things Organization living has higher organization than nonliving Cellular composition living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more cells Metabolism sum ofall the internal chemical changes from all the molecules taken in by living things iv Responsiveness and movement the ability for organisms to sense and react 1 Cells are least capable of moving substances internal v Homeostasis the ability to maintain internal stability vi Development any change in from or function over the lifetime of the organism 1 Differentiation the transfer of cells with no special functions into cells with a direct purpose 2 Growth Reproduction all living organisms can produce copies of themselves and pass on their genes viii Evolution f Physiological Variation i Typical physiological values 1 Heraante man a 22 yo 154 lbs 70kg light physical activity b Consumes 2800 kcalday 2 iiihermitquotwhim vquot a Same as man except 128 lbs and 2000 kcalday V Homeostasis a Claude Bernard 18131878 i First to obverse that constant internal conditions regardless of external conditions Walter Cannon 18711945 i Homeostasis ii State of the body fluctuates within limited range around a set point iii Negative feedback keeps variable close to the set point c Loss of homeostasis control causes illness or death 57 d Receptor Sensor i Receives the stimulus e Control Center i Processes the signal and sends instructions f Effector i Carries out instructions g Negative feedback Receptor receives the stimulus Control center processes the signal and send instructions Effectors carry out instructions iv The response turns off the initial stimulus 1 Ex The FUD ED 3le sense changes in blood temperature and communicate with the brain a Vasodilation b Vasoconstriction 2 Baroreceptors a Sensory nerve endings in the arteries near the heart If they are not working it causes dizziness when standing 3 Cardiac center a Sends nerve signals that increase the heart rate and return blood pressure to normal h Positive Feedback and Rapid Change i Selfamplifying cycle 1 Leads to greater change in the same direction 2 Feedback loop is repeated change produces more change a Blood Clotting i Chemicals that are released when injury occurs attract cells to clot the injury until it is healed b During birth the head of the fetus pushes against the cervix and stimulates its nerve endings i Hormone oxytocin is secreted from the pituitary gland c Fever gt 104 F 39 Pathogens invade your body and cause an increase in metabolic rate A fever causes also causes an increase in metabolic rate If pathogens in the body are not treated the metabolic rate continues to rise causing fevers upwards of 105 F Cycle continues to reinforce itself S3 Chapter 7 Skeletal system 39lesi in 1le db mi Vanna bones and teeth remain for a very long time long after death Fragments remain after burning Never completely decompose Living skeleton support for soft tissues Contains nerves and blood vessels that provide nutrition mu 1 o bone made up of osseous tissue blood bone marrow cartilage adipose tissue nervous tissue and brous CT Components of the Skeletal System Cartilage covers many joint surfaces in the mature skeleton hyaline of epiphyses between vertebrae to absorb shock Ligaments hold bone to bone Tendons hold muscle to bones Achilles tendon Bone Functions of the Skeletal System soft tissues muscles teeth vertebral column 4 horacic cavity protects internal organs cranium protects brain bones enclose the brain spinal cord heart lungs pelvic viscera and the bone marrow H 4quot calcium Ca2 and phosphate P04 released into tissue uid and blood depending on body s need rovides buffers and absorbs excessive pH to keep balance forms in marrow WBCs and RBCs 0 Sensitivity and metabolic activity Needs good blood supply Bones and Osseous Tissue Bone osseous tissue calcium and phosphate v support comes from hardness of bones Shapes of Bones and provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment 0 cranial bones ribs sternum scapula hip bones 0 General features I Diploe spongy layer in the cranium Helps absorb shock 0 Meat ofbone lamLIL lCu pquot C 7 a 4 all o Femur ulna radius humerus metacarpals and phalanges tibia bula metatarsals 0 General features Compact dense bone outer covering Diaphysis shaft 0 M edullary cavity marrow cavity In shaft Produces blood cells Epz39physesend of bone Spongy cancellous bone 0 Located at the end of long bones Articular cartilage Nutrient foramina Periosteum external sheath that covers bone except where there is articular cartilage 0 Outer fibrous layer of collagen 0 Inner osteogenic layer of boneforming cells stem cells I Endosteum lining of medullary cavity Epiphyseal plate gro lliHl 1 L in miquot 39l im mm m ll39wi r all J39H39W gull e 1 o sphenoid looks like butter y vertebrae ethm01d General Features of Bones o concentric lamellae layers of the matrix concentrically arranged around a central haversian or osteonic canal that are connected with each other by canaliculi o Arranged in osteons haversian system I Basic structural unit of compact bone 0 Perforating Voklmann canals diagonal passageways connecting central canals o In bones that must bend the helix is coiled looser and the bers are stretched out but in bones that bear weight the helix is coiled tighter and the bers are closely spaced together Outer boundaries of dense bone arranged in circumferential lamalle that run parallel to the bone surface and irregular regions called interstitial lamalle remains of old osteons that broke down as the bone grew and remodeled itself 0 medullary cavityma1row cavity contains bone marrow spongy cancellous bone ends of bone in more central space loosely organized form of osseous tissue Composes 1A ofbone weight in body 0 lattice called spicules rods or spines and trabeculathin plates 0 permeated by bone marrow 0 matrix a1ranged like lamellae in compact bone but with fewer osteons no central canals designed to give strength to bone with minimum added weight 0 Trabeculae arranged along bone s lines of stress 0 Blood forming cells between the trabecula Right against spicula is osteoclast Diaphysis shaft of bone provides leverage Epiphysishead end of each bone enlarged to strengthen joint and provide extra SA for attachment of muscles Articular cartilage layer of hyaline cartilage found at joint surface Enables joint to move far more easily nutrient foramina blood vessels and nerves supply exit and enter through this tiny openings in periosteum perforating sharpey bers collagen fibers that penetrate the bone matrix endosteumthin layer of reticular CT with cells that dissolve osseous tissue and others that deposit it found on the internal surface of the bone perisoteumextemal covering of a bone that has an outer fibrous layer of collagen and an inner osteogenic layer of boneforming cells epiphyseal platehyaline cartilage separate the marrow spaces of the epiphysis and diaphysis in children and adolescents Zone where bones grow in length Epiphyseal line marks where the plate used to be in adults dipolespongy layer in cranium can absorb impact of blow to skull Bone Cells Osteogenic cells Bone cell line bone stem cells AKA osteoprogenitor Found in endosteum and inner layer of periosteum Arise from undifferentiated embryonic mesenchymal cells Multiply O O continually Lay down matrix Osteoblasts Bone cell line nonmitotic cells Lay down bone matrix Bone forming cellsSynthesize soft organic matter of the bone matrix Stress and fractures stimulateosteogenic cells 0 O to produce more osteoblasts Secrete osteocalcin which stimulates insulin secretion increases insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and limits the growth of adipose tissue Osteoclasts bone matrix eating cells found on the surface of bone Hematopoetic origin Not from same line as osteoblasts Formed by the fusion of several stem cells 0 Blood cell line 0 Usually large with 34 nuclei sometimes up to 50 o Ruf ed border increases surface area and efficiency of bone resporption I Hydrogen contained in borders Usually reside in resorption bays Howship lacunae that they have etched into the bone surface Remodeling I Depends on what kind of stress in put on the body 0 O 0 Soft bones in people on bed rest 0 Weight lifting Osteocytes osteoblasts that got stuck in matrix lacunae Bone cell line Lacunae communicate through cancliculi O O o Neighboring osteocytes are connected by gap junctions so they can pass nutrients and chemical signals to each other and pass their metabolic wastes to the nearest blood vessels for disposal Multiple functions I Reabsorb matrix 0 I Deposit matrix I Strain sensors help regulate adjustments to bone shape and density in adaption to stress Disease too much bone growth with little bone dissolving Bones become thick and misshapen Matrix of Osseous Tissue 13 organic matrix 23 inorganic calcium phosphate uoride sodium etc Organic osteoclasts Collagen GAG Glycoproteins Inorganic85 is hydroxypatite crystallized calcium phosphate salt 10 calcium carbonate Composite a combination of two basic structural materials Bone is considered composite Helps bone support weight without sagging and also has a degree of exibility not brittle De ciencies Mineral rickets soft bones bend easily bowed legs Collagen protein osteogenesis imperfect brittle bone disease very fragile Bone Marrow General term for soft tissue that occupies the marrow cavity of a long bone Red marrow myeloid tissue hemopoietic tissue tissue that produces blood cells Fills nearly every bone in a child 0 Limited to skull vertebrae ribs sternum part of the pelvic girdle and the proximal heads of the humerus and femur in an adult Yellow marrow found in adults fat cells replace healthy red cells 0 Bone marrow responds to metabolic needs Process can be reverted if needed by body 0 No longer produces blood cells can transform back into red marrow in the event of severe or chronic anemia Bone Development Ossifrcation or osteogenesis formation of bone Bone develops by two methods in the human fetus 0 Intramembranous Ossifrcation replacement of embryonic CT with bone 0 Produces the at bones of the skull and most of the clavicle Develop within a fibrous sheet similar to the dermis of the skin can be called dermal bones l Condensation of mesenchyme into soft sheet permeated with blood capillaries Start connecting to form a network of soft sheets calledtrabeculae 2 Deposition of osteoid tissue soft collagenous tissue similar to bone except for lack of minerals by osteoblasts on mesenchymal surface Entrapment of first osteocytes formation of periosteum 3 Honeycomb of bony trabeculae formed by continued mineral deposition creation of spongy bone Marrow cavity starting to form 4 Surface bone filled in by bone deposition converting spongy bone to compact bone Persistence of spongy bone in the middle layer Formation takes place at numerous sites simultaneously Produces at bones of skull scapula ribs and clavicle 0 Endochondral Ossifrcation replacement of cartilage with bone 0 Bone develops from a preexisting model composed of hyaline cartilage Begins around the sixth week of fetal development and continues into the 20s Most bones of the body develop this way 0 Long bone production 0 Fetal skeleton at twelve weeks is semideveloped E 4 V39 0 gt1 Early cartilage model precursor Formation of primary ossi cation center bone collar and periosteum Vascular invasion formation of primary marrow cavity and appearance of secondary ossi cation center Osteoblasts deposit osteod tissue and form a temoporary network of trabeculae Osteoclasts dissolve calci ed cartilage and enlarge the marrow cavity of the diaphysis Bone at birth with enlarged primary marrow cavity and appearance of secondary marrow cavity in epiphyses Bone of child with epiphyseal plate at distal end Plate persists through childhood and adolescence and serves as a growth zone for bone elongation Cartilage plate separates rst and second marrow cavity Lasts until 20 25 years of age growth plate Adult bone with a single marrow cavity and close epiphyseal plate Primary and secondary marrow cavities unite into a single cavity so bone can no longer grow in length Epiphyseal plate at both ends that faces marrow Becomes a line with age Bone Growth and Remodeling Elongation Epiphyseal plate growth zone Area of cartilage Transition zone part of metaphysis epiphyseal plate that faces marrow cavity 0 O O O O 0 inside Grows by lengthening Continual growth and production of new cartilage matrix in both directions away from the diaphysis Responsible for a person s increase in height Interstitial growth cartilage growth from within by the multiplication of chondrocytes and deposition of new matrix in the interior Zones of Metaphysis Zone of reverse cartilage closest to epiphyseal plate consist of typical hyaline cartilage that shows no sign of transforming yet Zone of cell proliferation chondrocytes multiply and arrange themselves into longitudinal columns of attened lacunae Zone of cell hypertrophy stopped dividing Increasing by size hypertrophy Walls of matrix bw lacunae become very thin Zone of calci cation chondrocytes calcify add minerals hardens Deposits are only temporary support for the cartilage I Zone of bone deposition walls of lucanae fall away osteoblasts take over closest to diaphysis Zone of spongy bone created at the end of the marrow cavity facing the metaphysis o Chondrocyte multiplication in zone 2 and hypertrophy in zone 3 push the reserve cartilage towards the end of the bones causing elongation causing increased height in childrenadolescent Widening and Thickening o Appositional growth bones increase in width throughout life I Deposition of new bone at the surface I Limited amount of appositional growth can occur in bone due to space I Similar to intramembranous ossificaiton Remodeling 0 Bone remodeling occurs throughout life 10 per year I Wolff s law of bone stresses on bones determine architecture Level of O O 0 activity age Crutches can affect this Osteoclast activity on inside bone marrow cavity remodeling remove matrix and get rid ofunnecessary mass Osteoblast activity deposit new osseous tissue and thicken the bone Athlete bones usually have a greater density and mass Orderly bone remodeling I Balance between bone deposition and resorption I Disruptions in this balance can lead to bone deformities Paget s disease osteitisdeformans Named for Sir James Paget Deformation of bone Too much bone deposition or absorption or both Bone is thickening with small marrow cavity or vice versa Weak bones due to increased rate of turnover Can cause bowed legs Osteogenesisimperfecta brittle bones Autosomal dominant disorder of type I collagen Lack of type I collagen or the production of defective type I collagen Necessary ossification does not occur Leads to brittle bones that fracture easily Can be limbs or axial bones Osteoporosis thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time Seems to have a greater effect on spongy bone because of increased metabolic activity Space between the trabeculae becomes larger 0 Kyphosis widow s hump 0 Women 50 men 70 hormone production decreases 0 Risk factors corticoid steroids bedridden people chronic kidney disease vitamin D deficiency 0 Can slow down progression but cannot reverse Disorderly bone remodeling o Achondroplastic dwar sm long bones have stopped growing Limbs do not grow they stay small Forehead is prominent in proportion to head and limbs Torso is normal size Caused by spontaneous mutation in chromosome two normal people can have a dwarf child If a parent already had chromosomal mutation increased chance of child being a dwarf Pituitary dwar sm no distortion of body proportions Person has shorter 0 smaller stature Lack or decrease in growth hormones The Physiology of Osseous Tissue Mineral deposition mineralization a crystallization process in which calcium phosphate and other ions are taken from the blood plasma and deposited In bone tissue mainly as crystals of hydroxipatite Deposition begins in fetal ossi cation and continues through life 0 Osteoblasts produce collagen bers that spiral the length of the osteon o Fibers become encrusted with minerals that harden the matrix 0 Solubility product concentration of minerals in bone necessary for hydroxyapatite crystal formation 0 Most tissues have inhibitors inhibit mineralization due to attachment of minerals to collagen Osteoblasts neutralize these inhibitors First few crystals seed crystals attract more calcium and phosphate until the O 0 matrix is thoroughly calcified Abnormal calci cation ectopic ossi cation bonelike material in random places ie plaque in the arteries calculus a calcified mass in a soft organ in the O lungs Mineral resorption process of dissolving bone by releasing minerals into the blood making them available for other uses 0 Osteoclast have ruf e borders with H pumps that pump H ions next to bone Because of electrical attraction Cl39 will follow Hydrochloric acid found just outside osteoclast HCl will dissolve minerals Also pumps out acid phosphatase digest things with phosphate able to function in highly acidic environment and proteases break down proteins that will break down collagen Calcium homeostasis 0 Skeleton acts as reservoir for calcium and phosphate 0 About 1000 g of calcium in the adult body 99 in the bones 0 Adult skeleton exchanges about 18 of its calcium with the blood each year 0 Normal calcium concentration in blood plasma is 92104 mgdL I slight change in this narrow margin can have serious consequences o hypocalcemia calcium de ciency Causes excessive excitability of the nervous system and can lead to muscle tremors spasms or tetany inability of the muscle to relax heart arrhythmia I Sodium ion channels open for longer and allow more sodium ions to enter the cell creating excitation of the nerves and muscles I Possible causes pregnancy lactation parathyroid gland removal Hypercalcemia blood calcium excess is rare Causes nerve and muscle cells to o be less excitable than usual Can cause depression emotional disturbances muscle weakness sluggish re exes and cardiac arrest I Possible causes Vitamin D de ciency diarrhea thyroid tumors underactive parathyroid glands o Depends on a balance between dietary intake urinary and fecal losses and exchanges between osseous tissue and blood Calcium homeostasis is regulated by three hormones I Calcitrol form of Vitamin D o Produced by skin liver and kidneys o Calcitrol Vitamin D synthesis 0 7dehydrocholestorol are found in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum Final product is called calcitrol 0 Through sunmilk dietary intake and hydroxyl group activity 0 Calcitrol behaves as a hormone that raises blood calcium concentration in three ways I 1 Increase in Ca2 absorption in kidneys I 2 Increase in Ca2 absorption from skeleton calcitrol activates amolecule called receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand or RANKL RANKL activates osteoclasts RANKL is found on osteoblasts I 3 Increase in Ca2 absorption in small intestine 0 Vitamin D deficiency in children rickets and in adults osteomalacia Rickets can be treated by increasing exposure to sunlight and dietary intake of Vitamin D I Parathryoid Hormone o Secreted by parathyroid glands found on thyroid 0 Release PTH when blood calcium is low 0 Raises blood calcium level in four ways 0 increase in osteoblast activity stimulate secretion of RANKL promotes calciumreabsorption by kidneys promotes nal step of calcitrol synthesis in kidneys inhibits collagen synthesis by osteoblasts inhibiting bone 0 O deposition I Calcitonin secreted by C cells clear cells AKA parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland Secreted when the blood calcium concentration is too high Lowers blood calcium concentration in two ways 0 Increase osteoblast activity Deposit calcium into skeleton o Decrease osteoclast activity Less calcium liberated from skeleton 0 Plays important role in children but has weak effect on adults 0 May prevent bone loss in pregnantlactating women Phosphate Homeostasis 0 Average adult has 500800 g phosphorous 0 8590 is found in the bones o 3540 mgdL o Occurs in two principal forms I HPO4239 monohydrogen phosphate ions I HzPO439dihydrogen phosphate ions 0 Not regulated as tightly as calcium Changes are not associated with an immediate functional disorder Additional Factors affecting bone 0 Growth factor insulin different with gender 0 Estrogentestosterone promote bone ossification o Anabolic steroids used to increase muscle mass Can prematurely close epipheseal plate 0 Gynecomasta in males causes breast enlargement and testicular atrophy Fractures and Their Treatments Orthopedics study of bone disorders Stress fracture break caused by abnormal trauma to a bone Pathological fracture break in a bone weakened by some other disease Fractures classified by structural characteristics 0 Direction of fracture line 0 Break in the skin 0 Mutltiple pieces Types of bone fractures o Nondisplaced separated but still in correct orientation 0 Displaced break in bone no longer in normal position 0 Comminuted broken in several places into several pieces 0 Greenstick break on one side of the bone while other side remains intact CBIO 2200 August 23rd Thursday ch 3 All organisms are composed of cells Cells are responsible for all structural and functional properties of all living cells Cytology scientific study of cells Modern cell theory All organisms composed of cells The cell is the simplest structural and functional unit of life An organism s structure and functions are due to the activities of its cells Cells come only from preexisting cells Cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their chemical composition and metabolic mechanisms Cell shapes and sizes look up 9 different types Squamous cuboidal columnar polygonal stellate spheroid discoid fusiform spindleshaped and fibrous Human cell size Most form 1015 micrometers in diameter Limitations on cell size due to relationship between it volume and surface area Surface area of a cell is proportional to the square of its diameter Volume of a cell is proportional to the cube of its diameter increases more bc the volume is proportional to the cube not surface area won t get bigger Basic components of a cell Light microscope reveals plasma membrane nucleus and cytoplasm Cytoplasm fluid between the nucleus and surface membrane Resolution ability to reveal detail of electron microscopes reveals ultrastructure Organelles cytoskeleton and cytosol intracellular fluidCF 1Plasma cell membrane forms the border of the cell controls the passage of particles coming in and out of the cell Intracellular face side that faces cytoplasm Extracellular face side that faces outside of cell Phospholipid bilayer also known as that oily film of lipids with diverse proteins embedded 98 of molecules in plasma membrane are lipids Phospholipids 75 of membrane lipids are phospholipids of 98 Amphiphilic molecules Hydrophilic phosphate heads face water Hydrophobic or lipophilic tails are directed toward the center avoiding water Cholesterol 20 of the membrane lipids of 98 Glycolipids 5 of the membrane lipids of 98 Contributes to glycocalyx carbohydrates coating on the cell surface Transmembraneprotein pass through membrane most are glycoproteins Peripheral proteins adhere to one face of the membrane usually tethered to the cytoskeleton Membrane proteins Receptors secondmessenger systems enzymes ion channels carriers cellidentity markers and celladhesion molecules Second messenger chemical first messenger epinephrine binds to a surface receptor Receptor activates G protein GTPbinding protein G protein relays signal to adenylatecyclase which converts ATP to cAMP second messanger cAMP activates a kinase in cytosol Cell Surface The Glycocalyx Unique fuzzy coat external to the plasma membrane Functions protection cell adhesion immunity to infection fertilization defense against cancer embryonic development and transplant compatibility Extensions of cellular membrane 12 Serves to increase cell s surface area Best developed in cells specialization in absorption Brush border actin microfilaments are centered in each microvilli CiliaHairlike processes 710 long Sensory in inner ear retina nasal cavity trachea and kidney Motile ciliarespiratory tract uterine tubes ventricles of the brain efferent ductules of testes Best in waves Sweep substances across surface in same direction Power strokes followed by recovery strokes Cilia core is axoneme has 92 structure of microtubules Nine pairs form basal body inside cell membrane Flagella tail ofa sperm only functional flagellum in humans Whiplike structure with axoneme identical to cilium Movement in more snakelike no power stroke or recovery stroke as in cilia Membrane Transport Plasma membrane a barrier and a gateway between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid Selectively permeable Passive transport require no ATP Filtrationprocess in which particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure force exerted on a membrane by water Diffusionhas to be hydrophobic Simple diffusion the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration to area of high concentration to low concentration Also known as movement down the concentration gradient Diffusionthrough lipid bilayer Diffusion through channel proteins Cells control permeability by regulating number of channel protein or by opening and closing gates Osmosis flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other From side with higher water concentration to side with lower water concentration move to side with higher water concentration Aquaporins channel proteins in plasma membrane specialized for passage of water Osmotic pressure pressure required to stop osmosis across a semipermeable membrane Tonicity is a measure of this pressure Hypertonic sotonic Hypotonic Tonicity ability of a solution to affect fluid volume and pressure in a cell Depends on concentration and permeability of solute Hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of nonpermeating solutes cell shrinks losing water Low water concentration and cells lose water shrivel crenate Isotonic solution normal saline cell doesn t do anything Concentrations in cell and ICF are the same Cause no changes in cell volume or cell shape Hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of nonpermeating solutes than intracellular fluid High water concentration and cells absorb swell and may burst lyse Active transport consumes ATP Active transport carriermediated transport of solute through a membrane against its concentration gradient ATP energy consumed Examples of uses sodiumpotassium pump keeps the K concentration higher and the Na concentration lower within the cell in ECF vesicular transport Carriermediated use of a membrane protein to transport substances from on eside of the membrane to the other uses ATP Employ a transport protein or carrier Facilitated Diffusion carriermediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient Does not consume ATP Characteristics of carriers specificity transport proteins specific for a certain ligand molecule Saturation transport maximum39M Uniport transporter Symbort Transporter Antiport Transporter 2 different kinds of molecules but in different directions Vesicular Transport processes that move large particles fluid droplets or numerous molecules at once through the membrane Endocytosis vesicular processes that bring material into the cell Phagocytosisthe cells takes in particulate matter Pinocytosisthe cell takes in solutes dissolved in extracellular fluid Receptor mediated endocytosis clathrincoated vesiclesspecific molecules are taken in after they bind to a receptor Excocytosisdischarging material from cell occurs when a material is discharged from the cell Vesicles in the cytoplasm fuse with the cell membrane Utilizes motor proteins energized by ATP 2Cytoplasm organelles Organelles Cytoskeletoncollection of filaments and cylinders determines shape of cell lends structural support
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