ANAT & PHYSIOL I
ANAT & PHYSIOL I CBIO 2200
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This 105 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmin Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Said in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/202520/cbio-2200-university-of-georgia in Biology Molecular Cell & Dev at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Genetics 0 Central Dogma U 2 gt W Z gt Coding Strand Template Strand mRNA leaves the nucleus thru nucleus pores to reach a ribosome where translation starts Template strandtranscribed into mRNA 0 Basepairing rules G 9 C AUG start codon A 9 T UGA UAA UAG stop codon Chromosomes Before DNA synthesis After DNA synthesis Gene Locus I Gene location 0 Chromosome number 0 PQ Short arm or long arm of centriole o band number 0 subband number Cell Cycle e S a h 0 lo e T vwocrmmm Cell in the Cell Cycle 1 InterQhase 3 Metaphase O 2 Prophase O 4 Anaphase 5 Telophase 6 Cytokinesis Epithelial Tissue 0 Cells are packed together 0 Avasculartissue No blood vessels Simple Sguamous 0 FunctionAllowdiffusion 0 Found in air sacs alveolus in lungs Simple Cuboidal 0 Function WaterAbsorption Found in kidney tubules 0 Transcytosisitransferofa molecule from one side ofa cell to the other Stratified Sguamous 7 Function Protection 7 Found in epidermis of skin Stratified Cu bo idal I 7 Function Protection A Found in ducts of sweat glands Simple Columnar Pseudostratified I Function Secrete mucus Function Secrete mucus I Found in small intestine Found in trachea Transitional I Function Expansion I Found in uterus and bladder 5 to Slayers of spherical cells 2to 3 layers of flat cells Connective Tissue Main difference between connective and epithelial tissue is that epithelial tissue is more compact like skin and connective is more loose like blood Blood 0 Hemopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow subject to many hormones that regulate blood cell productionformation hemopoiesis o Agranulocytes I Erythroblast 9 Erythrocytes matured RBC 0 Biconcave shape or OZCO2 transport I Monoblast 9 Monocyte matured WBC 0 Clear cytoplasm escape circulation Macrophages enlarge up to 10 times their original size I Lymphoblast 9 Lymphocytes matured o TLymphocyte found in thymus gland Thymosin helps with immunity Have Clear 0 BLymphocyte found in bones cytoplasm Mature into plasma cells that synthesize antibodies o Granulocytes I Myoblasts o Neutrophils first to arrive at site of infection secretes H20 0 Basophils secretes histamine and heparin a blood thinner o Eosinophils fights parasitic worm infection secrets histaminase an enzyme that degrades histamine I Megakaryoblast 9 Megakaryocytes 9 Platelets thrombocytes help with clotting Adiposemue i l 1 etm eelu 1547 W L I CeHsarepeekedtogetheranextepnonmtne mfferente between epxtheha and tonnemvenssue I Funttionfatstoragesourteofenergyinsuation V y thermoregMatmn J 39 f it x I Lota onHypodennisofskn Aren ar ssue I ContawnsAmnfnarnents I CoHagen o Funetion patkage organs 0 Stypeso tellsmonotwesmbmb ammastteHs o hype of bers e asnnamnfnarnents and toHagen Dense Connemvenssue I DenseRegu ar o Tendonmtonnembonetomusde o ngarnentsConnettsbonembone o Aponeumsismonnedsmusdemmusde I Dense negu ar o Founmn dermws ofskm I DenseE as t o Hbemnadernawn yofe amn o Foundwn ensoftneeye Cartiiage o Composed ofcnondrocytes Hyaline Cartilage FibreCartilage o Giassy ciear background 7 Found in intervertebrai discs and 0 Found in coastai cartiiage pubic symphysis a Function resist compression N Linear arrangement of chondrocytes Elastic Cartilage Composed of eiastin fiber Found in externai ear Made of eiastin oooo Chond rocytes fit into the iacu nae Bone Tissue Osteacytes Composed of custectblastsM 0 Compact Bone found in shaft of a iong bone 0 Canaiicuii connects osteocytes o Lameiia Circuiar structure where osteocytes are arranged o Centrai Canai Houses biood ceiis Haversian Canal pangvaanemmanmemmamngm a men Skn Mesarefmmd an wEgmar grunuresca edzrmsm ae Na ma linumis 5mm i umaus wnheha ussue a Maaemsmza ramm Earneum dead keramawzes wk m a waqu Lundum an mm mm ermumm Granu aed EEHS mm pmam 3D W395havedceH5Unakshke dendnz waqu assae an aver hth 2H5 game MW NanE vesnsemauwesmeus Mn Bland sunvl f penaumceu a Kermmm es makeskermm Wmervramprmem Prmemsd wdratmn a Me awn 25 makesme amn ak men a Dmdrm EMS LangErhms suDDhEdwzhhrmmes Phawwmsxs ManDDzea gm a Mekdce sTanHecd s Praducs sensazmn smslwezamucm numis Madafdwsur gu arhssun N Irmdumis Camvaszd afad vas txssu G andsa h 3km Em n Elind mer an rzluasad lniduzl and on Na Mszzrzllnn Muzh irzrduasad mm nuns wamymaz AHastkm Duchsnnlattachzdtahaxrfmhd a Avamn thwkadswzat Araundmvv lsandvuhmama Duchsmnnznzdtahawrfa hd Sudmfzraus swm muns a thmnt Odszzrausszxvmmmams Princlia lquotype13r cm39a e39 s Glands Swml pm Mwumna V 5mm uhamusuumun s Hammnzmands stintzswhakfatuHs a m Cemmanaus mxnmuns mm mm tar Endnz g Elinds Surely hummnzs mad if menllv rdusad inln um Sinaiquot DUCI39LESS glands Ex Pituitary gland Thyroid gland adrenal gland gonads Hormones vs Pheromones Arrector Pili I Piloerector muscle a bundle of smooth muscle cells attached to the hair follicle which allows hair to stand on end arrector pili 0 Has involuntary control reflex 0 Starts with A sensory receptor merkel cells stimulus9Central Nervous System Arrector pili effector Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma 0 Least dangerous 0 Most common 0 Rarely metastasize spread o Arise from Keratinocytes from stratum spinosum o Shiny appearance Squamous Cell Carcinoma o Reddened o Raised margin 0 Scaley appearance 0 If not treated it will metastasize Mahgnam Wm B Mm dangemus mameter u dennhed vaBCDru e AAsvmmevv x a negu aramder 39 c Cn nriB azkrbmwwrmangermxmre of Mars D gt 6mm mamemr Wm Funga mreumn Mug 0 Varasmzths 74237thmwewhuheadsmmfeumnlfema e 5th ange mweszabessarmpm lame onw mteumus one s Sarwpmm a Nnnparasmzmwes ousedusnmmsdoesn xaffenskmanazkdeadskmzeHs lkerannnzvte ezesandexoske emnmduzeaHergwueaumns nseus Sand ea lFema e onw mm penevany Sam Tungwaswy mfeumn rmm ea sand eas Banena mreumn Vropmm banenumrfermemanon max produzes promomus and ACNE Bones 0 OssificationBoneformation o Intramembranous Ossification starts within a membranous connective tissue that is gradually assi ed Ex Flat bones ofcranium 8 bones I Clavicle I Sandwich Model o Endochondral Ossification starts within cartilage that is gradually replaced with osseous tissue I Ex Long bones of body and epiphyseal plate zone of elongation mu mm mm rm uum u am qw g Femmu a munv my mmquot mmquot cammm Wm M m m Mm mm w m n M m m year minunmng W Indiumamquot Trabeculae where osteocytes are located in spongy bone Tubercle a bump or risen surface on the bone Periosteum tough layerthat covers the long bone Endosteum soft layerthat lines the cavity Red Bone Marrow hemopoetic stem cells found in the cavity that is surrounded bythe endosteum Yellow Bone Marrow replaces red bone marrow as you get older Found in the same cavity as red bone marrow Epiphyxezl Plate ii EsENEdcartliagEchnndmcytEs 2 PruileratanZDnE A wEiydwldl 3i ZDnE DnypEnerhy Ceiisbecnmeiarge 4 ZDnE Bf Caicl lcatlDrl Ca lncnrpnratlnn underhnrmnnai cuntmi Atamlri D ZDnE Bf Osslflcatlun OstEDbiasts asteucytes usteuciasts a steu tesirabeculaecpungybane or OstEDcvtEsrLacuriaEkumpad bane Zunes are an bmh SldES Bf the cartliagE fur gmwth o of Vitamin D Vitamin DC39i is converted into Calcidiol by the liver Calcidiol is Calcitriol goes to small intestine and stimulates cells of Si to absorb calcium irom meals calcium incorporated into bo OstEDc astsrBunEdEgradmchHs D SAME DEgadatmee EasE Ca and bEcDmEavaHaHEID b2 ncnrpnratEd mm new bnneussue u OstEDcyLEs araactwatad WhErE Ram mam Ram recepmrs quotOstEDgEmc ceHs 9 usienb asts 9 DstEDcytEs 9 nslendasts u OstEDscytEs can be many EHsfusEdtngEthernr Start WKH ENE 22 and aH undergn mmmmwsmn nuc Eus rEphcatmn and dmsmn but nu cytnkmesws Skeletal SW D Crama8bnnes mm 1 TENpDra 2 Ompwta Ethmmd SphEnmd Panela 2 I EthmmdBDnE Nzeylenz Fuwlerir Pmtuzua that s freerhwng that Enters mugw mam ubE passEsthru mbmm funmna and travE stn bramthru CnstaGanandeEdsDndwggstsbraw 5 AM anarymuebmMemnguencephammmum unwaaumpsy Sphennid Bane TsttEd s rudurEm nDsE seuztumim shaHnW slrumurEthat huusEsthE pnunary g and Tempum Bane mm mmquot mm mm Amlnmyumus vm am M W pm Ocmpwta Bane Supenw mm m mm mmmr membernae numal Mn mum ramsnewswexaumu a Earmemveussue mnnemngzhe ramum af afems mm a Maw haw mu m be ampressed sum dunng m h a Auawhramgrwmh a mramemhranaus assx cauanr made at Dana am a Fana UOhanE Zv man 21 Maxmse L21 Pa ame L21 N aW a Wermr Nasa Vamar m Manmh e m Lamma m Hvamhane Hmmnaeshapednanewaymgaznasmmngue i o Suturesuoms the crama bonestogether Sagwtta Suture between 2tempore bones on top m rmdd e ofhead Squamous Around tempora bone Lambdowd Postenor suture CoronaL Separates fronta bone from occwp ta bone MM Vertebra Co umn m7 Cemcew Vertebrae 7 At as Atlas C1 Dens Axis C2 Am as m Hub m m buHm mm m u NM m mum m In my I namequot Mr M a ThnrachEnEbraEUZ Lumbarvartebraa 5 12 Menu vmchmo 5 lumbarvmebrm mum enemal rmmen Each venebraE has afnramEn WhEn stacked thE vEnEbm fur menaHawsspmaxsar I pass n lnlerverlehrzl r zmen AHDWS spma nervestn pass a xmervetebram scs a sacrum a memes machemastemum bycan aga a Fa sE rubs Bmdstu DnEszt fcarmagE H a a Haaungmbs DD nntattachtnstEmum o sternum Breastbone o clavicle o Scapula o Humerus mayquot r a 1 4 W Remus and um head Carpas8 Maacarpaxs 5 Pha an slyxoln plumquot gEs 14 Yrocmur Ammumr ms nun scylnva pmcnn mp 0an Bane u n 1 Ma E vs may pEMs 1 rn A mm mm FEmur u Favea Capms attachment sum stE hgamEntsthat Wm anacmhe Head c he mmquot femurtntheacetabu um wawaand bu a quot95113ng any m mm w Lhauuly um Lukm mm m mnmm s Maelarsa s 5 Pha anges Tars 14 mus and a a c caneus J nw nfmrFunmraammwr nbmus ures slmngshurt bmusussue Gumphusws attach lemma each Sun a u Syndesmusws ung bruuscannemveussuemm mug bunes Ex dwstz pumunsufmbwz and bmz Cart zgeuuus a Synchundmsw Hyahneczm zgethzuumsbunetubunemzslzDamage a Symphusw ntewenebra dwscsandpubmsymphysws bmczm zgethzuumsbunetubane a Thezfmntz zndzmzndwb e Numwe quotsynusl 5 s Epwphysez p zte wm turn mm epwphysez mewhen yuu smpgmwmg szmznls wab emmub e 5 s sutures Ampmznhmsws shght m u Cznuagmazsxzx c Dwznhrusws freshm yams synznhrusws Wm web s arm age pubm symphysws synchundmsws and symphsws EN Numb M H 4 Muscular System Movement Movement Prime Muscle Mover Antagonist everyday terms anatomical terms Agonist Lowering Head Head Flexion 39 39 39 39 39 Splenius Capitis Raising Head Head Extension Splenius Capitis SLCI 39 39 39 39 Throwinga baseball Elbow Extension Triceps brachii and Anconeus Bicpes brachii brachialis and brachioradialus Kicking a football Knee Extension Quadriceps Rectus femoris vastus medialis vastus lateralis vastus Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semimembranuous Semitendonuous Climbing stairs Hip Flexion lliacus Psous iopsous Gluteus Maximus At ease moving legs to shoulder width apart Thigh Abduction moving away Gluteus Medias Adductors Magnus Longus Brevis Bending Over Trunk Flexion Rectus Abdominus Erector Spinal Wrist Flexion Palm Flexion Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris medial anterior muscles of arm Pitcher s arm inflammation of the origin of the flexors Medial epicondyle of the humerus Extensor Carpi Radialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris medial posterior muscles of arm Tennis elbow inflammation of the origin of extensors Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Arm Abduction raising arm to be parallel to floor Deltoid Pectoralis major Latissimus Dorsi widest muscle in body These are synergistic musclesmultiple muscles work together Standing on tip toes Planterflexion Gastrocnemius Soleus Posterior Tibialis Anterior Tibialis Standing on heels Dorsiflexion Anterior Tibialis Gastrocnemius Soleus Posterior Tibilais Pronation Crossing of radius and ulna done by pronators Supination Anatomical position done by supinators Muscles of Respiration Diaphragm Innervated by phrenic nerves External Intercoastal Obliques Downward superficial obliques Internal Intercoastal Obliques Upward deep obliques Muscles ofAnterolateral Compartment of Abdomen Most vulnerable muscle no bone protection 3 muscles that protect visceral of abdominopelvic area 0 Superficial to deep External Oblique Downward Internal Oblique Upward Transversus Abdominus Across OOO Facial Muscles Zygomaticus Smiling muscle Orbicularis Oris Kissing muscle around mouth Orbicularis Oculi around eye Masseter Chewingshutting mouth Sternocleidomastoid Most superficial neck muscle Corrugator Supercilii Eyebrow muscle frowning muscle wrinkling forehead vertically Frontalis Wrinkling forehead horizontally expression of surprise Thyrohyoid between thyroid gland and hyoid bone Sternohyoid between sternum and hyoid bone Omohyoid upper margin of scapula to hyoid bone Sternothyroid between sternum and thyroid gland Diagastric triangleshaped connected to hyoid bone Linea Alba Separates both sets of abs middle anterior white line divides midsagittal Cross Section of Muscle Include Endomyseium Epimysiumk Fascicle Perimyseium 3 Tyges of Muscle Fibers 1 Skeletal Muscle Cell one cell can be 30 cm long very long multinucleated striated voluntary control External oblique sternohyoid all muscles basically 2 Smooth Muscle Cell No striations spindleshaped involuntary control Erector pili 3 Cardiac Muscle Cell Striated mononucleated branched involuntary control Only in heart Intercalatedstructures between each cell contains proteins act as adhering sites act as adhering junctions Desmosomes Also contains gap junctions which allows cell to cell communication Skeletal Muscle Cells Sarcolemma plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells Sarcomere Contractile unit of a muscle cellfiber distance between Zlines Thick Filaments made of myosin Thin Filaments made of actin coated by Troponin and Tropomyosin lband light bands on Zline A Band dark bands on thick filaments Dystrophin connects thin filament to sarcolemma tells plasma membrane to contract when sa rcomere contracts Muscle Cell Contraction PS Iquot l Equot l kDOO l 0 VoltageGated Ca channels at axonal terminal allow Ca to come in and diffuse Ach into synapse to bind to receptor LigandGated Cation Channels open to allow ACh to bind to ACh receptors at the postsynaptic membrane a ACh acts as a LigandGated Cation Channel Then the muscle reached the End Plate Potential Sodium is pumped into the cell and Potassium is pumped out of the cell a They go from low to high gradient The electrical charge spreads and creates action potential which opens VoltageGated Cation Channels and cause electrical charges AP s electrical impulses and spread to entire sarcolemma The electrical impulses travel deep into TTubules thru VoltageGated Ca Channels and reach the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum stores Calcium and opens VoltageGated Channels releasing Ca Ca ions exit and reach the TroponinTropomyosin complex and binds to Troponin changing the conformation This exposes the binding site on Troponin The myosin head on the thick filament finds the binding site and bind to it ATP is hydrolyzed by Myosin ATPase and causes the powerstroke the contraction pulling the thin filaments closer to the Mline This causes the sarcomere to be shorter Thick filaments don t move just the thin filaments Muscle Cell Relaxation 5 Calcium ions are removed from the TroponinTropomyosin complex when ATP opens the Ca channels Voltage Gated Cation Channel Ca is pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Calcium ATPase causing relaxation AChE breaks down ACh for muscle relaxation Elastic Filaments o Titin makes the elastic filaments o Springy protein prevents too much contractionrelaxation o Keeps the thick filaments from touching the Zline Elastic Filaments Elastic Fibers Thin Filaments Protein Titin Protein Elastin Protein Actin Links thick filaments and Zline Found in elastic connective tissue elastic cartilage dense elastic connective tissue Binding site for myosin heads Important Enzymes o Myosin ATPase Component of the myosin head 0 Hydrolyzes ATP into ADP and Pi o Allows myosin head to cock bind and powestroke 0 Calcium ATPase Calcium pump that moves Ca ions back to sarcoplasmic reticulum causing muscle relaxation Duchenee Muscular Dystrophy DMD 0 Causes muscles to atrophy tighten 0 Genetic disorder found on xchromosome 23 rd chromosome sex chromosome 0 Occurs when Dystrophin protein is mutates during transcription and translation Prevents communication of tension during 0 3500 amino acids make up Dystrophin 39clu cult to the ATP sources a a 39 39 39 Uses 0 So Giucose 02 9 H20 CD2 0 Uses about 38ATP o Exampie An hour iong waik in the park any iong iasting activity 0 ShortTerm energy use Lactic Acid Fermentation 0 So Giucose 9 Pyruvates 9 Lactic Acid Lactatei 9 Muscie is fatigued 0 From Giucose 9 Pyruvates 2 ATPare used 0 Does not invoive Oxygen because Oxygen is depieted o Exampie Basketbaii game and coach caiis tne piayer out any other fast moving activity fora iong period 0 Immediate Use of energy Immediate and intense Uses immediate sources Pnospnagen System 0 Myokinase muscie enzyme that brings 2 ADPs together 1 Pnospnate group ofanADP goes to the other ADP which is converted to AMP 39 Requires 1 ATP HEN HQN N N N N 0 0 gt o o gt H ii N ii ii N Hoi ioifio N HoiP ioi iO N 0 0 O 0 OH OH OH OH CM OH 0 Creatine Pnosgnate CP Kinase Creatine Pnospnate ADP 9 Creatine ATP 39 Remove Pnospnate from Creatine Pnospnate and adds it to ADP 39 RequireslATP Muscle Fibers exercise in that consume site for Respiration Fermentation in Nervous System I Neurons Generate and conduct nerve impulses I Neurogalia Can NOT generate nor conduct nerve impulses have supportive functions Structural Classifications Unipolar Bipolar Multipolar Mainly in Dorsal Root ganglia Found in taste buds and retina Most of neurons in human body Gangliacollection of cell bodies of neurons of Peripheral Nervous System Ganglia aggregation of cell bodies of PNS Ex Dorsal Root Ganglia Nuclei aggregation of cell bodies of CNS Ex substantia nigra dark grey nucleus full of melanin releases Dopamine inhibits neurons of basal nuclei Functional Classification Motor Sensory Conduct nerve impulses TOWARDS from CNS Conduct nerve impulses AWAY from CNS In between afferent and efferent neurons Afferent Efferent WITHIN CNS Unipolar Communicates with muscles Association glands etc Bipolar Multipolar Re ex Arch Multipolar Neuron I AP skips Schwann Ces which is called Saltatory Conduction I Axon Hillock initiates AP Neuroglia Microglia Phagocytosis clings around neuron Schwann Cells PNS specific myelination Oligodendrocytes CNS specific few branches myelination PPN Astrocyte Sta rshaped neuroglia a Nutritive function b Participate in the formation of BBB BloodBrain Barrier c When you lose a neuron it s gone Astrocytes can be replaces f scientists could make Astrocytes excitable they could cure many diseases 5 Satellite Cells Found in the Ganglia glue soma bodies together 6 Ependyural Cells Ciliated line of cavities of brain 2 lateral third cavity fourth cavity a Cilia will move cerebral spinal fluid b Also line central canal of spinal cord Action Potential Action Potential End Plate Local Potential Results from opening of VoltageGated Cation Channels Results from opening of LigandGated Cation Channels May disappeardecline or may lead to threshold point of no return as aresult of intense Temporal Stimulus over time Spatial 39 39 39 by many neurons EPP End Plate Potential I Can be excitatory ESPS andor inhibitory ISPS to postsynaptic membrane I 2 possible reasons 0 K channel opens K leaves and membrane potential becomes more negative 0 Cl channel opens Cl diffuses into cell membrane become more negative Calcium Homeostasis I Body s ability to maintain Calcium in a normal range 92104 mg100mL I Hypocalcemia less than 92 decreases threshold 0 Neurons become hyperexcitable causing spasms 0 Could cause Carpopedal Spasms at 6 mg100mL o 4mg100mL pharyngospasm suffocation and laryngospasm 0 To recover Calcium must be taken from bones and body must rely on Vitamin D synthesis refer to previous notes on Vit D synthesis I Hypercalcemia more than 104 mg100mL threshold is increased 0 Hypoexcitability slow sluggish neuronsreflexes o If not treated Cardiac arrest could occur Classes of Neurotransmitters 1 Acetylcholine 2 Amino Acids a Glycine Inhibitory neurotransmitter causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane b GABA GammaAminoButyric Acid primary neurotransmitter in brain H3NCH2CH2CH3COOH c Glutamate Excitatory helps Ca Channels 3 Biogenic Amines derived from Amino Acids a Tyrosine or Tryptophone b Ex Dopamine mood Serotonin memory learning sleep Norepinephrine sympathetic reactions c Dopamine is degraded in synapse by MonoAmineridase 1 amino group i Deficiency in Dopamine as a result of degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons leads to Parkinson s Disease ii MAOIsquot I quot quot 39 quotquot d Cholinestrase Inhibitors slow progression of Alzheimer s Disease slow r g 39 of Parkinson s Disease CBIO 2200 Study Guide 11012 Anatomy Study of structure answers quotwhat is itquot Physiology Study of function answers quothow does it workquot Anatomical position Erect human body with feet flat on the floor Palms facing forwardoutward with hands down Eyes facing forward Arm is supinated opposite is pronation AnteriorFront Ex Sternum is anteriorto Ex Nose is Ex Ear is lateral to nose midline ofthe human ProximalNear Ex Elbow is to limbs tothe limb side sides to the Anatomical Planes Transverse Plane Divides body into upper and lower portions CoronalFrontal Plane Divides body into anterior and posterior portions Sagittal Plane Divides body into left and right portions Midsagittal Plane Divides straight in the middle at the midline Dividing Body Regions The Abdomen can be divided into 4 quadrants and into 9 regions Lmasagmai plane llna Body Cavities Cavities that are open to the exterior Nasal lined with mucous membrane Cavities that are closed do not open to the exterior Anterior Body Cavity Thoracic Cavity 2 Pleural cavities ouses the Lungs Cardiac cavities ouses the Heart Mediastinum Separates the pleural cavities and houses the thymus trachea esophagus and the large blood vessels Abdomincalpelvic cavity d inal cavity Houses the digestive organs Pelvic cavity Houses urinary or ans Posterior Body Cavity lilled with Cerebral Spinal Fluid CSF Cranial Cavity ouses the brain There are 3 layers that coverthe cavity collective called the 3 meninges Dura Materouter layertough Arachinoid membranelooks like a web Pia Mater inner layerdelicate Vertebral cavity Houses the spinal cord Copyrmht lhlmeauw llCompaniuIJnmPlmushn mqurmi lurnpw wimn mwm Cramal c vlly vmmlnr owed Vanzhrai xnal Thoracu mull VernEli cam Ahdomrnovelvrc male Abdnmrnavelvrc Palwccavuy awry Fem wvKy a Midiaglnal vlow mammal mmu vluw Anterior Body Cavity Make Up All lined with quotSerousquot or quotSerosaquot Membrane a double layer membrane Parietal Outer layer lining cavity Visceral Inner layer lining the organ Above Epica rdium Visceral pericardium Ex What is Visceral Pericardium Inner layer of the serosa membrane that covers the heart What is Parietal Pleural Outer layer of serosa membrane that lines the cavity in which the lungs are located Abdominal Pelvic Cavity Make Up Housing all of the visceral of abdomen Ex What is Vsiceral Peritoneum Inner layer of the serosa membrane that lines the organs of the abdominal region What is Parietal peritoneum Outer layer of the serosa membrane that lines the cavity in which the organs of the abdominal region are located Mediastinum The partition that separates the 2 pleural cavities Contains the pericardial cavity trachea esophagus thymus gland Thymus gland The thymus gland is large in children and starts to shrink at the age of 7 to almost disappearing at the age of 100 Secretes hormone called Thymosine Used for maturation and differentiation of your T cells Tlymphocytes Very important in immunity Serosa Membranes and Mesentery Double layers of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal region Posterior Mesentery Continuation infolding of the serosa membrane Attaches small intestines to posterior body wall Mesocolon Mesentery that attachessuspends the large intestine colon Anterior Mesentery used for organ suspensinon nfolding of mesentery turns fatty Greater Omentumhanging from the stomach and covering the small intestines Lesser Omentum attaches inferior region of liver to stomach Retroperitoneum Space in the abdominal cavity behindposterior toretro the peritoneum Organs that are retroperitoneal only have peritioneum on their anterior side Ex Kidneys Aorta Pancreas Metabolism The Sum ofenergy processes in the body Catabolism aBiochemical reactions that produce energy by degrading large molecules into smaller molecules Ex Glucose 029C02H201Makes 38ATPl Anabolism rBiochemical reactions that use energy to produce larger molecules Ex Amino Acids Energy9 large protein molecules Homeostasis r omeo home stasisconstant r stable Ex BodyTemp 986F 7c Ex Glucose level in blood 807100mg100ml ltlt hvpoglvcemia V i 317335 gtgt L0 hyperglycemia After a Big Meal Glucose level increases stimulating the beta cells ofthe islets of langerhans lpancreasl to secrete Insulin which reaches the liver Liverconve 5 glucose to Glycogen in the liver and muscles Liver acts as a stomge site for glucose in the form of glycogen ta nsg i rri a39ns ci ii c felf Eat9Glucose ncreases9beta cells of pancreas stimulated9secretes insulin9insulin reaches liver9 liverand muscle converts glucose to glycogen9glycogen is stored in liver lnsulin lowers Glucose level in Blood Starvation Glucose levels drop9alpha cells are stimulated9which secretes Glucagon9Glucagon stimulates break down of Glycogen Figure 1 HypulhalamlcPllllllalyTllyrnld Axis T0 Glucose in liver 8 Glucagon increase Glucose level in Blood quot quot The Body Uses Feed Back Mechanism to Maintain Homeostasis 2W Negative Feed Back T3 Triiodothyronine T4Tetraiodothyronine Excess i3 and T4 inhibits the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary TRHThyrotropin Releasing Hormone TSHThyroid Stimulating Hormone The hypothalamus secretesTRH Thyrotropin Releasing r ewhich reaches the Anterior Pituitaly which secretesTSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as a result which goes to the Thyroid Gland which secretesthyroid hormones including t3 T quot 39 39 and t4 quot I In creating excess amounts of thyroid hormones the thyroid gland inhibits the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary from secreting TRH and TSH respectively Positive Feed Back Posterior Pituita ry Storage gland for Oxytocin nonapeptide OTLove bonding hormone memory uterus contraction during labor During labor Cervis will send nerve impulses to hypothalamus where OT will be further secreted to cause more contractions You can also get Positive Feed Back involving breast feeding a u umlm or martini 5 Brain sllmulales Oxylocill siinlulales meme G r mimemns an llshes gt fetus lcwara cervix i Oxyloclrl canch in bloucsueam D mews 3 Head or lelus pushes againsl cellix pllLllKary g and to secrete oxymc n l Nerve Impulse imm lransmmadlo mam I Mechanism to maintain homeostasis o Neuronal Regulation of Blood Pressure o Hypelhalamus piuuums oxyuxln iliai is released as 210 pimimy e Neural pathways any slimuli m hypothalamus o Suzkllng sllmulates newe endings in nipple and araola or breast Iabule areoia o Oxymzln causes mammaly Iobuies w mmm 9 Milk leldown Dams dud Shortterm fluctuation of blood pressure E jumping out of bed quickly Baroreceptors special sensory cells found in some major arteries supplying the brain Once baroreceptors sense low blood pressure they send nerve impulses to CNS which responds and sends nerve impulses to heart leading heart rate to rise A high heart rate pumps more blood which compensates for short term drop in blood pressure I Long term drop in blood pressure Hypotension Specialized cells of kidneys sense low BP Kidneys secrete Renin enzyme Renin cleaves breaks down Angiotensinogen large protein secreted by liver into quotAngiotensin Iquot 10 amino acid molecules which is further converted to quotAngiotensin IIquot 8 amino acid molecules by ACE Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Ag brings BP back up to normal and is a powerful vasoconstrictor 0 Levels of Organization in Human Body 0 0 Systems I ntegumentary System Skin I Urinary System I Cardiovascular System I Respiratory I Endocrine I Nervous I Muscular I Digestive I Skeletal I Reproductive I mmune Lymphatic Organs Tissues Study oftissues Histology I Connective I Nervous I Muscular I Epithelial skin Cells structural functional unit of life I Study of cells cytology I quotCell Theoryquot Any living organism is made of cells Organelles I Mitochondria nucleus golgi apparatus Molecules DNA Protein I Carbohydrates I Lipids I Nucleic Acids I Proteins Made of amino acids 0 At ms Carbun ngen OxygEn Hydra AH nrgamc magna s madE Bf Barbary PrDtEms are made ham Nnragen Water 5 Hydngn and Oxygen Examp e uf Haw nrgan systEms mtEract o chu EstEm precursnrtn Wamm D73 WEakESqurm uf Wamm D Wamm D73 5 farm s a absurb ca mum mm mea s ca mum mcnrpnrated mtn bane o quotMalinaquot neEdEdw u amnunts by Hyrmd gana furthyrmd HmmunE synthasws T3 4 thhuut dee Hyrmd g and cannut prnducE T3 T4 OvEr stwmu atmn uf thyrmd g and rEsu tsm EndEmm GmtEr I Prnleinx Ammu amdssau dmg B Dcks Bf PrDtEms cw Na PhEEssEnUa an FHEHWa amnE cannut b2 synthEsszd an 15 awn EssErma ammu amd Eat fa s WKH PHE FHEHWa amnE Hydramasqenzyme whmh adds OH DmakETymsmE PAH 4f PHE Hydramase duesnnt Wurk a gEnEU msaraer accurs ewe accummatmn Bf Pheny a amne s canvEnEd mm Phenw KEtDnEs 5quot of mstEad DnyrDsm rCg 7 CH sPhEnw emnes hurt the nEerus systEm causmngnta raardatmn mu coo 1 sREcEsswEGEnam DwsurdEerducEs NONFUNCHONAL PAH whmh L swam LWW causEs PKU Pheny KEtunUna m nyas mnwmwn 7 Pheny kanngs appEar m unne 535 NIltWquotY Mquot sBabwes Wm w W Havesmm me that s a mnstfrEE Bf pheny a anme sBawas 5th HEEds smaH amnunts Bf P E Sulfur Containing Amino Acids Ox ill H Cysteine contributes to the stabilization of proteins using Disulfide Bonds very strong iciciw covalent bonds H H0 H2 SH H Methionine First Amino Acid to be assembled in TranslationProtein synthesis which HxNi ic O takes place at the ribosome H H OH Ex Met AA AA AA AA 2 Disulfide bonds form when Sulfur 39 l 39 39t CH2 groups are In c ose prOXImI y CH Lysozymes Enzymatic proteins that have disulfide bonds Used for degrading cell walls of bacteria Present in Lacrimal secretion tears and saliva Function Degradation of bacterial cell wall Peptide Bonds H i O H l 0 Forms from dehydrationcondensation reactions and produces water N c cf Nic ic Peptides Made up of Amino acids linked together by peptide bonds H H OH H H OH covalent bonds HOHH H ill I l 0 N i c N Cf i i H H H OH Peptide Bond A molecule of water IS removed from two glycme amino acids to form a peptide bond Amino Acids GlyGlycine lli HZN f COOH H glycine Ala Alanine H H l O N C C 39 OH H CH3 Phe H P o Phenylalanine NC H CH2 OH Cys Cysteine 0 i H icigirx HO CIZHz H SH MetMethionine H T 00 N C H HZ OH W2 T CH3 Tyr Tyrosine I300 H3N lt H T i i 39 OH Carbohydrates Macromolecule complex polysaccharides complex sugars Structural unit is quotsimple sugars or monosaccharides Ex Pentose 5 Carbon Ribose Deoxyribose Hexose 6 Carbon Glucose Galactose Ribose Deoxyribose C5H1005 C5H1104 Ho H2 0 OH Rihose H 2Deoxyrihnse How to make Polysaccharides rCondensation on monosaccharide59Disaccharides Ex Glucose Galactose 9 Lactose Milksugar 39l lzCH HZCH mmsolmn Hat ViH n ll UH cl lic Ran quotva Vss Lam5s 39 together by Glycosidic Elonds Glycoprotein sugar protein ExTSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH reaches the follicular cells ofthe Thyroid Gland releasing T3 and T4 Lipids Most lipids are made up ofstructural units called FattyAcids Fatty Acids Carboxyl group Long chain of carbon and Hydrogen Fatty acids can be Saturated no double bonds in tail or Unsaturated at least one double bond in tails g V Fatty Acids Naturally occurring unsaturated FAs can be degraded quicklyeasily k Trans FAs are resistant to degradation allowing for longer shelf life but are not degraded as easily and are not good for health Polyunsaturated FAs Ex Arachidonic Acid C20 Common component of phospholipid molecules found in plasma membrane of many cells elaidic acid oleic acid stearic acid trans unsat cis unsat saturated Polar head 0 0H H l Hac Nfcrc J H Nonpolm tails OH H a Chemical structure vi a prosphoiipid Pnospnale group Polar Nonpolar Polar heads tails Weads llf lll PM 93 Nonpoler ails u Simpli ed way to draw a phospholipid Cell membrane Phos hatid linositol 4 5 Bis hos hate Phospholipid Molecules Amphibolic inquot u 4 Contains Gycero Backbone 3 carbon alcohol umu 2 Fatty Acid tails m Phosphate group crime cvavvvm m Polar Molecule 2 A W quot V 0 There can be Mono Di and Tri glycerides quotWhamn 6 g Phosphatidylcholine who 5 D l I w o VIM O L D lril39J Cholesterol It is a steroid Ex Testosterone Estrogen Aldosterone VItamIn D chulesteml is a consmuem of39membranes and the source of steroid hormones lle i IV Nucleic Acids V CN IiNCCN DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid missing OH at C2 H gtC H l CH C C RNARIbonuclec AcId n Crlt ugx x Nucleic acids are made up of Nucleotides quot Adenine A nine G DNA and RNA 390 1nd RNA Each nucleotide consists of I urine Nitrogen Base Sugar pentose NH 0 0 Phosphate group rl n n y ru 1 g u N x M a W l C c fx 0 K n 0 N H o x H lll il ll c losine c Tllj39mine to men rm DNA and RNA mm only RNA only Pg nmidme DNA is linked by Phosphodiester Bonds HO BASE O o OARTo o O BASE Nex Phospha e E ATP Adenosine lriphosphale AMP Adenosine monophosphale UDP Uridinediphoshphale The Cell The Cytoske eton has 3 dwfferent bers chro aments chrotubu es ntermedwate F aments pinocytctlc vesicle mIIochcnd an Iysosame Gal i Golgi vesigles apparatus nucleolus rough ER andnplasmlc mtlculum nucleus smpolh ER no rlbOSOmeS centriales 2 Ezcll composed o a mmmlunule triplets micrntubules cell plasma membrane cytoplasm rihnsume EMArmsmngzum Cell Structures I chrovaus ncreases absorbmg space quotDrmksquot for the ceH thum Moves extraceHu ar uwd Has 5 92 syste Hageuum 925ystemaso o m 4 o Cenmo es 90 wstem dwrectformatwon of rmcrotubu es oFspmde bers durmg ceH won thochondrwa sme for ATP producuon ceHu ar respwauon 34 ATP are produced 0 Formu a mucosa 02 coz H20 mbosomes smeforprotem synthesws o Transcnbed m nudeus o Trans ated m nbosomes Em through nudear pores Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Initial processing of proteins Golgi Body Final processing and packaging of proteins Lysosomes Contains digestive enzymes Peroxisomes Contains catalase Plasma Membrane Phospholipid BiLayer o Glycolipid Glycoprotein Glycocalyx I Plays a role in cell adhesions and recognition 0 Other Functions of Plasma Membrane Proteins I Act as transporters 1 Channels Passive transport no ATP or cellular respiration required Symport 2 Pumps Active transport Needs ATP or cellular respiration Antiport Transport Across Plasma Membrane Small moleculesZions 0 Passive Transport Does not require ATP 0 FiltrationFilters thru poresslits in plasma membrane I Ex Filtration in kidneys rate lSOLday o Diffusion I Simple Does not require protein carriers 0 Ex COZO2 exchange 02 diffuses thru capillary with CO2 to create a gas exchange external respiration Facilitated Requires protein carriers Ex Aquaporin Active Transport Requires ATP 0 O O Symport GlucoseSodium Channel secondary active transport Antiport SodiumPotassium Pump primary active transport Uniport 1 type of substance transports in 1 direction Ex Cl39 pump in trachea Cl39 is pumped actively Nai follows as a result of electrical charge H20 molecules follow by osmosis which creates water mucus molecules which allow movement of cilia Disfunctional Chloride Pump mucus that is not secreted and builds up This thick mucus causes infection from the buildup of bacteria accumulated from the mucus Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator CFI39R ReceptorMediated Endocytosis Coated Pit Coated Vesicle o Familial Hypercholesterolemia FH 0 Genetic disorder of high cholesterol Disfunctional receptor protein Different functions of Plasma Membrane Proteins o Enzymes ATPase ex Na K pump 0 Adenylate Cyclase Converts ATP to cyclic AMP and PPi ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate 9 Cyclic AMP Acts as 2nd messenger PPi Pyrophospate ReceptorsRecognition sitesAdhesion sites Glucagon 1 Glucagon bonds to receptors CAM Cell Adhesion Molecule 2 Activates G proteins cAMP 2nd messenger 3 Activates Adenylate Cyclase Hormones other than glucagon that use cAMP 4 Converts ATP to cAMP and PPi Epinephrine and TSH Anatomy and Physiology Professor Said Quiz 3 Study Guide Adipose Tissue Characteristics Cells are packed together an exception to all other types of connective ssues Function Fat storage insulation Thermoregulation Source of energy Location Hypodermis of skin around heart and kidneys behind eyeball in socket Characteristics Made up of actin filaments collagen monocytes fibroblats mast cells elastin Function Package organs provide strength elasticity and support Location Subcutaneous layer deep to skin superficial part of dermis mucous membranes around blood vessels and nerves Cho IV Cartilage Cell Type Chondrocyte Lacuna Hyaline Cartilage Fibro Cartilage Elastic Cartilage Glassy background Located in intervertebral Elastin fiber discs pubic symphysis Will not see fibers Located in external Resists compression ear Ex Costal cartilage connects sternum to Arranged in linear order ribs V Dense Connective Tissue Dense Regular Dense Irregular Dense Elastic Fanquotd quot7 Located in the p F c ndons39 Dermis of Skin Fibers are mainly made llach bones to muscle fEastm Located in the lens oflhe Lfgsn39zet iones m bones eye enables focus on near andor far objects Aponeurosis Allach muscle to muscle Does not replace w new Elaslin as you age Vl Bones Osseous Tissue Cell Type Osleocyles Develop from Osleoblasl Dsteocyte i5 found in tne A c B iacuna omgact one Canaliculi connects Osleon osteocytes towardS the 1 V Haversian canai WWI F39 quot5 In I Q 1 v inquot 4659 91 4 i311 Haversiancanal I 1 gm wntt blundvessels 1 ii x n Trams A g l 1 i 52 ankmaun39s quot t a Lam ila mam it n 1533191 canal 33 y 9 an compact bane to was 1 Georges Unvvasilychm wn spongy bone B Spongy Bone Spongy Bone Yellow Marrow Compact Bone Characteristics No osteons Osteocytes are found on irregular structures called trabeculae an arrangement Epithelial Tissue Cells are packed together Basal Membrane Apical Membrane Lumen Avascular Connective Tissue Cells are apart with matrix ground substance Except adipose tissue Vascular except cartilage Skin 3 Main Layers Epidermis Super cial Dermis Hypodermis Deep 2A Strata opridermis Stratified Squamous Stratum Corneum Dead keratinocytes no blood supply Most super cial layer Stratum Lucidum Only found in think skin palms Stratum Granulosum highly granulated Stratum Spinosum spinyshaped cell Stratum Basale one layer of cubelike cells highly mitotic gt gives rise to all tvoes of cells in skin Spec39 39zed Cells of Ep39der 39 Keratinocytes make KeratinJ a water proof protein prevents dehydration Melanocytes make Melanin dark pigrnent protein Dendritic Cellsr Langerhans Monocyle ongin to Pnagocytosis Merkel Cells Tactile ceiis function W sensation Se SitWe to toucn and inrorrn nervous System Glands of Skin Exocrine Glands on Glands Sebaceous rnernprane diffuse to surrace Wax Glands Cerum erious VWl open 0 Surface in localized area EX ear Sweat Glands SUdoriferous Sweat pore Apocrine Merocrine quotThck CodrSWea gland Location Around nipples and pubic area quotWatery Sweat Location Aii over r ce Characteristics Duct Skin sur a opens around tne nair Characteristics No follicle Odioriferous Smen Ductopens to nas srneii surface of ki Sex pheromone Exocrine Glands Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine Depends on type of secretion which are released into ducts Endocrine Glands Secrete hormones Are generally released into the blood stream Ductless Piloerector Muscle Arrector Pilil A bundle of smooth muscle cells attached to the hair follicle Works under involuntary control Function Will respond tothe touch Starts with a sensory receptor Merkel Cells sends message to CNS CNS replies and sends message to Arrector Pili Merkel Cells CNS e Arrec tm Pili Hormone Stays within the body acts internally Works within the individual Ex Growth hormone Thyroid hormone Insulin Glucose Pheromone Secreted to the exterior act externa y Effects the behavior of another individual ofthe same species Ex Trailfollowing Termites Sex pheromones in humans Skin Cancer Basal Cell Caminoma Least dangerous Most common Rarely metastasized Shinypearly appearance Highly mitotic on Stratum Basale Squamous Cell Carcinoma Raised margin Reddened color Scaly appearance Can be metastasized if not diagnosed and treated immediately Malignant Melanoma FoHoWs ABCD Rure A7 A5 mmet B rregmar border I Coror rnmure D Drameter argermarr 6mm Parasites of S Fungal Infection Mites Sarcoptic Mange Mite Sarcupzes scabrer Causauve or scabres wear tch House Dust Mite Dermamphagmdese Feces and exogke eton mduce arrergrc reacuon response Feed on dead keraunocytes Insects Sand Flea Fernare deposrts bosterror end rmo your 5mm mare detects Tunga Penetrans Tungrasrs Bacterium Propionibacterium Fermentauon that produces Propronrc Acro Cause a componentofme creauon or SW55 Cheese nores m cheese are resort or carbon droxrde m rerrnemauon Bone Format n Os cat on Starts wrm membranous connectwe rrssue aanswrm camragemar rs graduaHy that re graduaHy ossrreo Sanowrcn Moder repraceo wrm osseousussue EX F at bones of Cramum 8 C avrde Ex Long bones Spungy m xsmM a La v an Details of E2 ghyseal Plate Zone of Growth AH ZoneS are found m ong bone on both S deS ofthe Carmage ofthe ep physea p ate Reserve Cartilage Zone A a Contams chondrocvtes am 45 lt9 4 a Proliferation Zone rMeans actwe y dmdmg Zone of Hypertrophy rCeHs grow arger Zone of Calci cation a ncorporatwon of Cat hormona contro Zone of Ossi cation r OSteobast5 and osteocytea Other Cell Tynes in Bone Tlss Osteoclastsr Bone degradmg ceHS Mu tmudeated 1344 nuc euses m ceH 050w Emsh Border Rankl 39 Rankl s secreted by 39 v the osteoblast and e Ran 05mm Eone Degradation ansnlp Lacuna mm mm b mas avaname m be banatissua Oslanblas Origin of Osteoclasts Many cens fuse together Starts with one cell undergoes O many Mitotic divisions with no 6Z 39 Cytokinesis Q M Mitosis nuclear division of a a 39 Cytokinesis cytoplasmic 7 division Axial Skeleton 80 Bones Skull Thoracic Vertebrae Cranial 8 Facial 14 C Cervical 7 Frontal Vomer Stemum 1 Thoracic 12 Sphenoid Mandible Ribs 24 Lumbar 5 Ethymoid Zygomatic 2 Sacrum Parietal 2 Maxillary 2 H oid Bone Coccyx Occipital 1 Palatine 2 y Temporal 2 Nasal 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae 2 Lacrimal 2 Frontal bone Supraorbital Glabella oramen Coronal suture Parietal bone Supraorbital margin ll Squamoussuture 39 39 Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Middle nasal y L concha l a Zygomatic bone inferior nasal quot739 lnfraorbital foramen concha quot lntermaxillary suture Vomer Maxilla Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance Ethym Bone Crlsta Galll attach to Crista Galll meninges of brain Crlb new Crlbriform Foramlna 0 5 rlform Foramlna allow for the e bers of the olfactory nerve end nerve lmpulses rom nasal cavlty to olfactory lobe Naegleria fowleri ElFLAAmA FORM T50 Protozoa in Some lakeS can travel lhrough naSal caVin and lhrough crihriform formina lo feed on brain Freerliving protozoa can lransform from bi agellaled form 10 amoeboid form quickly PAMV Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalilic AMieeaw FaRM SghenOId Bone Inlundlhulum The Sella Turcica houses the piluilary gland Sella Turclca leltary Gland Sphennld Bane Special Structures and Sutures 1 mm mm mm 12 Sutures of the Eye Supraorbital foramen Orbital plate of frontal bone Lesser wing of Sphenoid bone Zygomatic process of frontal bone Greater wing of Sphenoid bone Optic foramen Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Superior orbital fissure f i Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Frontal process of maxilla Orbital process of palatine bone Orbital surface of maxilla Inferior orbital 39 ssure i i Infraorbital r to amen Fontanels Fontanels are membranes connective tissues go through intramembranous ossification Allows for the skull of a baby to be compressed during birth to travel through the birth canal allows for brain growth Anterior Fontanel Posterior Fontanel Sphenoid Fontanel Mastoid Fontanel Mastoid Process Occigital Condyles Articulate with the Atlas Cl allows for movement of head forward flexion and backward extension Vertebrae Vertebral Foramen Intervertebral Foramina Transverse Foramina Allows for the spinal Allows for spinal nerves to n the cervical vertebrae cord to pass from pass Spinous process the brain down to the vertebral COI U mn Transverse process Superior articular facet Vertebral loramen Body 13 Intervertebral Disc Nucleus pulposus Anulus fibrosus Herniated Disc 392 39 Nucleus pulposus composed of mainly water to help withstand pressure Anulus fibrosus fibrocartilage of chondrocytes Spinal nerve The nucleus pulposus is ruptured and pains the nerve OOtS Herniation of nucleus pulposus Crack in Spinal nerve anulus fibrosus Clavicle Sternal end Hip Bone Acetabulum Receives the head of the femur lschium sit down bone Conoid tubercle Nucleus pulposus Anulus fibrosus Flat end articulates with the Scapula bone formed end through intramembranous ossification Ilium lschium Pubis lliac crest Anterior gluteal line Inferior gluteal ine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior interior iliac spine Greater scratic notch Anterior inferior iliac spine Body oi ilium Pubic Arch 90 in male 120 in female AIL Superior ramus of pubis Body ol pubis lschial spine Lesser sciatic notch Body of ischium Ischial tuberosity Ramus of ISChlum Inlerior ramus ol pubis Obturator loramen CHAPTER ONE Major Themes of Anatomy and Phys 00 What is anatomy study of the structure 00 What is physiology study of the function o Relationship between the two is very strong 00 Homeostasis ability of internal system to remain stable o Homeo home o Stasis staying the same o Examples 0 Body temperature 986 deg F or 37 C 0 Blood pH 735745 gt 745 alkalosis lt735 acidosis 0 Blood glucose 80100mg100mL 00 Hormone Regulation of blood glucose gt If you eat a heavy meal blood glucose rises and insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas In the Liver glucose glycogen gt After a period of starvation glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas In Liver glycogen glucose 00 The Thyroid gt Negative Feedback Mechanism of the Thyroid Hypothalamus secretes TRH Thyrotropinreleasing hormone This causes the anterior pituitary s thyrotropes cell type to release TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone The causes the thyroids follicular cells to release TH thyroid hormone T3 which is a metabolic hormone Once there is enough TH the excess amount goes and stops the hypothalamus from releasing TRH and likewise stops the anterior pituitary from releasing TSH Hypothyroidism usually gain weight Can happen if you do not get enough iodine T3 contains 3 iodine atoms triiodothyronine If you have a decrease in T3 decrease in metabolic hormones V 00 o 00 o Because of this the negative feedback system does not kick in so you have an increase in TSH which causes a goiter or enlarged thyroid gt Hyperthyroidism usually lose weight Increase in T3 metabolic hormones but decrease in TSH from the anterior pituitary and decrease in TRH from hypothalamus because of the negative feedback system Positive feedback mechanism of Parturition delivery of baby gt Posterior Pituitary is the storage site of Oxytocin OT OT is nicknamed the love hormone and promotes bonding OT also responsible for milk ejection or letdown gt Head of the baby pushes the cervix causing a wave of nerve impulses to the brain causing the posterior pituitary to release OT gt OT reaches the cells of the uterus causing contraction gt The baby pushes more on the cervix and the positive feedback loop begins Picture gt Optic chiasm where two optic nerves meet gt Anterior pituitary contains many cell types that secrete own hormone gt Posterior Pituitary Storage site for OT and ADH Antidiuretic hormone The Anatomical Position gt Body Erect gt Feet on floor gt Hands side gt Palms facing forward o 00 gt Hands supinated as opposed to pronated Anatomical Language and terms gt Anterior vs posterior aka ventral vs dorsal Exterior vs interior aka superficial vs deep Superior vs inferior Medial vs lateral Ipsilateral vs contralateral Ipsi same side 2 ears ipsilateral gt Epi above vs Hypo below Epidermisdermis9hypodermis gt Proximal vs distal Different regions of the abdomen gt 4 quadrants Right upper quadrant Left upper quadrant Right lower quadrant Left lower quadrant gt 9 abdominal regions left to right by rows R hypochondriac epigastric L hypochondriac gt gt gt gt quot39Ibcostal line R lumbar umbilical L lumbar intertubercular line R iliac hypogastric L iliac 9Columns separated by midclavicular lines 00 Body Planes gt Coronal or frontal plane runs vertically and divides body into anterior and posterior gt Sagital plane divides body into right and left portions midsagital runs in midline and gives equal sides gt Transverse plane divides body into superior and inferior portions 00 Body cavities gt Dorsal cavities Cranial that encloses the brain Vertebral that encloses the spinal cord All cavities enclosed in membrane 3 layers that cover brain and spinal cord o Dura mater outermost o Dura tough o mater mother o Arachnoid membrane filled with cerebral spinal fluid o Pia mater innermost o pia gentle gt Ventral Cavities Thoracic cavities o 2 pleural cavities enclosing the 2 lungs o Mediastinum compartment between two lungs including the heart esophagus trachea and thymus o Pericardial cavity enclosing the hearte pericardium o Lined with serosa membrane double layered membrane 9 Outer layer lining the cavity parietal In between two layers serous fluid 9 Inner layer covering the organ visceral EXAMPLES o Parietal pericardium outer layer of serosa membrane lining the heart cavity 9 Visceral pleura inner layer of serosa membrane covering the lung Abdominogevic cavity peritoneum o Encloses all viscera of abdomenpelvic region o Also lined with double layer serosa membrane with serous fluid in between 9 Mesentery part of the peritoneum attaching intestines to body wall has many blood vessels and nerves gt Lesser omentum attaches stomach to the liver gt Greater omentum covers small intestines like an apron is unattached at its inferior border gt Mesocolon anchors colon to posterior wall EXAMPLES o Parietal peritoneum outer layer of serosa membrane lining the peritoneal cavity 9 Visceral peritoneum inner layer covering the organ o Retroperitoneal organs posterior to the peritoneum covered by peritoneum only on the side facing the peritoneal cavity 9 Organ include gt Kidneys aorta inferior vena cava adrenal glands ureters and most of the pancreas 00 Levels of organization of the human body gt l Atoms The Big Four include Carbon found in all organic molecules or carbon molecules Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen found in all proteins and nucleic acids DNA and RNA Others include calcium for bones potassium sodium chlorine iron for hemoglobin of blood iodine for thyroid hormone synthesis Z Molecules Four types of organic molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid 3organelles nucleus endoplasmic reticulum golgi body mitochondria etc Mw At least 300 types of cells Cytology study of cells V 5tissue Four main types of tissues Muscle tissue Epithelial tissue covers body surface and lines body cavities that open to the exterior Nervous tissue Connective tissue blood adipose cartilage bone 6organs 7organ systems Integumentary system Digestive system Respiratory system Muscular system Circulatory cardiovascular system Urinary system Skeletal Lymphatic immune system Endocrine Reproductive 00 Vitamin D as an example of interdependency bwn organ systems gt V Sunlight and heat active keratinocytes cell type of epidermis to help turn cholesterol into vitamin D3 In the liver vitamin D3 is converted into calcidiol In the kidneys calcidiol is converted into calcitriol Calcitriol is the most active form of vitamin D Circulates in the blood to reach the small intestine In the small intestine helps enhance the absorption of calcium Calcium then gets incorporated into osseous bone tissue CHAPTER TWO The Chemistry of Life 00 Four main types of organic molecules gt gt gt gt Carbohydrates made up of monosaccharides simple sugars Proteins made up of amino acids Lipids mostly made up of fatty acids and glycerol 3C molecule Nucleic acids nucleotides 00 Carbohydrates gt Monosaccharides simplest carbohydrates V V Pentoses 5 carbon sugar I Ribose C5H1005 Deoxyribose C5H1004 Hexoses 6 carbon sugar all have formula C6H1206 isomers Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides composed of two monosaccharides All synthesized by dehydration condensation or the removal of water Glycosidic bond very strong covalent bond that joins sugars together Sucrose glucose fructose Humans cannot synthesize sucrose Can break it down Lactose glucose Galactose Milk sugar CIZHZZOH Maltose Glucose glucose Polysaccharides many glucose units condensed together Glycogen energy storage polysaccharide made primarily in the liver read back to hormone regulation of glucose Long branched system of glucose units Only polysaccharide that animals can make Cellulose Energy storage polysaccharide of plants Straight chain of glucose units 00 Proteins gt Amino acids are the structural unit gt All proteins made because of gene expression central dogma DNAgenes gt NA gtProteins Genetic makeupgenotype proteins make up phenotype physical traits gt Examples of amino acids Glysine Gly simplest aa Cysteine Cys Phenylalanine Phe Tyrosine Tyr gt Phenylalanine We cannot synthesize phenylalanine making it one of the essential amino acids meaning we must get it from diet Deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxydase because of a genetic disorder meaning you got a bad gene from BOTH parents results in accumulation of phenylalanine which is converted into phenyl ketonesethese attack neurons of the CNS causing disorder called PKU phenylketonuria Babies tested at 1 day of age for PKU prick ear for blood and test to see if ANY phenyl ketones present PKU baby has to be put on a very restricted diet that is almost completely free of phenylalanine and must stay like this for life no banana milk diet drinks gt BE ABLE TO SKETCH DIPEPTIDE BOND Glytyr depeptide gt Structures of proteins Primary structure Amino acid sequence Secondary structure structures held together by very weak hydrogen bonds that are easily broken and reformed 1 Alpha helix 2 Betapleated sheets o Keratin hair protein rich in alpha helixes and betapleated sheets weak hydrogen bonds allow for straightcurly hair Tertiary structure Stabilized by covalent bonds Ie disulfide bonds or bridges only formed by two cysteine contribute to stabilization of the protein 9 Formed by dehydrogenation 9 Example of protein rich in disulfide bridges gt Lysozyme enzyme protein formed in lacrimal secretion tears and in saliva Function breaks down peptidoglycan bacteria cell wall Defense mechanism Quaternary structure A single protein consists of more than one polypeptide chain 9 Hemoglobin transports oxygen gt Consists of4 polypeptide chains 2 alpha helixes 2 beta sheets gt Sickle cell anemia caused when mutation on 6 aa on beta chain glutamate glu gt valine val Cell is pointed fragile sticky o Because fragile causes hemolysis which leads to hypoxemia less than normal 02 level in blood which in turn causes more sickling o Because sticky causes agglutination clumping and clogs small blood vessels 00 Lipids gt Structural unit for most is fatty acids carboxyl group long chain of Carbons and hydrogens gt Saturated fatty acidsanimal fat Pack easily with each other and are solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acidsplant oils V Double bond between two carbons in chain creates a kink Fluid at room temperature because don t pack well bc kinks gt Transfatty acids Packed together and solid at room temperature Double bond becomes TRANS due to partial dehydrogenation Stay forever in your blood vessels because resistant to degradation in circulation Contribute to cardiovascular disease Increases shelf life of products gt Monoglyceride Glycerol 3 carbon alcohol Glycerol connected to fatty acid by dehydration gt Fats with no fatty acids in structure Cholesterol 3 six sided rings and 1 five sided ring Things made from cholesterol 9 Vitamin D o Steroid hormones testosterone progesterone 00 Nucleic Acids DNA RNA gt Structural unit called nucleotides each nucleotide made of 3 components nitrogen base 9 purine adenine guanine Study Guide for FINAL Ch 1 Maior Themes otAnatomy and Physiology 1 11 Levels of Organization Hierarchy of Complexity 1 Atoms what are the big four Carbon found in all organic molecules oxygenin H20 hydrogenin H20 Nitrogen in all proteins why iron in hemoglobin why Iodine Needed to synthesize thyroid hormones T3triiodothyronine and T4tetraiodothyronine 2 Molecules what are the 4 main types of organic molecules What are the building blocks of each 1 Carbohydrates Monosaccharides 2 Lipids Fatty Acids 3 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA 4Proteins Amino Acids 3 Organelles 4 Cells 5 Tissues what are the 4 types of Tissues Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous 6 Organs 7 Organ Systems 11 Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Circulative Nervous Endocrine Digestive Respiratory Reproductive Lymphatic Urinary 8 Human organism Homeostasis Normal range ofhuman body temp 986F37C blood pH 735 745 blood glucose level 80110mg100mL Discuss hormonal regulation of glucose level in blood Hormonal regulation in glucose level in blood is done by glucagon protein hormone secreted by Alpha Cells of Islets oflangerhans Raises glucose level in blood going to reach hepatocytes convert glycogen to glucose Negative Feedback Loops gg Regulation of T31T4 secretion by Thyroid gland Positive Feedback Loops g Role of oxytocin in uterus contraction during parturition III I P 39 intercnhher finh39 Giveexamples Atlas A General Orientation otHuman Anatomy Anatomical Terminology exterior vs posterior medial vs lateral superior vs inferior proximal vs distal superficial vs deep Anatomical Position standing upright palms forward eyes open Anatomical Planes coronal anterior vs posterior saggital Right vs left transverse top from bottom Four Abdominal Quadrants rightleft upper quadrant rightleft lower quadrant Nine Abdominal Regions right hypochondriac epigastric left hypochondriac right lumbar umbilical left lumbar right iliac hypogastric left iliac Body Cavities dorsalcranial and vertebral ventralthoracic abdominal pelvic Body Membranes Meninges three membranes vs Serous membranes a double layer membrane Parietal Layer aka superficial layer the layer that lines the cavity 3 types pleural lung peritoneum abdominopelvic and pericardium cardiac Visceral Layer aka the inner layer in between the serous uid Ch 2 The Chemist otLite The four types of organic molecules Molecules of Life 11 Carbohydrates i Monosaccharides pentoses 5 carbon sugars examples include ribose fructose and deoxyribose vs hexoses 6 carbon sugars examples include glucose ribose vs deoxyribose carbon atom 2 lacks oxygen ii Disaccharides two simple sugars linked together by a glycosidic bond eg sucrose glucose fructosevs lactose glucose galactose iii Polysaccharides many saccharides linked together by glycocidic bonds eg starch glycogen cellulose Certain Function of Carbohydrates in Human Body role of glycogen in liver cells and muscle cells glycoproteins and glycolipids associated with plasma membrane act as fingerprints used for cell to cell recognition also for cell adhesion examples of glycoprotein hormones TSH Thyroid Stimulatory hormone Erythropoietin quotEPOquot released by cells ofkidneys stimulates production of red blood cells ml Proteins Glycine Phenylaline Tyrosine Cystein What are essential amino acids Amino acid humans cannot synthesize What is PKU Phenylketonuria A genetic disorder caused by deficiency in PAH The only treatment available is by managing and controlling phenylaline levels through diet What are dipeptides 2 amino acids linked together Oxytocin as example ofpeptide hormones a nonapeptide the quotlove hormone other roles include learningmemory and bonding Certain Function ofquotProteins in Human Body Protein hormones include insulin and glucagon Protein Enzymes Plasma Membrane Proteins As albomin In skeletal muscles as actinmyosin III Lipids Fatty acid carboxyl group plus a long chain of Carbon and Hydrogen Saturated fatty acids has as much hydrogen as it can carry vs Unsaturated fatty acids some carbon atoms are joined by double covalent bonds Monoglycerides vs Diglycerids vs Triglycerides 123 fatty acids linked to a glycerol Cholesterol the quotparent steroid all steroids are lipids with the basic 4 riged structure Nucleic Acids Structural unit quotnucleotidequot consists of3 components 1 nitrogen base purines adenine guanine vs pyrimidines thymine cytosine uracil do not miX between cytosine and cysteine 2 Sugar ribose vs deoxyribose 3 Phosghate groug DNA double stranded deoxyribose sugar to be transcribed into RNA uses bases AGCT vs RNA single stranded ribose sugar to be translated into proteins uses bases AGCU Chl 3 Cellular Form and Function Sketch a representative generalized cell Label all cellular structures and mention the function of each Lysozyme protein enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell wall found in tears and saliva Rich in cysteins vs lysosome sacs containing digestive enzymes vs Catalase an enzyme found in nearly all living organisms functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen A tetramer of four polypeptide chains Cytoskeleton Microfilamentsthin made of actin Microtubuleshollow protein made of tubulin play role in cell division forming spindle fibers Intermediate Filaments different type of protein thick Microvilli increase absorbing surface of many cells vs Ciliamove extra cellular uid vs Basal Body Centriolespindle fiber formation Plasma Membraneallows and regulates molecular transport intoout of cell Peripheral ProteinsU shaped protein Integral Proteinsaka transmembrane protein Phospholipid moleculeincludes polar headphosphate group and polar group and non polar tail 2 fatty acids attached to C1 and C2 Certain Functions of Plasma Membrane Proteins As Receptors of hormones and neurotransmitters As Enzymes example includes Adenylate Cyclase What s Adenylate Cyclasean enzyme that splits ATP into cyclic AMP and PPipyrophosphate ATPa coenzyme that transports chemical energy GTPa source of energy for protein synthesis cAMPcyclic Adenosine Monophosphate acts as a second messenger activating many biochemical reactions Explain how glucagon receptor works 1 glucagon binds to receptor in the plasma membrane 2 the receptor releases a Gprotein 3 Gprotein binds to an enzyme adenylate cyclase 4 Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP 5 cAMP acts as a second messenger activating many biochemical reaction Molecular Transgort Across Plasma Membrane 1 TRANSPORT OF SMALL MOLECULES Passive Transport does not require ATP vs Active Transport requires ATP Filtration example blood filtration uses hydrostatic pressure as driving force quotNephronsquot filtration unit Simple Diffusion osmosis no need for protein Facilitated Diffusion 0 Carrier proteins eg quotAquaporinquot o Voltagegated ion channels sketch a neuromuscular junction quotNM Active Transport ATPase or NaK pump as example of antiport Antip ort protein transporter that transports 2 different substances in 2 directions 3Na out of the cell in exchange for 2 K into the cell SodiumGlucose an example of quotSymportsquot Glucose and Na together Discuss quotCystic Fibrosis What s CFTR Deficiency in chlorine ion channel CFTR is the gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator II BULK TRANSPORT Endocytosis Pinocytosis uid molecules cell drinking vs Phagocytosissolid molecules cell eating ex white blood cells attacking bacteria Receptormediated Endocytosis Familial Hypercholesterolemia Draw Intake of LDL clathrin coated pit Exocytosis bulk transport of molecules out of the cell eg hormone secretion neurotransmitter secretion at the NMD Ch 4 Genetics Recall the quotCentral Dogma DNA double helix is transcribed into RNA and translated into protein The gene for PAHis located on 12q22q242 Explain Phenolaline Hydroxidase Chromosome 12 arm q band 22 arm q band 24 subband 2 PKU Phenylketonuria A genetic disorder caused by deficiency in PAH The only treatment available is by managing and controlling phenylaline levels through diet The gene for FHis located on 2112324 Explain Familial Hyp ercholesterolemia Protein receptor that predicts your health The gene for CFTR is located on 711312 Explain Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Leading cause of death for Caucasian male mm mwm K yam mwe mm Sketch the quotCell Cycle Sketch a chromosome during G1 vs a chromosome during G2 What is the quotSquot stage Sketch a cell in lnterphase Prophase MetaphaseAnaphase and Telophase 51 Pinning phasu Smith s nbrmal manhunt ales Mitosismaintains the diploid ii of chromosomes vs Meiosissex cell division Diploid 2n 23 pairs 46 chromosomes having 2 copies feach chromosome vs Haploid n 23 chromosomes 1 copy of each chromosmome Sperm Formationspermatogenesis Egg Formationoogenesis Fertilization Zygote vs Morulagt16 cells Blastula100 cells Gastrula embryonic layer VIhat are the 3germ layers Ectaderm skinnervous system Mesoderm mesenchymal tissue En doderm respiratory system circula tory system urinary system Ch 5 Tissues ll Epithelial Tissues Two criteria are used to classify epithelial tissues Cell Shape amp ofCell Layers Two exceptions Pseudostratified epithelia amp Transitional epithelia Identify describe all types ofepithelial tissue Cite a location and a function 1 Simple Squamous 1layer thin and disc like make up the wall ofair sacs ofthe lung will allow gas diffusion 2 Stratified Squamous manylayers epidermis ofthe skin protects 3 Simple Cuboidal llayer cubelike found in kidneytubules absorption 4 Stratified Cuboidal no more than 2 layers found in ducts ofcertain glands protects 5 Simple Columnar 1 layer columnlike found in intestine wall absorption sometimes contain goblet cells 6 Pseudostratified only1 layer often ciliated foundliningtrachea secretes and propels mucus 7 Transitional 57layers can stretch and slide past each other found in the urinary bladder stretches to allow filling of urinary tract Body Membranes Cutaneous external membrane Serous ventral body cavity Mucous secretion lining cavity that open to exterior Synovial line syn ovial cavities Mesothelium epithelial of the serosa Endothelium Lamina Propariaconnective tissue portion Goblet Cell Mucous membrane vs Mucus mucinwater vs Mucinglycoprotein Glandualr Epithelia Endocrine quotductless secretes hormones directly in blood vs Exocrine have ducts to release excretion to the surface Merocrine vs Apocrine vs Holocrine m s Wu Compound acinar Example Mammary gland Merocrine eccrine watery secrection example sweat glands Apocrine same secretion as merocrine glands examples sweat glands mammary gland and pancreas Holocrine cell accumulates a product and then the entire cell disintegrates Secretion is a mixture of cell fragments and the substance the cell had synthesized prior to its disintegration Ill Connective Tissues Compare and contrast Epithelial tissues vs Connective tissues as of their general characteristics unlike the epithelial tissue the connective tissue is vascular contains blood vessels Unlike epithelial tissue which is made up of packed cells the connective tissues are made up of loose cellsquotsporadic Draw What is the Mesentery7 serosa that binds intestines to abdominal wall 11 Blood Tissue Erythrocytes aka red blood cells transport of 02C02 Leckocytes aka white blood cells Granulocytes help with immunity 3 examples neutrophils basalphils esinophils Agranulocytes also help with immunity 2 examples lymphocytes monocytes Platlets thrombocytes they help blood clot and stop bleeding fragments ofa type of white blood cell 21 Adipose lissug found in cheeks and stomach hypodermis function thermoregulation in insulation also as a storage site for nutrients 31 Angolan Zissue found in packaging organs function loosely binds epithelia to deeper tissues 41 Dense Tissue Dense Regular examples tendons that connect muscles to bones ligaments that connect bones to bones aponeurosis Dense rtegulac found in the dermis of the skin connects hypodermis to epidermis Dense Elastic found in lens of the eye made of mainly elastin and fibrium 52 Catgilage39semisolid Mugbackgroundmatrix that is glassy and clear example costal cartlidge connects ribs to sternum Fibrous backgroundfibers example intervertebral disks Elastic Cartilage backgroundelastin example external ear 6 Osseous Tissues bone tissue spongy bone compact bone Microscopic View of compact bone Origin ofosteocytes mesenchymal tissuegtosteoprogenitor cellsgt ostoeblastgt osteocytes osteoblastscell forming cells vs osteoclasts bonedegrading cells multinucleated secrete exoenzymes through exocytosis 1111 Muscle Tissues gkglggl muscle a Qgrgjgc muscles v5 gmogm muscles 1 El Nervous Tissues nerve fiber vs muscle fiber Three types of Intracellular junctions points of contact between adjacent cells Gap junctions allowing cellcell communication example intercalated discs Adhering junctions also called Desmosomes glue adjacent cells together Tight junctions seal off the cells preventing transport of molecules example parietal cells of stomach that produce HCl fhnntpr6quot Vquot Layers ofthe skin epidermis basement membrane dermis includes dense irregular connective tissue hypodermis includes adipose tissue for thermoregulation 1 Five Strata of the Egidermis stratum corneumdead keratized cells stratum lucidumonly in the thick and hairless skin stratum granulosumcells have granuls stratum spinosumlook spiny several layers stratum basale1 cell layer Swen pare Slralum wmaum r 39 r 39 Slralum Iuctdumi39 sxrarum granulosum a masking kerallnacyles 2 Dean keralvmcyles Sweal dun Living kurallnacylas Stratum spinosum g 39 Dendrllu call l w Melanocyie 39 V 516 call We Dermal papilla Svalum mama Tactile nerve liber Dennis Dermal bland Vessels Certain Cell Types of the Epidermis Keratinocytes produce Keratin a waterproof protein prevents dehydration through the body surface Melanocytes produce melanin coded by gene gives your skin color Glands of the Skin Eccrine Merocrinevs Apocrine vs Sebaceo us glands Sweat gland sweat gland oil gland Cools body via evaporation pubic and axillary at the base of the hair Functional at birth area Ducts open at skin surface developfunction at puberty Watery secretion ducts open at base of hair Functions ofthe skin 1 Protection 2 insulation 3 water conservation 4 Vitamin D including the interconnection between quotin tegumen tary system quotdigestive system quot and quotskeletal system quot with help of UV light exposure to activate production ofVitamin D out of cholesterol Vitamin D helps intestine to absorb calcium from food to be incorporated into skeletal system MerkeI ceIIs receptors for touch Found at the basal layer of the epidermis Langerhans ceIIsDendr139tic macrophages that originate in bone marrow They guard against toxins microbes and other pathogens that penetrate the skin They alert the immune system of such invaders Phagocytosis occurs They are found in two layers of the epidermis stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum Three types of Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma very common least dangerous found in stratum basal layer Squamous Cell Carcinoma common can metastasize treatable if diagnosed early pearly appearance shiny dots found in the stratum spinosum layer Malignant Melanoma rare around 5 all skin cancer metastasize deadly irregular ABCD rule asymmetry border irregularity color is mix of blackbrowntan diameter Anatomy ofa long bone vs Anatomy ofa at bone Hyaline cartilage Outer and inner compact bone Epiphysis spongy bone in between diploe Spongy bone Metaphysis Epiphyseal plate Diaphysis Periosteum touch connective tissue Endosteum delicate thin lining of Compact bone Bone marrow Epiphyseal plate vs Epiphyseal line Chondrocytes are replaced by osteocytes before puberty ends it is the zone of osteocytes where ossification is complete Zones of Epiphyses Zone of chondrocytes Zone ofproliferation Zone ofhypertrophy Zone of calcification Zone of osteocytes Endochondral ossification vs lntermembranous ossi cation Only in long bones only in at bones in between membranes fibrocytes are replaced by osteocytes chondrocytes will die in lacuna and create osteocytes Spongy Bone vs Compact bone See attached ppt No osteons osteocytes are arranyed in osteons Osteocytes are found in irregular with Ilaversian canal Structures called quottrabeculaequot Thin plates spines small rods Reduce weight of the bone Calcium Homeostasis Normal range 92 104 mg100 mL lt 92 hypocalcemia neurons become much more excitable you experience carpopedal spasm larynospasm muscle of larynx suffication gt 104 hypercalcemia sluggish reflex less excitability gtgt 104 cardiac arrest Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Level in Blood Calcitrial is the most effective form of Vitamin D UV light penetrates Keratinocytes Converts into a steroid 7 dehydrocholesterol Which converts to pre vitamin D3 Over a few days it converts to Vitamin D3 Transported by protein to liver Liver adds hydroxyl group and converts it into calcidiol Kidney adds another hydroxyl group and converts calsidiol into calcitriol the most active form of Vitamin D Role of Calcitriol Behaves as a hormone Principal function is to raise the blood calcium concentration 0 Increases calcium absorption from food 0 Increases calcium reabsorption by kidney tubules o Activates osteoclasts 0 Bone reabsorption releases calcium into blood PTH Parathyroid Hormone Released by parathyroid glands which adhere to the posterior surface of the thyroid gland These glands release PTH when blood calcium is low 0 PTH bind to receptors on osteoblasts stimulating them to release RAN KL 0 Osteoclast population rises and bone resorption is promoted o PTH promotes calcium reabsorption by the kidneys PTH promotes the final step of calcitriol synthesis in kidneys Osteoblasts inhibited OO Calcitonin Released by thyroid gland Lowers calcium level in blood mainly by stimulating bone synthesis Little effect on adults Wm Typically 206 bones in adult skeleton Axial Skeleton bones M 8 cranial and 14 facial bones Vertebrae 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 1 Sacrum 1 Coccyx Thoracic Cage 1 Sternum 24 Ribs 1 Hyoid6 Ossicles Special structures ofbones of the quotAxial Skeleton eg crista galli cribriform plates 6 nasal conchae sella turcica zygomatic process of temporal bone temporal process of zygomatic bone bones of the Orbit Fontanels ofinfant skull Atlas Axis vertebral foramina vs intervertebral foramina vs transverse foramina Intervertebral discs anulus fibrosus nucleus pulposus Crista galli an attachment point for the meninges that enclose the brain Cribriform plate forms the roofofthe nasal cavity Cribriform foramina allow passage for the olfactory nerves from the nasal cavity to the bul s Sella Turcia structure ofthe sphenoid bone houses pituitary gland Zygomatic process extends anteriorly to form part ofthe zygomatic arch Temporal process helps form the zygo matic arch Fontanels quotso spots spaces between the unfused cranial bones ofa fetus39 skull they allow bones ofthe skull tobe compressed slightly also allows growth ofthe brain Aggendicular Skeleton bones in pectoral girdle and upper limb amp bones inthe pelvic girdle and lower limbs Special structures ofbones ofthe quotAppendicular Skeleton Clavicle sternal end vs acromial end Scapula glenoid cavity acromion process coracoidprocess proximal head of llumerus vs distal head ofUlna medial epicondyle ofhumerus the 3 bones that make a hip bone Os Coxae iliac crest acetabulum medial malleolus ofTibiavs lateral malleolus of Fibula Out of all tarsals identify the Calcaneus and the Talus Distinguish certain bones as ofquotright or quotleftquot 7 eg scapula humerus femur tibia Funny bone medial epicondyle and ulnar nerve Chapter 9 joints Structural Classi cau39on Fibrous vs Synovial vs Cartilaginous Fibrous adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone cross the space between the m and pe netrate into the other three kinds sutu res syndes mosis gomphosis Synovial a joint that is lined by synovial uid and is freely movable Knee joint shoulder joint finger joint Cartilaginous two bones are linked by cartilage two kinds synchondroses and symphyses Functional Classi cau39on Synarthrosis immovable vs Amphiarthrosis slightly movable vs Diarthrosis freely movable 1 r L L n lmnnrfnnff rm 39 t I I I a r r synchondrosis attachment ofthe first rib to the sternum in Sunny 1 Sylldulncals a Gomnhuli Movements at the joints Flexion to decrease the angle between bones Extension to increase the angle between bones back to anatomical position Hyperextension some joints allow you to go past anatomical position Rotation move head or forearm side to side joint between atlas and axis Abduction move away from body quotat easequot Adduction move back together quotattentionquot Dorsi exion standing on heels Planter exion standing on toes Pronation moving palms posterior Supination anatomical positon What movement of what bones at what joints are the following actions Nodding motion of the skull as in gesturing quotyesquot head exion saying quotnoquot rotation quotAttentionquot adduction quotAtEase abduction quotKicking a football knee extension Throwing a baseball elbow extension The Knee joint Copyright 9 39 Inc Ieplouuulun u u play Femur Patellar surface Lateral conder Medial conder Posterior cruciate Fibular j ligament Gollateral Anterior cruciate ligament Lateral Medial meniscus meniscus i Tibial collateral ligament Patellar ligament cut Transverse ligament Fibula Tibia a Anterior view Injuries playing football ACL tear anterior cruciate ligament that attaches femur to tibia Or a meniscus injury Pitcher s Arm in ammation of the medial epicondlye of the humerus and in ammation at the origin of exor carpi muscles resulting from hard wrist eXion in releasing a baseball Tennis Elbow in ammation oflateral epicondyle of humerus and in ammation at the origin of eXtensor carpi muscles It occurs when these muscles are repeatedly tensed during the backhand strokes and then strained by sudden impact with the tennis ball Chapter 1 0 Muscles Xsection ofa skeletal muscle p 321 Naming muscles Muscles of the Head and Neck Muscles of facial eXpression Smile zygomaticus close lips orbicularis oris wink orbicularis oculi surprise frontalis and galea aponeuritica frown corrugators supercilii forehead depressor anguli oris draws mouth down chew masseter compress cheek buccinator pulls neck platysma what s Galea aponeuritica A broad aponeurosis that connects the two frontalis muscles Muscles of the Trunk Muscles Acting on the Shoulder and Upper Limb Muscles Acting on the Hip and Lower Limb What s the anatomical term of each of the following actions In each case name the prime mover a synergistic muscle whenever possible and an antagonist Nodding motion of the skull as in gesturing quotyesquot head eXion prime mover sternocleidomastoid antagonist splinus capitis gesturing quotnoquot head roation prime mover Raising shoulders toward ears quotAttentionquot leg adduction prime mover adductors 3 antagonist abductors quotAtEase leg abduction prime mover abductors antagonist adductors 3 quotKicking a football knee extension prime mover quadriceps antagonist biceps femoris semitendenosis semimembranosis Throwing a baseball elbow extension prime mover triceps brachii antagonist biceps brachii Bending over Standing on toes plantar eXion prime mover gastrocnemius antagonist tibialis anterior Chapter 1 1 Muscular Tissue Sketch a quotsarcomerequot showing details of the stariation seen in skeletal muscle cells include I band Z line M line A band ttubules sarcolemma actinthin filaments myosinthick filaments Ach acetycholine ACh vesicle Functions as a chemical messenger from the nerve cell to the muscle cell ACh receptor Proteins incorporated into its plasma membrane Ligandgated ion channels ACHE Acetylcholinestrase an enzyme that breaks down ACh after the ACh has stimulated the muscle cell muscle will remain contracted as long as ACh is in the synapse N a ions in K ions out Ligandgated ion channels respond to chemical messengers vs Voltagegated ion channels respond to changes in electrical potential voltage across the plasma membrane What are T tubules they go deep into muscles and take messages to the sarcoplasmic reticulum the endoplasmic reticulum ofa muscle Brie y discuss i how a nerve impulse stimulates a skeletal muscle cell Nerve signal travels down motor nerve fiber ACh is released into the synapse ACh binds to ACh receptor Ligandgated ion channels open Ion transported Action potential developed Action potential travels down Ttubules ii how stimulation of a muscle ber activates its contractile mechanism Ca are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum Calcium binds to troponin Shifting of tropomyosin complex allowing myosin head to bind to its binding site on the thin filament Using myosin ATPase energy is released and used to create a backstroke then a power stroke moving the thin filament iii how a muscle ber relaxes Cessation ofnervous stimulation and ACh release ACh is broken down by AChE ATP is used to pump Ca actively into the sarcoplasmic reticulum iv role of A TP during muscle contractionrelaxation Active transport pumps in the sarcoplasmic reticulum require ATP so ATP is needed for muscle relaxation as well as for muscle contraction v role of elastic filaments in muscle contraction relaxation do not miX bet elastic bers and elastic laments Made of titin a huge springy protein Prevents overstretching and overcontracting Discuss the three main mechanisms by which skeletal muscle cells generate ATPs For immediate energ Myokinase produces 1 ATP Creatine kinase donates creatine phosphate to ADP to make 1 ATP ATP and CP the Phosphagen system provide nearly all the energy used for short bursts of intense activity For shortterm energy Glycolysis generates a net gain of 2 ATP Anaerobic respiration The pathway from glycogen to lactic acid is called the glycogenlactic acid system For longterm energy Oxidative phosphorylation Aerobic respiration 36 ATPs Cellular respiration 02 glucose 38 ATPs Compare and contrast Fastglycolytic FG muscle bers white muscle fibers fewer and smaller mitochondria anaerobic 510w0xidative50 muscle bersz red muscle fibers abundant and large mitochondria aerobic Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Recall the 2 main cell types ofnervous tissues 1 Neurons conducting propagating nerve impulses Structural classification unipolar neuron 1 extension from soma carry sensory signals bipolar neuron have one axon and one dendrite example olfactory cells of the nasal cavity multipolar neuron one axon and multiple dendrites most common type Soma cell body N eruofibrils bundles of actin filaments Nissil bodies darkstaining regions created by the rough endoplasmic reticulum Neurilemm the thick outermost coil of a Schwann cell Functional classification Sensory neuron afferent neurons conduct signals towards the Central Nervous System CNS lnterneurons association neurons within the CNS carry signals from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron Motor neuron efferent neurons conduct signals from the CNS to effectors Electrophysiology ofNeurons cellular mechanisms for producing electrical potentials and currents RMPRestl39ng Membrane Potential The charge difference across the plasma membrane The electrolytes are unequally distributed between the extracellular uid on the outside of the plasma membrane and the intracellular uid on the inside Negative ICF positive ECF The Na channel and the K channel are closed 70 m APACt1390n Potential Produced by voltagegated ion channels in the plasma membrane Happens in postsynaptic membrane Always begins with Depolarization Na channels open Membrane voltage rises At the peak Na channels close K channels open K channels open Repolarization the K shifts the voltage back to negative numbers Hyperpolarization quotrefractory period slightly more K leaves the cell that the amount of Na making it more negative than the RMP Na diffuses into the cell Inc 35 0 o Depolarization Repolarization Acllon gt E Threshold Potential l o Loca potential 7n v Resling membrane 39 Hyperpolarlzation polentlal Tlme gt a II Neuroglia supportive role Astrocytes CNS Cover brain surface and nonsynaptic regions ofneurons link neurons to blood vessels starshaped participates in formation of bloodbrainbarrier nourishes neuron secrete nerve growth high mitotic ability Satellite cells PN S Surround somas ofneurons in the ganglia aggregation of cell bodies of neurons Microglia CNS Phagocytize and destroy microorganisms foreign matter and dead nervous tissue Schwann cells PNS Mylinate the axons ofneurons Oligodendrocytes CNS Mylinate the axons of neurons in the brain and spinal cord Ependymal cells CNS Line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord secrete and circulate cerebrospinal uid Certain examples of NEUROTRANSMITTERS Acetleholine formed by acetic acid and choline found in neuromuscular junction Glycine inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord GABA Gamma Aminobutyric Acid most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Norepinephrin NE monoamine Has only 1 amino group Excitatory or inhibitory ofa muscle Uses CAMP as a second messenger Discuss the mode of action of each of the following 3 kinds of synapses Excitatory Cholinergic Synapses ACh receptor acts as ligandgated ion channel ExcitatoryAdrenergicSynapses Norepinephrine uses cAMP as a second messenger The receptor is a transmembrane protein associated with a Gprotein Inhibitory GABAergicSynapses GABA receptor is a chloride channel Inhibits post synaptic cells Chapter 13 Spinal Cord Spinal Nervesl and Somatic Re exes Monosynaptic Re ex Arch the sensory neurons synapse directly with the motor neurons that return to the muscle Polysynaptic Re ex Arch the sensory neurons synapse with an interneuron in the CNS which synapses with a motor neuron back in the PNS that then reaches the effector Sketch a cross section of the spinal cord showing the relationship of the spinal cord to the vertebral column the dorsal horns and the ventral horns of gray matter the white matter the central canal the dorsal root the ventral root the dorsal root ganglionthe lateral horn is added in the thoracic lumbar region Cross Section of a Nerve Distal branches of spinal nerve Dorsal Ramus innervates skinmuscle of posterior compartment ofbody Meningeal Branch innervates the meninges returns to vertebral column Ventral Ramus innervates skin muscle of anterior compartment ofbody and contributes to the nerve plexuses Nerve Plexuses Recognize the different plexuses and their major nerves Cervical Plexus C1C5 Includes the Phrenic nerve which innervates the diaphragm Brachial Plexus C5T1 Innervates the upper limb and some muscles of the neck and shoulder Lumbar Plexus L1L5 Innervates the thighs Sacral Plexus L4SS Innervates the lumbosacral trunk and the lower leg to the foot Coccygeal Plexus S4Col Innervates the pelvis Cauda Equina Roots from segments L2Col Sciatic nerve connects at the popliteal fossa Roles of Progriocegtors Sense organs specialized to monitor the position and movement ofbody parts Role otSomatic Re exes Involuntary contraction of a muscle 1 Muscle Spindle embedded in the skeletal muscles Function to inform the brain of muscle length and body movements Kneejerk Patelldr Tendon Re ex tendon re ex tapping the patellar ligament with a re ex hammer suddenly stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle ofthe thigh Numerous muscle fibers are stimulated in the quadriceps and send signals to the spinal cord via afferent neurons what is quotReciprocal Inhibition quot7 A re ex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting antagonists bl Tendon Organ or quotGolgi Tendon Organ Tendon Re ex consists ofnerve fibers mixed with collagen fibers Informs the CNS of the degree of muscle tension at the joint Delayed response The tendon re ex is response to excessive tension on the tendon A Somatic re exes vs 39 Re exes effector skeletal muscle cells effector smooth muscle cells voluntary cardiac muscle cells and glands one motor neuron from CNS to effector involuntary control 2 motor neurons a preganglionic motor neuron and a postgaglionic Chapter 14 The Brain and the Cranial Nerves Major landmarks fissure very deep groove separates the left and right hemispheres sulcus shallow grooves gyrus thick folds that mark each hemisphere meninges ofthe brain Dura mater Periosteal layer Meningeal layer Arachnoid mater Subarachnoid space Pia mater falx cerebri extends into the longitudinal fissure as a tough cresentshaped wall between the right and left cerebral hemispheres the four ventricles 2 lateral ventricles Interventricular foramen 3rd ventricle Cerebral aqueduct 4th ventricle Central canal CSF a clear colorless liquid that fills the ventricles and canals of the CNS and bathes its external surface its formation produced in the choroid plexuses from the roofs of the 4 ventricles filtration of blood plasma through the capillaries of the brain its circulation From the 2 lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramina into the 3ml ventricle down the cerebral aqueduct to the 4th ventricle its drainage absorbed by the arachnoid villi which circulates the CSP back to the ventricles Certain Functional Areas of Brain Frontal Lobe socialpersonality Phineas Gage Parietal Lobe receiving and interpreting signals of the general senses and for taste Occipital Lobe vision Temporal Lobe hearing Wernike s areain left hemisphere Understanding of soundwritten language Broca s area in left hemisphere For speechsentence articulation and the movement of muscles of the tongue Only 3 Examples of Hypothalmic Nuclei 1 Supraoptic nuclus produces antidiuretic hormone controls posterior pituitary gland 2 Supachiasmatic nucleus biological clock regulates circadian rythms and female reproductive 3 Paraventricular nucleus produces oxytocin involved in child birth lactation orgasm controls posterior pituitary The 12 cranial nerves and their passages through the cranium Olfactory cribriform formina of ethmoid bone Optic optic foramen Oculomotor superior orbital fissure Trochlear superior orbital fissure Trigenial superior orbital fissure Abducens superior orbital fissure Facial internal acoustic meatus and stylomastoid foramen Vestibulocochlear internal acoustic meatus Glossopharyngeal jugular foramen Vagus jugular foramen Accessory jugular foramen Hypoglossal hypoglossal canal obviously once one takes the anatomy final very good vacation arrives hooray Examples of degenerative neurological disorders Parkinson Disease progressive loss in motor function due to degeneration ofdopamine releasing neurons which leads to an excessive ratio ofACh to dopamine Suffers from involuntary muscle contractions Surgical treatments include subthalamus nucleus or the ventral intermediate nucleus stimulation Alzheimer Disease progressive loss ofmemory Diagnosis can be con rmed at autopsy when wide sulci and shrunken gyri are found Extracellular Sem39le Plaque Beta Amyloid peptide aggregates into senile plaque when Amyloid protein core is cut beta secretase and gamma secretase Intracellular Neuro brl39lary tangles dense masses ofbroken and twisted cytoskeleton inside soma Hyperphospholation an abnormality in Tau protein a microtubulebinding protein can result in selfassembly of tangles
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