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by: Jazmin Schimmel


Jazmin Schimmel
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmin Schimmel on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2210 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/202525/cbio-2210-university-of-georgia in Biology Molecular Cell & Dev at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 Exam Composition o 150 Multiple Choice Questions o Some identification to be presented on powerpoint slides throughout the exam o 40 Questions from Lab material o AT LEAST 30 Questions from new material o remaining 80 Questions from topics covered on old exams Topics Covered on Previous Exams Exam 1 Quiz 1 and 2 Chapter 17 The Endocrine System What is the difference between a hormone and a paracrine What type ofgland secretes them A B C Hormones are released into and transported throughout the body Paracrines act locally generally within the same tissueorgan Both are secreted by endocrine glands Mechanisms of Communication Between Cells UOmgtIUOUJgt Gap junctions Neurotransmitters Paracrines Hormones ormones Hormone receptors protein or glycoprotein molecules on PM cytoplasm or in the nucleus Target cells have receptors of a specific hormone Allhormones are either made from cholesterolor amino acids Hormone Chemistry 1 Steroids a derived from cholesterol b secreted by gonads and adrenal glands c estrogens progesterone testosterone cortisol corticosterone aldosterone DHEA and calcitriol 2 Peptides and glycoproteins a created from chains of amino acids b secreted by pituitary and hypothalamus c OT ADH releasing and inhibiting hormones and anterior pituitary hormones 3 Monoamines a derived from amino acids b secreted by adrenal pineal and thyroid glands c epinephrine neuroepinephrine melatonin and thyroid hormone Hormone Interactions 1 synergistic 2 permissive 3 antagonistic Metabolic Clearance Rate rate of hormone removal from the blood taken up and degraded by liver and kidney Hormone signaling CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 1 Regarding the signaling mechanism ofhydrophobic and hydrophilic hormones in each case indicate Where the receptors are found and how the hormones exert their signaling effects 2 Hydrophilic bind to receptors on the PM These receptors are usually coupled to an intracellular second messenger system 3 Hydrophobic bind to receptors inside the cell and directly activate genes 4 All hormones are made from either cholesterol or amino acids H Specific Hormones 1 Cortisol main hormone in the resistance stage ofthe stress response 2 ADH water retention 3 TSH thyroid stimulating hormone 4 TRH thyrotropinre1easing hormone targets the adenohypophysis 5 Melatonin plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness circadian rhythm 6 Oxytocin secreted by posterior pituitary 7 Glucagon secreted by alpha cells in the pancreatic islets raises blood glucose l Enzyme Amplification Cascade Effect Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of enzyme am plific ation CFigure 1724 N Endocrine organs A Hypothalamus 1 Hypophysealportalsystem a connects the anterior pituitary with the hypothalamus b The hypothalamus controls the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary by secreting hormones that enter the primam capillaries travel down the portal system and diffus e into the anterior pituitary gland 2 Infundibulum a projection ofthe hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs 3 Hypothalamohypophyseal tract the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior pituitary 4 Thermoregulation and primitive function regulation B Pituitary hypophysis l Anterioradenohypophysis a secretes FSH LH TSH ACTH PRL and GH 2 Posteriorneurohypophysis a secretes OT and ADH b diabetes insipidus ADH hyposecretion polyuria Pineal gland secretes melatonin Thymus secretes several hormones that stimulate the maturation of T cells VVBCs Thyroid gland secretes thyroxine triiodothyronine and calcitonin Parathyroid gland secretes PTH Adrenal gland l Layers ofthe AdrenalGland a Adrenal medulla 1 Secretes catecolamines 2 Secretes epinephrine neuroepinephrine and dopamine chromaffin cells b Adrenal Cortex 1 Secretes steroids 2 Zona glomerulosa QTI39IlTIUO CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 lt a Mineralocorticoids b Aldosterone Zona fasciculata a Glucocorticoids b Cortisol Zona reticularis a Sex steroids b c Androgens d Estradiol 2 The adrenal cortex and medulla are formed by the merger oftwo fetal glands with different origins and functions The cells ofthe adrenal cortex secrete steroid hormones While the cells ofthe medulla secrete peptide hormones H Pancreas 1 Cell types Alpha cells glucagon Beta cells insulin Delta cells somatostatin PP cells F cells pancreatic polypeptide G cells gastrin 3 4 033 8V 6 l Gonads 1 Ovaries a Granulosa cells b Theca cells 2 Testes a Sustentacular sertoli cells inhibin b Leydig interstitial cells testosterone Endocrine Functions of other tissues and organs A kidneys secrete renin B heart C stomach and small intestines D adipose tissue E osseous tissue F placenta Stress Response general adaptation syndrome A Alarm reaction 1 mediated by norepinphrine and epinephrine 2 stored glycogen is consumed 3 increases aldosterone and angiotensin levels a angiotensin helps raise BP b aldosterone promotes sodium and water conservation B Resistance stage dominated by cortisol 1 Hypothalamus secretes corticotropinreleasing hormone 2 Pituitary secretes an increase in ACTH a Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol and other glucocorticoids b Promotes breakdown of fat and protein for energy C Stage of Exhaustion CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 VII VIII 1 Rapid decline in health 2 Muscle wasting 3 Death results from heart or kidney failure or infection Eicosanoids and Paracrines A Paracrines 1 Secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue and stimulate their physiology 2 Histamine from mast cells causes relaxation of blood vessel smooth muscle 3 Nitric Oxide from endothelium of blood vessels inhibits secretion of alpha and beta cells 4 Catacholamines diffuse from adrenal medulla to cortex B Eicosanoids family of paracrines derived from arachidonic acid 1 Lipooxygenases a Leukotrienes mediate allergic and inflammatory reactions 2 Cyclooxygenase 2 Action is blocked by aspirin and ibuprofen Prostacyclin inhibits blood clotting and vasodilation Thromboxanes produced by blood platelets after injury overrides prostacyclin by stimulating vasoconstriction and clotting Prostaglandins derived from arachidonic acid 1 PGE relaxes smooth muscle and contracts blood vessels SE 0 v 2 PGF causes opposite effects 3 NSAle block cyclooxygenase 4 SAle inhibit both Disorders and Diseases A Hypersecretion 1 Pheochromocytoma tumor of adrenal medulla secretes excessive epinephrine and norepinephrine 2 Toxic goiters are caused by autoantibodies mimicking the action of thyroid stimulating hormone where as endemic goiters are caused by a deficiency of iodine B Hyposecretion 1 Type lDiabetes hyposecretion of insulin polyuria 2 Diabetes lnsipidus hyposecretion of ADH polyuria C Pituitary Disorders hypersecretion of GH 1 Acromegaly thickening of bones and soft tissues in adults 2 Gigantism hypersecretion of GH in children 3 dwarfism hyposecretion of GH D Thyroid Disorders Hypothyroidism a can be caused by an absence ofiodine in the diet b hyposecretion of TH 2 Hyperthyroidism 3 Toxic goiters Graves disease 4 Endemic goiter 5 Myxedema E Adrenal Disorders 1 Cushing Syndrome excess cortisol secretion moon face and buffalo hump Diabetes Mellitus CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 1 hyposecretion or inaction of insulin 2 polyuria polydipsia and polyphagia 3 blood glucose prediabetes 100126 diabetes gt126 G Pathogenesis 1 ketonuria 2 ketonacidosis Chapter 21 The Lymphatic and Immune Systems 1 Functions A Fluid recovery B Immunity C Lipid Absorption lacteals in small intestines Lymphatic Vessels recover 15 of the fluid filtered by capillaries Absent from central nervous system cartilage cornea bone and bone marrow Closed at one end Six lymphatic trunks The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and the empty into the subclavian veins F Subclavian Veins empty into the superior vena cava Lymph A recovered fluid B similar to blood plasma but very low in protein Dowgt F1 N Organs A Primary Lymphatic Organs 1 Red Bone Marrow 2 Thymus B Secondary Lymphatic Organs l Lymph Nodes the most numerous lymphatic organs a cleanse lymph act as a site ofT and B cell activation cervical Lymph nodes axillary lymph nodes thoracic lymph nodes abdominal lymph nodes intestinal and mesenteric lymph nodes inguinal lymph nodes popliteal lymph nodes 2 Tonsils a palatine largest often are removed in children b lingual c Pharyngeal 3 Spleen a red pulp b white pulp c functions ORCHESEV 3939 CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 V V VII VIII 3gt 03 0 U l39 7quot immune surveillance process in which NK cells nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells Cells ofthe immune system Lymphocytes 1 Natural killer cells large lymphocytes that defend using immune surveillance 2 T Cells lymphocytes that mature in the thymus 3 B Cells lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow and differentiate into plasma cells secrete antibodies Neutrophils 1 respiratory burst 2 chemotaxis attraction to chemicals such as bradykinin that guide them to injury 3 protect against bacterial infection Bas oph s 1 secrete leukotrienes that attract neutrophils and eosinophils 2 secrete histamine which increase blood flow vasodilator 3 Eosinophils number elevated during allergy or parasitic infection Monocytes transform into macrophages 1 develop from monocytes display antigens on cell surface after phagocytosis APC 2 primary cells responsible for tissue cleanup and repair 3 MonocytesMacrophages primary agents oftissue cleanup and repair become macrophages when at injury site Dendritic cells branched mobile APCs found in the epidermis mucous membranes and lymphatic organs 1 in the skin Langerhans cells 2 engulf matter by endocytosis not phagocytosis 3 alert the immune system to pathogens Reticular cells branched stationary APCs that contribute to the connective tissue framework stroma of the lymphatic organs Lymphatic Tissues A Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue B Lymphatic nodules follicles Lines of Defense A First line of defense skin and mucous membranes nonspecific 1 Skin mechanically difficult for pathogens to penetrate a Keratin tough b Dry and nutrient poor c Keratinocytes and other cells secrete defensins and cathelicidins which are peptides that kill microbes by creating holes in their membranes d Acid mantle thin film of lactic acid from sweat which inhibits bacterial growth 2 Mucous membranes a Physically trap microbes b Lysozyme enzyme destroys bacterial cells walls 3 Subepithelial areolar tissue viscous barrier of hyaluronic acid B Second line of defense nonspecific 1 leukocytes and macrophages antimicrobial proteins immune surveillance inflammation fever 2 Antimicrobial Proteins CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 a interferons secreted by cells infected with viruses alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infecting b Complement System C Third line of defense specific IX Complement System a group of 30 or more globular proteins that make powerful contributions to both nonspecific and specific synthesized by liver circulate in the blood inactively activated by presence of pathogen When activated brings about four methods of pathogen destruction 1 Inflammation 2 lmmune Clearance 3 Phagocytosis 4 Cytolysis E Routes of Complement Activation 1 Classical Pathway antibody dependent 2 Alternative Pathway antibody independent 3 Lectin Pathway antibody independent F Fever 1 Promotes interferon activity 2 Elevates metabolic rate and accelerates tissue repair 3 Inhibits reproduction of bacteria and viruses 4 5 Dowgt Pyrogens substances that cause fever Reye Syndrome can be triggered by the use of aspirin to treat fever G In ammation 1 Cytokines regulate inflammation and immunity secreted by leukocytes 2 3 Major Processes a Mobilization of body defenses b Containment and destruction of pathogens c Tissue cleanup and repair 3 Four Signs ofln ammation a Heat from hyperemia b Redness from hyperemia and extravasated RBCs c Swelling edema due to increased fluid filtration from the capillaries d Pain direct injury to the nerves pressure on nerves from edema stimulation of pain receptors by prostaglandins and a kinin called bradykinin 4 Priority prevent pathogens from spreading throughout the body a Fibrinogen forms a sticky mesh that walls off microbes b Heparin prevents clotting at injury site X Immune Response A Nonspecific does not depend on prior exposure B Specific Defense immunity 1 Characteristics a Specificity immunity is directed against a particular pathogen b Memory 2 Types of immunity a Cellular immunity T cells CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 X X 1 Lymphocytes directly attack and destroy 2 Kills cells that harbor pathogens Humoral Immunity B Cells 1 Mediated by antibodies that do not directly destroy pathogens Antibodies assault pathogen 3 Can only work agains the extracellular stage of infectious microorganisms Other ways of classifying Natural active own production Artificial active production of one s own antibodies or T cells stimulated by vaccination and booster shots Natural passive temporary immunity that results from acquiring antibodies produced by another person ex fetus acquires antibodies from mother Artificial passive temporary immunity that results from the injection of an immune serum obtained from another person or animal serum used for treatment of snakebites and other diseases 8 EL 8 8 Cells of Lymphatic Tissue A Lymphocytes 1 2 NK cells T cells a Maturation in thymus b Thymosins stimulate maturing T cells to develop surface antigen receptors become immunocompetent capable of recognizing APCs B cells a Mature in red bone marrow b Before secreting antibodies they differentiate into plasma cells B macrophages C dendritic cells D APCs required by T cells for antigen recognition 1 2 3 4 dendritic macrophages reticular and B cells function depends on major histocompatibility complex proteins MHCs Major histocompatibility complexes mark a cell as self as opposed to nonself Antigen Processing a APC encounters antigen internalizes it by endocytosis digests into fragments and displays them as epitopes in the grooves of the MHC protein interleukins chemical messengers required for coordination of immune cells 1 attract neutrophils and NK cells 2 attract macrophages and stimulate phagocytosis also keep from leaving 3 stimulate B and T cells mitosis and maturation OE 8V Cellular lmmunity Four Classes of T cells A Cytotoxic Tc T cells killer T cells attack enemy cells B Helper T cells help promote Tc cell and B cell action and nonspecific resistance C Regulatory Tr cells inhibit multiplication and cytokine secretion by other T cells limit immune response D Memory T cells Xlll Three R s of lmmunity A Recognition CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 B Reaction attack C Remember memory XIV Attack Molecules A Perforin poke holes in cells B Granzymes like NK cells C Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF aids in macrophage activation and kills cancer cells XV Humoral Immunity A Antigens 1 Molecules that trigger an immune response 2 Epitopes regions of an antigen that stimulate immune responses B Antibodies 1 Although the human genome contains approximately 35000 genes we are capable of producing as many as 1 trillion different antibodies because of a mechanism called somatic recombination responsible forvariable regions of antibodies 2 B cells produce antibodies that bind to antigens and tag them for destruction a After endocytosis B cells link epitopes to their MHCll proteins and display them b B cells differentiate into plasma cells which actually make the antibodies 0 5 Classes ofAntibodies 1 IgM first exposure antibody primary immune response agglutination 2 1gG later exposures to the same antigen secondary immune response 3 lgA prevents pathogen adherence to epithelia and penetrating underlying tissue provides passive immunity to newborns lgD B cell transmembrane antigen lgE transmembrane protein on basophils and mast cells C Mechanisms that render antigens harmless 1 Neutralization 2 Complement fixation 3 Agglutination 4 Precipitation D Primary Immune Response 1 IgM appears first peaks in about 10 days and soon declines 2 IgG levels rise as lgM declines but lgG titer level in plasma drops to a low level within a month E Secondary Respons e 1 Anamnestic reexposure 2 IgG titer rises sharply and peaks in a few days 3 Response is very rapid no illness results 4 Low levels of IgM also secreted and quickly declines XVI Immune System Disorders A Hypersensitivity 1 Four Types 3 a Type I most common allergies b Type II c Type III d Type IV Beta cell destruction that causes type I diabetes mellitus is an example of what e type of hypersensitivity reaction B Autoimmune Diseases CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 1 Three reasons Why selftolerance fails a CrossReactivity b Abnormal exposure of selfantigens in the blood c Changes in structure of selfantigens C Ale 1 What is the main target of the human immunodeficiency virus HIV CD4 Helper T cells Exam 2 Chapter 18 The Circulatory System Blood 1 ll Functions ofBlood A Protection production of WBCs that fight infectionsinflammation B Regulation fluid balance pH and temperature control C Gas exchangetransport 1 Oxygen is carried on Hb Hb consists of 4 protein chains 2 alpha and 2 beta chains and 4 hem 6 groups Each heme group can bind l m olecule of oxygen 2 Some CO2 is carried in blood bound to amino acids on Hb The majority is carried in the form of bicarbonate This reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase a At the level of the tis sues the reaction is C02 HZOgtHZCO3gt HCO3 H b At the level of the lungs the reaction is HCO3 H gt HZCO3gt C02 HZO Blood is a liquid connective tissue consisting ofcells and ECM When a sample ofblood is centrifuged for a few minutes the cellular and extracellular components separate into three distinct zones Name the zones and indicate the components found in each The cellular component ofblood is also called formed elements LIst the seven types offormed elements A Zone 1 Plasma contains water proteins hormones electrolytes gases nitrogenous wastes and nutrients 4763 1 serum remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed 2 identical to plasma except absence of fibrinogen 3 Categories of Plasma proteins a Albumins 1 smallest and most abundant 2 contribute to viscosity and osmolarity influences BP flow and fluid balance b globulins antibodies c fibrinogen precursor of fibrin which helps form blood clots B Zone 2 Buffy coat white blood cells and platelets C Zone 3 Erythrocytes D Formed Elem ents blood cells and blood cell fragments 1 Erythrocytes 2 Platelets cell fragments from megakaryocytes in bone marrow 3 Leukocytes WBCs a All leukocytes have lysosomes but only granulocytes have specific granules b Granulocytes 1 Neutrophils 2 Eosinophils 3 Basophils Agranulocytes 1 Lymphocytes 2 Monocytesgt macrophages not in blood stream 8 10 CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 III Properties of Blood A Viscosity resistance of fluid to flow resulting from cohesion of its own particles B Osmolarity lV Hem atopoiesis red bone marrow produces all formed elements A Pluripotent Stem cells B Colonyforming units 1 Myeloid hemopoiesis blood formation in the bone marrow 2 Lymphoid hemopoiesis blood formation in the lymphatic organs V Blood Count A Hem atocrit packed cell volume percentage of whole blood volume composed of RBCs B Hb Concentration of whole blood C RBC count Vl Diseases A Sicklecell anemia 1 Most common genetic disease in the US 2 Most common in African descent 3 Allele that modifies the structure of Hb 4 RBCs become rigid sticky and pointed B Erythrocyte disorders 1 Polycythemia an excess of RBCs 2 Anemia inadequate red blood cells or Hb C Leukocyte disorders 1 Leukopenia low WBC count 2 Leukocytosis high WBC count 3 Leukemia cancer of hemopoietic tissue that usually produces an extraordinary high number of circulating leukocytes and their precursors a Myeloid Leukemia b Lymphoid Leukemia Vll Blood Types A Apatient s blood is crossmatched to potential donors to prevent transfusion reactions To accomplish this the patient s RBCs are tested with antiA antiB and antiPh antibodies to determine the presence ofthe ABO and Rh blood group antigens 1 Paula has been told she has type B blood Which ABO antibodies are in her plasma Which type of agglutinogens are on her RBCs Which type ofRH antigen does she have on her RBCs a Has antiA antibodies in her plasma b Has B antigens on her RBCs c Has Rh D antigens on her RBCs John has been told he has type AB blood Which ABO antibodies are in his plasma Which type of agglutinogens are on his RBCs Which type oth antigen does he have on his RBCs a Has no ABO antibodies in his plasma b Has A and B antigens on his RBCs c Has Rh D antigens on his RBCs Can Paula donate RBCs or plasma to John Explain Paula can donate RBCs to John because he does not have antiB antibodies There is no issue with the Rh antigen lquot l CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 4 Can Paula receive RBCs or plasma from John Explain She cannot receive RBCS because she has antiA antibodies in her plasma and John has A antigens on his RBCs Paula can receive plasma because it does not contain ABO antibodies B Antigens used to distinguish self from foreign matter C Agglutinogens antigens on the surface of RBC that is basis for blood typing D Agglutinins antibodies in the plasma 1 Gamma globulins secreted by plasma cells 2 Forms antigenantibody complexes E Agglutination 1 each antibody can attach to several foreign antigens on several different RBCs at the same time 2 causes clumping of RBCs F The ABO group 1 Type 0 most common a universal donor b donor s plasma may have both antibodies against recipient s RBCs so plasma is removed antiA and antiB 2 Type AB universal recipient lacks plasma antibodies no antiA or antiB 3 Type A 4 Type B G The Rh Group 1 Rh C D E 2 AntiD agglutinins a most reactive b ifD antigen is present considered Rh V l Platelet Form and Function A Platelets small fragments of m egakaryocytes B Secretevasoconstrictors C Stick together to form platelet plugs D Secrete procoagulants or clotting factors to seal small breaks E Initiate formation of clotdiss olving enzym e F Chemically attract neutrophils and m onocytes to sites of inflammation G Phagocytize and destroy bacteria H Secrete growth factors that stimulate mitosis to repair vessels l Platelet Production 1 Thrombopoiesis stem cells become megakaryoblasts 2 Megakaryoblasts repeatedly replicate DNA without dividing and form gigantic cells called megakaryocytes 1X Define hem ostasis List three hemostatic mechanisms used to controlbleeding The last and most effective defense in controlling blooding involves two reaction pathways Name these two pathways and the factors responsible for initiating them Once these pathways are activated draw a picture illustrating the remaining steps to complete the process of controlling bleeding What factor is missing in patients with hemophilia A What does this deficiency cause Indicate on your drawing which step the deficiency would effect A Hem ostasis cessation of bleeding 1 Hemostatic Mechanisms CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 a O 8 v Vascular spasm prompt constriction of a broken vessel most immediate but temporary protection against blood loss 1 Causes a Pain receptors b Smooth muscle injury c Platelets release serotonin 2 Effects provides time for other clotting pathways Platelet plug formation 1 Broken vessel exposes collagen 2 Plateletpseudopods stick to damaged vessel and other platelets 3 Platelets degranulate and release many substances a Serotoninvasoconstriction b ADP attracts and degranulates more platelets c Thromboxane A2 an eicosanoid promotes platelet aggregation degranulation and vasoconstriction Clot formation or coagulation 1 Conversion of fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin threads to form framework of clot 2 Procoagulants usually produced by the liver activate one factor and it will activate the next to form a reaction cascade Clotting Mechanisms 1 Extrinsic a initiated by the release of tissue thromboplastin factor 111 from damaged tissue b cascade to factor VII V and X fewer steps 2 Intrins ic a Initiated by platelets releasing Hagem an factor factor XE b cascade to factor XI to IX to Vlll to X Calcium is required for either pathway Reaction Cascade in Clotting Figure 1824 Completion of Coagulation a b Activation ofFactor X leads to production ofgrothrombin activator Prothrom bin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin Throm bin converts fibrinogen into fibrin Positive Feedback thrombin speeds up formation of prothrombin activator d 6 Natural Anticoagulants a Heparin from basophils and mast cells interferes with formation of prothrombin activator b Antithrombin from liver deactivates thrombin before it can act on fibrinogen 7 Clotting Disorders a Hemophilia i Hem ophilia A missing factor V111 and therefore cannot form clots ii Hemophilia B missing factor X iii Hemophilia C missing factorXI autosomal instead of sexlinked recessive Thrombosis abnormal clotting in unbroken vessel i Thrombus clot ii Pulmonary embolism clot may break free travel from veins to lungs Embolus anything that can travel in the blood and block blood vessels b 0 13 CB02210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 d Infarction tissue death may occur if clot blacks blood supply to an organ Ml or stroke Chapter 19 The Circulatory System The Heart Pathway ofblood through the heart 5 Exam 2 Start With blood that has been through the systemic circulation and is returning to the heart Indicate the valves involved at each point I in the pathway WUOWP XL39TIQTI Blood enters R atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae Blood in R atrium flows through R AVvalve into the R ventricle Contraction of R ventricle forces pulm onary valve open Blood flows through the pulm onary valve into the pulm onary trunk Blood is distributed by R and L pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it unloads CO2 and loads 02 Blood returns from lungs via pulm onary veins to L atrium Blood in L atrium flows through L AVvalve into L ventricle Contraction ofL ventricle forces aortic valve open Blood flows through aortic valve into ascending aorta Blood in aorta is distributed to every organ in the body where it unloads 02 and loads C02 Blood returns to the heart via venae cavae Anatomy of the Heart A The Heart Wall 1 Pericardium a doublewalled sac that encloses the heart b reduces friction and provides room to expand c parietal fibrous connective tissue deep thin serous layer d visceral epicardium 2 Epicardium heart covering thick layer of adipose in some places 3 Myocardium cardiac muscle 4 Endocardium simple squamous The Chambers 1 Atrioventricular sulcus 2 lnterventricular sulcus a Sulci contain coronary arteries 3 lnteratrial septum 4 Pectinate Muscles 5 lnterventricular Septum 6 Trabeculae Carneae muscular columns that project from the inner surfaces of both ventricles C Heart Valves 1 AV valves a Right AV valve tricuspid valve b Left AV valve mitral or bicuspid valve c Chordae tendineae cords connect AV valves to papillary muscles on floor of ventricles prevent AV valves from flipping inside out or bulging into the atria when the ventricles contract 2 Semilunar Valves control flow into great arteries a Pulmonary semilunar valve in opening between R ventricle and pulmonary trunk 14 CBO2210 Final Study Guide Spring 2012 b Aortic semilunar valve in opening between L ventricle and aorta DI Myocardial Infarction A interruption of blood supply to the heart due to blood clot of atheroma can cause death of cardiocytes within minutes B responsible for 12 of all deaths in the US lV Structure of Cardiac Muscle A Cardiocytes B Intercalated Dis cs join cardiocytes end to end C lnterdigitating folds folds interlock with each other and increase surface area of contact D Mechanical Junctions tightlyjoin cardiocytes 1 Fascia adherens each cells is linked to the next via transmembrane proteins 2 Desmos om es mechanical junctions between cells that prevent cardiocytes from being pulled apart E Electrical Junctions gap junctions allow ions to flow between cells can stimulate neighbors V S F Repair of damage is by fibrosis The Conduction System coordinates heartbeat A The sinoatrial SA node acts as the heart s internal pacemaker setting the normal heart rhythm Even though the heart has its own pacemaker its intrinsic rhythmicity can be modified by sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation Indicate the effect sympathetic nerves have on heart rate Indicate the effect parasympathetic nerves have on heart rate The graph below shows action potentials from the SAnode Ifthe dotted line is the inherent SA node action potential What type of innervation produces the solid line Indicate the neurotransmitters by the sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic fibers in cardiac muscle 7 Exam 2 1 Sympathetic nerves increase heart rate 2 Parasympathetic nerves decrease heart rate 3 Parasympathetic innervation produces the solid line in the graph 4 Sympathetic postganglionic fibers release norepinephrine 5 Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers release acetylcholine B Composed of Pacemaker and nervelike conduction pathways through myocardium C SANode 1 initiates heartbeat and determines heart rate 2 in R atrium near base of superior vena cava D signals spread throughout atria E AVNode electrical gateway to the ventricles F Bundle oins 1 bundle forks into R and L bundle branches 2 branches pass through interventricular septum toward apex G Purkinje Fibers 1 nervelike processes spread throughout ventricular myocardium 2 signal passes from cell to cell through gap junctions Nerve Supply to the Heart A SANode heart s internal pacemaker sets the normal heart rhythm B AV Node C sympathetic nerves increase heart rate sympathetic postganglionic fibers release epinephrine D parasympathetic nerves decrease heart rate parasympathetic postganglionic fibers release acetylcholine


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