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by: Breanna Sipes Sr.


Breanna Sipes Sr.
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Breanna Sipes Sr. on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Sherman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/202546/phil-2010-university-of-georgia in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Study Guide Second Exam Descartes rationalist 1 What is Foundationalism The tearing down of previous foundations to build a new body of knowledge is foundationalism 2 What criteria must Descartes foundation meet What method does he adopt to discover those beliefs and why Descartes foundation must be indubitable knowledge He therefore adopts the method of doubt a method of doubting all previous knowledge until the most absolute knowledge is left 2 What were Descartes previous foundations and why does he reject them Senses ruined by madmen and dreamers Logical Truths ruined by an evil deceiver 3 What is his first foundational belief How does it meet the criteria First Indubitable Truth Ithink therefore I am 4 What is Descartes argument for God s existence I exist The cause of something must have at least as much reality as the effect This counts for ideas Ideas can be traced back to real entities I have the idea of a perfect being This idea could have only come from a perfect being that exists in reality God exists QP39HeE NH 5 How does Descartes justify his superstructure beliefs I exist God exists God created me with my faculties God is not a deceiver Therefore I can trust my faculties when Iuse them correctly P39 mwb quot 7 Why is Descartes considered a Rationalist Descartes is considered a rationalist because he believes that some knowledge is innate not all knowledge is acquired via our experiences 9 Assess each of Descartes arguments Locke 1 Why does Locke reject innate ideas Discuss his arguments He uses the argument of newborns and idiots to reject innate propositional knowledge He also claims that the Universal Ascent argument Descartes uses does not necessarily prove innateness 2 What is Empiricism Why is Locke an Empiricist Empiricists believe that all knowledge gained is a result of experience Locke is considered an empiricist because he rejects the idea of innate ideas 3 How does he argue for the existence of the physical world All objects have qualities Qualities are powers a physical object has to create ideas in the mind Objects have primary and secondary qualities Primary qualities are what makes an object physical and are inseparable from the object These qualities are solidity shape number extension motion 4 How does he argue for the physical world as the source of sensible ideas Locke is a representationalist He believes physical objects cause ideas in the mind The quality of objects imposes sensible ideas in the mind 5 Assess his arguments Berkeley empiricist 1 What is Idealism The idea that all things exist in the mind and there is no physical world There are minds and ideas 2 How does he argue in favor of it The same arguments used to prove qualities as secondary also apply to Locke s proposed primary qualities Therefore no primary qualities exists and objects are only in perception Berkeley 1 Empiricist 2 IdealismImmaterialism 3 Philonous lover of mind Berkeley 4 Hylas matter one who believes in the independent existence of material objects like Locke Philonous There is no such thing as material substance a A sensible thing is immediately perceived by the senses 1 Material objects are nothing more than sensible things 2 Ifyou take away all sensible qualities nothing remains 3 Sensible qualities are divided into primary and secondary qualities 4 There are no secondary qualities in objects they are minddependent 5 There are no primary qualities in objects they are minddependent 6 Therefore there are no sensible qualities in objects they are mind dependent 7 Therefore material objects cannot eXist independently of the mind Secondary temperature taste odor sound it s relative to perceivers so it can t depend on the object it depends on the perceiver relativity of perception Primary eXtension figure solidity motion rest number relativity of perception doesn t apply since everyone agrees on the number motion figure etc But these are also minddependent since it depends on perception To be is to be perceived There are only minds and the ideas they contain There is no independently existing physical world When we leave the room for Locke objects eXist since it has mindindependent primary qualities When we leave the room for Berkeley then objects don t eXist since there is nowhere to perceive it God s mind is always there so objects always eXist WTF So where do we get our ideas Cannot be the physical world Cannot come from other ideas because ideas are passive Must come from a mind Do not come from MY mind They must come from a mind that can support all sensible qualities from the order and variety ofideas I conclude they must come from God God archetype ofideas God gives ideas to everybody all the time Fail For Berkeley idea sensation Pain hot cold red white number etc are sensations Our minds are active and independent We do not have an idea of God


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