INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY PHIL 2010
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Breanna Sipes Sr. on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/202548/phil-2010-university-of-georgia in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Exam 2 Study Guide 3292011 70700 PM Short Answer uestions o Difference between a true falsehood and a falsehood in words 0 In the Republic said by Socrates Book 2 o A true falsehood is a self deception about the most important things and is never permissible About the abstract essences we find through the method of abstraction o A falsehood in words is one that is sometimes permissible Socrates says it can be like a drug something that helps a friend in a bad situation or maybe trick enemies Could be beneficial for rulers to tell these to people a Permissible only to the rulers o What are the two laws Socrates just city will have that are concerned with representing the gods 0 Prohibit stories of the gods and great persons being overcome by desires or passions o The gods should never be presented as changing or deceiving people in any way o Myth of metals 0 Establish unity because we all come the earth 0 Some are born with silver or bronze or gold etc in their sold Bronze craftsman Silver soldiers Gold rulers 0 Means of ensuring social order o Socrates definition ofjustice 0 Each person should do the job that they are naturally suited to do and not interfere with the jobs of others Craftsmen should not decide to become rulers etc Injustice would be doing a job that you are not naturally suited to do o 3 parts of the soul and the analogy with the classes in the city 0 Three parts Rational rulers appetitive craftsmen spiritual soldiers o Members of the land community according to Leopold o Soils waters plants and animals 0 O Essa Theland pyran d and Rs gr cance o The land pyramid is the structure of the land community and tsintendependentreb onsMps Layers a Large animals n SmaHammaB n Plants n Insects a Son 0 Significance is to show the interdependence of the layers and shows the flow of energy in the energy circuit 0 Each layer going up there are fewer numbers LandetMcp ndpm o A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community It is wrong when it tends otherwise Difference between an aggregation of people and a body politic according to Rousseau o A body politic is united into a people by a first convention the social contract This makes it a stable people ltgt An aggrega on ofpeopmihayjustbe boundtogetherby force but it will not stay together It will disperse when the leader disappears Who is the sovereign according to Rousseau o All of the people living in a country as a unit 0 The general will of the people It is the active manifestation of the general will ues ons a According to Socrates in The Republic Book 4 how is civic justice defined and what constitutes injustice in society Explain b In the just city Socrates argues rulers may be permitted to use certain kinds of falsehoods to solve certain problems Explain the problems and how the falsehoods are supposed to overcome them c Do you think Socrates proposal for the use of permissible falsehoods is a good solution to the problems they are intended to solve Explain whyorwhynot 0 Section A Civic justice is when people do the job that they are naturally suited for in society and do not interfere with the roles of others Injustice would be doing a job they are naturally suited for and interfering in the jobs of others Provide an example of both 0 Section B Falsehoods n 0 Section C Argue for one side of the other n n n n Disorder caused by not accepting your role in society o Myth of Metals o Says that everyone is related promotes unity 0 Each person is naturally suited for one job Overcoming cowardice and any kind of misbehavior or any other character flaws o Censor stories gods and heroes 0 This will prevent people form having bad examples that they might imitate Nonbeneficial marriagesnonbeneficial offspring o Marriage lottery 0 Will have the best people marrying to produce the best offspring His aim is unity and Social order Given too much freedom Criticize definition of Justice Gives permission to rulers who love truth and hate falsehoods are the only people given permission to tell the useful falsehoods This is only a falsehood in words Philosopher hate falsehoods about the Provide an example a Rousseau claims Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains Explain what is meant by this claim b What is the social compact according to Rousseau and how does it work Explain c In your view is Rousseau s social compact an effective means of establishing a just society and keeping each individual as free as before p 24 0 Section A Everyone is born with natural libertyfreedom but everyone even rulers are subject to the rules of the state We are all equally free by nature a Slavery is always wrong because it violates our natural freedom 0 Section B The social compact is a conventional agreement which constitutes the only legitimate basis for the state and for laws of society It works by everyone giving upselling your natural freedom turning it in to the general will and becomes an integral part of the general will Everyone equally give up the same natural freedom 0 Section C Establishing a just society a Is this a plausible way of doing things o Is it possible to include everyone in a referendum vote o Says it would be easier to do in smaller states a Gives an important place for individual freedom because everyone is supposed to equally participate in the general will Keeping each individual free a It develops our intelligence and rationality it turns us into rational beings n We are able to develop empathy and aesthetic emotions n We can gain legitimate ownership of property o You get a legitimate title to property and it is yours until you give up that title a According to Rousseau what is the general will and what does he say about whether or not it can be mistaken Explain b Why does Rousseau say a legislator needed Who does he say should be the legislator and what is its role in relation to the populace Explain c Do you think the role Rousseau gives to the legislator is consistent with his definitions of the social contract and the general will 3292011 70700 PM Exam 1 Study Guide Spring 2011 Instructor Robert Scott The exam will consist of several short answer questions and one essay written on one of the three essay questions given below Short Answer topics 0 Method of Abstraction 0 Theory of recollection 0 Story of Daedalus and the distinction between knowledge and true opinion 0 Debater s paradox 0 Two reasons to doubt sense perception 0 First principle of knowledge and how it is proven o 3 possible sources of ideas 0 3 kinds of ideas 0 How errors can be avoided according to meditation 4 0 Explain the point of the wax example Essay Questions 1 What is the quotdebater s paradox and what problem does it suggest for the quest for knowledge Explain How does Socrates define knowledge and how does he propose to overcome the debater s paradox Explain Do you find eitherboth Socrates definition of knowledge and his solution to the debater s paradox to be satisfactory Give reasons to support your view 2 What are the reasons Descartes gives for doubting what he previously thought he knew Explain On what basis does Descartes later find he can have certain knowledge Explain at least two key points in his argument Do you believe Descartes was successful in establishing true grounds for certain knowledge Give reasons to support your view 3 On what basis does Descartes argue for the existence of God Explain focusing on one ofthe arguments What role does the proof of the existence of God play in Descartes overall goal of establishing the true grounds of knowledge Explain Do you find his arguments for the existence of God to be persuasive Give reasons to support your view Study lnstructionsYou will write your essay on one of these questions You will not be allowed to use books or notes during the exam A good strategy for study is to prepare and memorize an outline for an essay response to the question It may be best to write out an essay for the question then make the outline quotExplainquot means to describe and make clear in your own words the views andor arguments you are being asked to discuss Be as detailed as possible in explaining the argumentissue and use examples to clarify points when appropriate In preparing to answer reread the relevant parts ofthe text review your notes and the lecture notes on ELC The last part of the question where you are asked to give your own view is often the hardest You will be evaluated on how well you explain and argue for your view not on what your view is If you agree with the view of the author you need to provide additional support for your view A good strategy for doing this is to explain what you think Sartre s Bad Faith 2212012 34200 PM Existence precedes essencee Artifacts their essence proceeds their existence for example there is a toolmaker The whole idea was in the creators mind for the creation of the knife We are radically free to determine our own existence so the mere existence of god doesn t undermine Sartre s philosophy we know we aren t brought into existence to fulfill a specific purpose Bad Faith A lie to one self s or simply it s an untruth True liars are those who themselves know the truth but state falsified facts FacticityAny kind of social bounds that you have no responsibility over the decisions we have made such as coming to UGA past relation to the world and Transcendence Freedom and ability to move past these social bounds that attempt to define us You cant just see your choices as being in a vacuum for example when you choose you are choosing ultimately for all of mankind Fight Club Possible hero Character Marla because he overall brings jack back to reality It could be Jack because in the end it seems he expresses his freedom It also could be Tyler because he is trying to make people hold onto their Free Will even if it takes drastic measures like the guy in the convenience store can you Force someone to be Free Why is Jack Discontent Jack is overall just so normal For example he has nothing wrong with him I feel he is purposeless because he invested his whole identity in materialistic objects such as when he loses his clothes at the Airport and then when he goes back to his apartment to find that it is burned down Tyler and Jack can be viewed as one entity For example Tyler is the extreme side of Jack and Jack is just the more materialistic more logical person He has no name throughout the whole movie to symbolize this lack of identity and in the end of the movie when he shoots himself this is an expression of gaining a sense of identity Why does Tyler want to Fight when they re behind the Bar Maybe its about Jack just trying something new Possibly its an expression of this primal freedom Tyler is trying to break Jack down to his most basic form How can you know who you are if you haven t been in a fight Tyler feels it necessary that you have to start somewhere in order to unveil who you truly are What is Tyler s Authenticity You have to recognize that you are going to die Its not about you driving or you being in control rather its about you not being in control This is expressed by the Car scene when they crash Tyler feels society is denying their freedom especially consumerism Challenge in Mortality Nothing we do will actually amount to something for example everything we do doesn t really matter because we know that nothing is true in the end What does Jack Decide in the End Jack wouldn t be able to just do the things he did if he didn t hit rock bottom Rock bottom serves as a focus point like an eye opener For example when you haven t hit rock bottom you take things such as consumerism and materialistic as the entities that have meaning and your life and nothing else has meaning 2212012 34200 PM When Sartre states that existence precedes our essence he is primarily saying that humans are able to create their own personal values and ultimately this leads to humans establishing some sort of meaning for their life Humans are only able to achieve such a task by using their consciousness
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