LOGIC & CRIT THINK
LOGIC & CRIT THINK PHIL 2020
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Breanna Sipes Sr. on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2020 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/202550/phil-2020-university-of-georgia in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
PHL2020 Test 1 Study Guide Argument A series of statements some of which the premises are offered as providing reasons evidence for another statement the conclusion Try to give evidence for accepting or rejecting a statement Arguments emphasize evidence All arguments can be put into standard from with premises and a conclusion 0 1 Atheistic governments are corrupt 2 The Russian government is atheistic 3 Therefore The Russian government is corrupt 0 Abortion is morally wrong for the simple reason that murder is morally wrong 0 quotThis place fits the definition of a sweatshop perfectlyquot the safety inspector said quotLook at the exit You can t get out The windows are sealed tooquot Explanations say whysomething or how something is the case Explanations stress understanding No attempt to provide evidence for the truth of the statement Citing motives purposes and goals can be explanatory Also explaining how a goal is achieved is explanatory o The water froze because the temperature went below 0 degrees She took the job paying less money because she wanted the security it offered Mr Ambicioso has a classic reason for killing his uncle Ambicioso who is greatly in debt is the sole beneficiary of his uncle s multimillion dollar estate He plans to murder her by putting arsenic in her drink Since Mary is deeply concerned with environmental pollution she is going to campaign for greater preservation measures to save the national forests Descriptions purport to say what is the case They do not provide evidence or reasons Passage relates the properties or characteristics of something o It is one of those lazy summer days in the deep south 0 The mosquitoes are as big as horseflies Rhetoric a persuasion technique that does not provide evidence for its conclusion Rather it relies on emotional appeals o The communists are ungodly heathens Definition vs Contingent Statement Vague vs Ambiguous in linguistic expressions Intensional definitions Synonymous definition indicates the intensional meaning of a word by presenting another word with the same or similar intentional meaning 0 feline means cat 0 illegal means unlawful o circle means 0 Lexical definition actual or normative meaning ofa word how it is used at a given time in the development of the language The dictionary definition o Mermaid n a fabled creature with the top of a women but a fish tail for legs Stipulative definition specifies an intensional meaning within a particular context 1 Reforming definition specifies a new intensional meaning for an old word used in new circumstances extends the meaning of an old word 0 Poor means anyone with an annual income of less than 5000 2 Theoretical definition definition of a word that has intensional meaning in some specialized discipline 0 Nanotechnology means the ability to build objects on a molecular scale Precising definition a definition that makes more exact the original intensional meaning of a word Does not give any new meaning to a word 0 A person is a human which can live without the assistance ofanother or machines Definition by genus and species gives intensional meaning to a word by specifying the type of thing being defined genus AND listing properties that separate that thing from other things of the same type differentia species 0 A wife is a female genus which is married species Operational definition clarifies or establishes the intensional meaning of a word by citing various techniques or methods to decide if such a thing is the word 0 18 h century death test mirror over mouth 0 Operational def of mass scale Extensional definitions Ostensive definition a definition that is created by point out members of the general term 0 Father points out to his child everything which is a chair and everything which is not a chair The child soon learns to use the word chair correctly Enumerative definition provides by listing those things denoted by the definiendum Can be complete or partial 0 Southern states Georgia South Carolina Tennessee etc Definition by subclass denotes classes having fewer members than the main class 0 Buildings residential industrial commercial Contextual definition provides the function of that word provides expression equvilent shows how that word is used 0 And is used like this John AND Steve are gay Persuasive definition is any type of definition used to convince the receiver to accept or reject a claim in which the definidendem occurs primary function is to convince relies on emotional language rhetoric 0 Democracy means a form of government guaranteeing those personal freedoms cherished by all individuals
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