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by: Randy Armstrong V


Randy Armstrong V
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Randy Armstrong V on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ADSC 3550 at University of Georgia taught by Webster in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see /class/202556/adsc-3550-university-of-georgia in Animal Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
813 Why study behavior Animals are fascinating why do they do the things they do How do they adapt to the environments in which they live To understand the animal better to solve practical problems ex fencelines study of weaning Ch 1 prevented suckling but caused less distressbetter gains History not in text Aristotle 300 BC wrote systematic observations and ideas about animal behavior 1626 John Ray British zoologist wrote a scientific text on the study of instinctive behavior in birds 1700s Charles George Leroy wrote book on intelligence and adaptation in animals 1800s Douglas Spalding wrote papers on relationship between instinct and experience 1872 Charles Darwin The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animalsquot first modern work in ethology 20th Century Behaviorism Nurture over Nature John B Watson BF Skinner controlled lab experiments w rats and mice focused on mechanisms of learning and acquisition of behaviorreinforcement punishment belief that general rules of learning exist independent of context Naturalistic Behavioral Biology Nature over nurture innate instinctive and adaptive behavior Oskar Heinroth coined term ethology Founders of modern ethology KonradLorenz1st coherent theory of instinct and innate behavior gosling Niko Tinbergen pioneer of experimental ethology would alter environmental features to determine the effects of specific stimuli on behavior of freeliving animals Ex supernormal stimuli big eggs Neither the behaviorists or behavioral biologists were particularly interested in mental processes and emotions which might be associated with behavior can t inferknow 1960 s and onward ethology matured as a science Ethology study of animal behavior its causation and biological function Approaches to the study of behavior 1 Phylogenetic or evolutionary origins of behavior a behavior is influence by the expression of genes b behavior changes as gene frequency changes c how did behavior originally develop d how has domestication changed behavior i ex reduction in fearfulness Ontogenetic or developmental process leading to behavior a how or when does the behavior develop in an animal s life b behavior that develops predictably usually is important for survival or reproduction i ex imprinting in birds suckling in mammals c on the other hand learned behavior may have no timeline ex learning to read 3 Proximate mechanisms that trigger behavior a What is the internal body triggers us to eat or external event stimulus that turns on behavior i ex daylength can affect reproductive behavior of poultry sheep ii alarm wakes us up l 4 Functional consequences of behavior a what function does the behavior have b how does the behavior promote survival reproduction or wellbeing c ex what is the function of the social attachment of a chick to its mother hen i protection good at warning ii learn food sources sociality navigate environment iii 81513 Tinbergen s Four Questions How does the behavior develop during phylogeny How does the behavior develop during ontogeny What is the causation proximate of the behavior What is the function of the behavior Describing and Interpreting Behavior Naming behavioral responses 1 Motor or actionpattern description oOperational description of what animal is doing ex running pecking 2 Function oEx maternal care aggression 3 According to ascribed mental state oEx fearfulness happy Conducting Behavioral Research Experimenta Approach oEx Is there a less stressful way to wean beef calvesquot oHypothesis staged separation better than total separation olndependent variables fence line treatment vs control oDependent variables feeding pacing vocalization growth Descriptive Approach oBasic behavioral biology What does the animal do in normal circumstances oBehavioral Repertoire The behavior of which an animal species is capable All behaviors may not be manifested in any given setting oEthogram The set of actions recorded from an animal or group of animals in a given period of observation often quantified Beware Anthropomorphism olnterpretation of animal behavior in terms of human emotions and intentions Ex proud happy depressed Teleology oAscribing to animals the capacity to foresee the end result of innate unlearned behavior the cow licked her newborn calf to stimulate it to stand and sucklequot the cow licked her newborn calf which stimulated it to stand and sucklequot Basic Principles of Animal Behavior 1Behavior is a response to changes in the internal or external environment of an animal oStimulus 2Not all stimuli will elicit a response oPeripheral filtering speciesspecific sensory organ limitations oCentral filtering Not all stimuli are perceived because of inhibitory intervention in the CNS 3Behavioral responses are not always predictable oComplex causation oSeek to determine probabilities of response Thus Behavioral Variability within and between individuals The Problem with Instinct nstinctive behavior Generally thought of as behavior that occurs naturally without learning or experience Criteria originally proposed to define instinctive behavior 1 Stereotyped for the species 2 Develops normally for animal reared in isolation 3 Develops without practice 1 Stereotyped for the species Stereotypy can occur when animals have the same experience oSpecies preference in sheep and goats appears stereotyped but is influenced by rearing experience Male goats 2 Develops normally for animal reared in isolation Practical problems oCan true isolation from experience be achieved Negative result ie maternal behavior develops normally oCan conclude these experiences are not necessary Positive result oBehavior is affected therefore not instinctive What about side effects of deprivation 3 Develops without practice What constitutes practice and when might it occur during development For in instance originally thought that behavior displayed soon after birth was instinctive but Mammalian fetuses show swallowing reflex and ingest amniotic fluid Human fetuses suck thumb Chick fetuses display pecking motor patterns before hatching Chick duck and quail fetuses learn maternal calls before hatch lnnate Behavior Ethologists began to realize that all behavior arises through an inseparable interaction of both genes and environment nnate behavior Behavior that has strong genetic component in its development oHigh survival value Need for full behavioral expression at specific time of life with little margin for error oReflex Modal Action Pattern Domestication Dog and cow videos 1 with worksheet oDog video 1Dogs domestication When 15000 years ago 20riginal belief of dog domestication wolf puppies adopted and tamed 3Why unlikely nobody has been able to tame wolf puppies adopted older than 13 days old 4When were first permanent human settlements 15000 yrs ago 5Alternative theory for dog domestication woves began feeding on human garbage and wolves that fit in niche and didn t flee from humans survived 6Why would establishment of human settlements be important for dog domestication garbage from settlements provided food for dogs 7What was proposed to be trait selected for that led to development of dog shortest flight distance 8How might wolf and proto dog populations have become genetically isolated different niches wolves fed in wild and dogs fed amongst humans 9What physical changes occurred in evolution of proto dog What selection pressures may have prompted these changes behaviora food choice smaller body size can survive on smaller meals humans formed companionships with smaller animals reduced brain and skull size 10Name species whose domestication led to rethinking of domestication of dog Siberian fox 11What behavioral test used to select animals to be kept in breeding population Animal reaction to the open hand whether they flee or approach 12What behavioral changes occurred as a result of the selection program Were all these changes a result of direct selection for the behavioral trait no longer afraid of people began barking more playful selected for tameness 13What physical changes occurred as result of selection program ears floppy color variations 82013 Domestication Other species include oGuinea pig pigeon yak reindeer buffalo Recent species oTilapia fox etc Systematic aspect bias toward Ungulate mamarumak and Gallinaceous birds Behavioral aspect bias toward gregarious omnivores How do genes work Code for synthesis of proteins Various kinds of proteins regulate oGrowth of anatomical structures olmportant aspects of metabolism oHormone concentrations oNeurotransmitter production oEtC Qualitative inheritance Anatomy and behavior structural bias oCattlesheep have horns Manifest aggression with head butts oHorses do not have horns Manifest aggression with bitingkicking oHoney bees Manifest aggression with stinging Gender and behavior oGender determined by inheritance of sex chromosomes Mammals XXfemale XYmale Birds ZWfemale ZZ male oGender has profound influence on behavior Reproductive behavior Aggression Territorial behavior Fischer s Lovebird carries nest materials in beak Peachfaced Lovebird carries nest materials tucked in rump feathers 97 of time Hybrids at first carried nest materials in beak 6 of time and in rump feathers 94 of time 02 mo later beak 41 03 yrs later beak 100 Quantitative inheritance Determines how frequency or how much a behavior is performed oResponse frequency is a measure of motivation Domestic goats more prone to climb than domestic sheep male goats more prone to rear than male sheep Response frequency may be controlled by response threshold Other behaviors may be quantitatively inherited oRunning speed oAcoustic sensitivity Neurophysiological study of behavioral genetics Effects of specific gene loci o knockout micequot ostudy physiological effects of mutants and correlated changes in behavior Maternal behavior of mice 1St example oMutations of Peg3 and Mest genes reduce oxytocin producing neurons in hypothalamus to 23rds normal Maternal behavior of mice 2quotd example oDeactivation knockout of fosB gene Knockout mice normal milk production progesterone oxytocin level much slower to retrieve young Normal mothers fosB protein turned on when exposed to young Neurophysiological Analogy Pickup truck oBehavior goes down road under its own power Regulator genes Genes that control function of other genes Ex fru gene in male fruit fly May have major effect on a behavior or a complex of behaviors 82213 Animal breeding techniques used to study inheritance of behavior Breeding to determine major gene effects Mendelian genetics oSingle gene influences typically from loci on autosomal chromosomes oDifferent alleles at a locus code for different actions oBehavioral expression depends on Homozygosity or heterozygosity at the locus Relative dominance of each allele dominant recessive neutral Domestic Honeybee oHygienic strains remove dead larvae nonhygienic strains do not Hygienic hives less susceptible to American foulbrood disease oProgeny of crosses between strains F1 generation are all nonhygienic oBackcross F1 generation to hygienic strain Get 1 hygienic hives and nonhygienic hives in F2 generation Upon further investigation oActually 4 behavioral groups of bees Nonhygienic don t uncap cells don t remove larvae Nonhygienic uncap cells don t remove larvae Nonhygienic don t uncap cells remove larvae Hygienic uncap cells remove larvae Postulate 02 gene loci 2 alleles at both loci oExpression of each behavior is determined by the recessive gene at each locus Don t uncap cells U uncap u Don t remove dead larvae R Remove r oHygienic parent stock uurr oNonhygienic parent stock UURR oF1 offspring UuRr Backcross oUuRr F1 nonhygienic X uurr hygienic UuRr nonhygienic uuRr nonhygienic Uurr nonhygienic uurr hygienic Rat coat color and behavior pleiotropy oPleiotropy Single gene has influence on multiple traits Ex physiology anatomy behavior oAgouti brown wild type color A oBlack recessive gene a oEO Price crossed AA or Aa to aa All the agouti offspring were Aa oBred to Aa to Aa Got AA Aa and aa in same litter Did 4 behavioral tests oTests of fear openfield test platformjumping response to novel food No difference between black and agouti rats Ease of handling test 4 oBlack rats showed less escape and aggression Similar results in study by another researcher using deer mice Domestication gene oTurns out that behavioral differences between black and agouti mammals are related to the regulation and effects of melanocytestimulating hormone MSH oAgouti allele interferes with MSH in pigment cells and may interfere with melanocortin receptors in neural tissues Wild type allele inhibits tameness Black nonagouti coat color oThe majority of inbred mouse and rat strains examined are homozygous forthe black coatcolor allele and tend to be easier to handle than wild types oReminiscent of Siberian fox domestication The dog too Animal breeding used to study inheritance of behavior 2 oHybridization experiments Crossbreed different strains or breeds 1 Additive effects oF1 hybrids have traits that are intermediate to their parent stocks oHuman avoidance responses in turkeys Wild turkeys have strong avoidance domestic turkeys less avoidance Crosses have intermediate reactivity oSuggests polygenic control of behavior 2Dominance effects oF1 hybrids resemble one parent stock and not other oAlleles controlling a given behavior from one parent stock are dominant over those from the other parent stock Ex F1 crosses in previous honeybee example 3Heterosis oAlso called hybrid vigor or overdominance oF1 hybrids score higher in behavioral performance than parents Or higher than average of parents oHybrids of most crosses of inbred strains of mice were better than either of their parent strains at learning a conditioned avoidance response Suggests an inbreeding depression related to homozygosity of deleterious recessive alleles Artificial Selection Manipulation of behavioral trains by deliberate selection oHumans choose which animals produce the next generation by selecting only those which show certain behavioral characteristics oPresupposes genetic control of the behavior lndividual trait selection Multitrait selection selection index Artificial selection and the relative roles of genes and environment 1 Heritability oH VgVp VgVp Ve Vi oWhere Vg genetic variance in population Vp phenotypic variance in population total variance Ve variance in population due to environmental factors Vi variance due to interaction between genetic and environmental factors Heritability estimates of behavior oCattle Ease of handling during milking 4753 Social dominance value OO29 oSwine Avoidance learning 3 wk old 50 oHorse Running speed 255O oChicken Feed consumption broiler 48 wk of age 4696 Mating frequency 18 90 2Mode of Inheritance olntermediate inheritance additive effects dominance or heterosis 3Maternal effects oReciprocal cross breeding can reveal prenatal or postnatal maternal environmental effects on behavior oAnimals of different genotype behave the same because of common maternal influence 4Sex linkage oBehavior is controlled by gene on one of the sex chromosomes oBroodiness in laying hens White Leghorn breed is nonbroody Z Cornish breed is broody Z 5Correlated effects of selection oUnintentional change in behavior when selecting for another trait behavior or otherwise Turkey selection for large breast size has reduced male mating performance Rat selection for defecation rate high or low in novel environment produced reactive and nonreactive strains differing in multiple behavioral and physiological traits Dog selection for exhibition increased fearfulness reduced playfulness aggressiveness and curiosity selection for work increases playfulness and aggressiveness QUIZ from last week ANSWERS 1 What is ethology The study of animal behavior its causation and its biological function 2 Tinbergen s Four Questions summer up 4 approaches to study animal behavior Name 2 of these Phylogenetic or evolutionary origins of behavior Ontogenic or developmental processes feeding to behavior Proximate mechanisms that trigger behavior Functional consequences of behavior 3 Define anthropomorphism and indicate its danger in behavioral interpretation Anthropomorphism is the interpretation of animal behavior in terms of human emotions and intentions It is important to remember that animals are not humans and it should not be presumed without good evidence that their emotions motivations and understanding are the same as those of humans ex dog is proud happy depressed 4 How does a behavioral repertoire differ from an ethogram Behavioral repertoire is a set of actions that an animal or species is capable of doing while an ethogram is the set of actions recorded from an animal in a given period of observation 5 Why has Innate Behaviorquot come to replace Instinct in behavioral terminology nstinct was thought to underlie behavior that occurs naturally without learning or experience The criteria used to identify behavior arising from instinct in example 1 stereotyped for species 2 develops normally for animals reared in isolation 3 develops without practice turned out not to apply in reality or impossible to evaluate The term innate behavior recognizes that all behavior is influenced by environment and experience even if it appears to be largely stereotyped and unlearned 6 Define two types of filtering that can prevent stimuli from eliciting a response Peripheral and Central filtering Ethologists believe that behavior ultimately arises through the interaction between what two things Genes and environment 8 What is the current thought on how dogs were domesticated and when this period occurred Wolves domesticated themselves due to new ecological niche created by the garbage found in permanent human settlements 1400015000 years ago 9 What is the difference between qualitative inheritance and quantitative inheritance of behavioral Qualitative Behavior inherited such that an animal either does or does not perform a given action or behavior pattern Quantitative Behavior is inherited such that animals vary in their frequency or capability to perform a given action or behavior pattern but not in the fact that they can perform the behavior 10 What is the response threshold and how does it relate to response frequency Response threshold is the sensitivity of an animal to a given stimulus Response frequency refers to the frequency at which a behavior is performed It is a measure of motivation and may be controlled by the response threshold 82713 The Control of Behavior Brain and Central Nervous System Review the cat central nervous system Peripheral nervous system oExteroceptive nervous system oProprioceptive nervous system Afferent neurons oAfferent action potentials Efferent motor neurons oEfferent action potentials motor commands Simple reflexes may be mediated entirely within the spinal cord Brain oA large complex of ganglia at the anterior end of the spinal cord Center of behavioral control oSimilar basic structure but different component size between species oHighly integrated Can be difficult to specify exact function of any given part oMidbrain optic lobe eyesight oCerebellum Coordination of muscular action Forebrain olnformation processing neurophysiological control and feedback Hypothalamus control of regulatory and homeostatic physiology and behavioral patterns Amygdala emotion center Hippocampus negative feedback re stressrelated hormones Cerebrum cognition information processing memory decision making selfawareness Influences on the Brain From within the body oEndocrine system oAfferent neurons sensory neurons Proprioception From outside the body oAfferent neurons Exteroception Externa stimuli are transduced and passed to the CNS Effects of the Brain On internal environment means of oAutonomic nervous system Smooth muscle cardiac muscle oHormones On external environment 0 Peripheral nervous system Efferent motor neurons Behavior involuntary or voluntary Brain Centers Various brain areas centers have been identified where control of specific behaviors appears to be localized The Hypothalamus Contains oClusters of nuclei oNeurosecretory neurons oSeveral nerve fibertracts enter and leave it Connects with the pituitary gland oBy blood vessel and neurohormonal connection Rich blood supply Well adapted to monitor body metabolism and initiate behavior to maintain homeostasis Thermoregulation oParts sensitive to blood temp lf heated animal pants or sweats lf cooled animal shivers Water Balance oLateral hypothalamus electrical stimulation or injection of salt solution causes drinking behavior Nutrient lntake oVentromedial nucleus electrical stimulation depresses feeding Stress Response oHPA Axis Early Experience and Behavioral Development Early behavioral experiences have lasting effects on animals oTrue of pigs dogs sheep goats guinea pigs chickens and humans oEffects on Growth Etc Phenotypic Plasticity oThe ability of a single genotype to produce more than one phenotype in response to environmental conditions Morphology physiological state behavior Confers adaptability in the face of environment uncertainty oReal time adjustment to the actual environment that occurs o Prediction of environment to be faced in animal s lifetime Flexibility vs Fixation oCanalization The degree to which the development of a behavioral trait is resistant to modification oEg food preference Specialists vs Generalists Specialist Koala eats only eucalyptus leaves highly canalized food preference Adaptive because eucalyptus are evergreen and there are lots of trees high environmental predictability Generalist Pigs and chickens are omnivores eat a wide variety of plant and animal matter Live in environments where food sources are variable oOther examples of canalization Nest building by birds Habitat or location Design Aggressive behavior patterns Species typical Allows communication and behavioral response oHowever phenotypic plasticity Sensitive Periods oPeriods in early life when certain experiences have a profound effect on behavioral development Same experience will have much lesser effect mprinting oLearning restricted to a short time early in the life of an animal Occurs during sensitive period lmportant in development of social preferences oFilial imprinting Learning process by which very young animals bond to their parents Individual recognition Duckling and chick example Precocial species Develop following response very soon after hatching Most responsive to certain range of visual stimuli 82913 Species Imprinting Learning process by which a young animal becomes socialized to its species oLearning a class of stimuli not individual animal oOccurs later that filial imprinting olnfluences sexual preference The basis for species reproductive isolation oCrossfostering experiments Mallard duck Male will court female of the species he grew up with Females tend to prefer males giving them the most attention less affected by species imprinting Goats and sheep Males prefer females of adopted species Females less affected Facial cues important for species recognition Effect may be reversible by forced cohabitation with conspecifics Imprinting and Other Senses Olfactory imprinting oDemonstrated in all vertebrate groups mallas birdsm reptiles amphibians and fish oRat altricial offspring blind and deaf at birth Attach to mother s teats by odor recognition Auditory Imprinting oSongbird males have innate song but learn dialect song by hearing males soon after hatch Long before they can sing themselves oDoes not occur in the chicken Call learning is not necessary Sensitive period for socialization in the dog 3 12 wks of age oMaximal sensitivity 68 wks lf socialization to dogs good with dogs If socialization to people good with people Selected examples of the effect of early experience on adult behavior 1Maternal effects on emotional reactivity 2Development of food preferences 3Development of temperament in male cattle 4Development if sexual behavior in male pigs 1Maternal Effects on Emotional Reactivity Rat Socially isolated after weaning vs repeated separation from mother prior to weaning oTested as adults olsolated from rats were excitable when exposed to food cues or novel environment Abnormally high dopamine levels in addiction and motor control brain areas oMaternally deprived rats appeared sluggish and dull in reactions to environmental changes Abnormally low levels of serotonin moodmediating NT in emotion and memory brain areas The amygdala olmportant site for processing fear responses oNeural activity and blood flow increase when an animal is exposed to fear provoking stimuli oLateral nucleus receives input from sense organs central nucleus send output to other parts of the brain ntense emotional experiences early in life can cause longlasting or permanent changes in biochemistry and activity in the amygdala and other brain areas oRats raised by attentive mothers high grooming and nursing were less anxious in potentially stressful situations Had more receptors for NTs that inhibit the activity of the amygdala fewer receptors for corticotropinreleasing hormone 2Development of Food Preferences Early experience with different foodstuffs can determine food preference as an adult Maternal diet during gestation mammals oEg Rats from mothers fed garlic preferred garlic oCan affect flavor and olfactory preferences in humans sheep dogs rabbits rats Postnatal experience oSuckling rats are familiarized with flavors of foods eaten by mother oYoung rats are attracted to feeding adults Sense sample and learn foods being eaten 3Development of Temperament in Male Cattle ndividua rearing vs group rearing Groupreared Hereford bulls were easier to manage oWould receive negative feedback from aggression toward other bulls in group oWere not familiarized to people and exhibited fear and avoidance largerflight distance olndividuallyreared bulls were not afraid of humans oBecame difficult to drive and were sometimes aggressive toward humans Similar to dairy bulls oNever lost an aggressive encounter May have experiences negative reinforcement to become more aggressive oBe careful about including yourself in an animal s social order 4Development of Sexual Behavior in Male Pigs Male pigs reared in three social environments oSocial restriction visual and physical isolation oGroups of 6 males oGroups of 6 males and 3 females Sexual performance tested from 713 months of age Learning The acquisition of knowledge or skill through experience EO Price Learning is a relatively permanent change in response overtime as a result of practice or experience New information gained by experience helps animal to response better to the world as it Is oAdjustment of the behavioral phenotype to cope with environmental variability that cannot be handled by genotype The ability to learn is an adaptive trait oThe specific ability to learn is genetically controlled oThe specifics of what is learned is determined by the environment Great variation among animals in what is learned oVaries with species breed and individual olndividuals typically vary in learning ability over time Some factors which can affect learning ability 1Temperament or emotional reactivity 2Motivation to explore 3Motivation for rewards 4Structural and sensory bias 5Psychological biases 1Temperament or emotional reactivity Hyperactive or emotionally reactive fearful animals typically learn more slowly Domestic laboratory rats superior to wild rats in maze learning appetitive conditioning avoidance learning escape learning olnferiority of wild rat due to high emotional reactivity in tests oWould freeze and not investigate test environments Fearfu animals may not notice or place importance 2Motivation to explore Animals with similar temperament may differ in motivation to explore lnquisitive animal is more likely to discover opportunities and learn by trial and error Example goats are more exploratory than sheep browser vs grazer oGoats learned to unlock doors by sliding bolts with tongue and nose Sheep never learned to unlock the doors 3Motivation for rewards Learning is more rapid when animal is motivated to receive reward offered Unmotivated animal is not stimulated to take action nor attend to relevant stimuli Example Price used water withdrawal to motivate rats to perform action to receive water oLimited reward size to maintain motivation Cow Video 2 What learned behavior is evident in cows responses to the milking parlor oHow are these behaviors learned ANSWER the cows form lines voluntarily enter and depart from milking parlor learned from repetition and form of negative reinforcement


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