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by: Thurman Wilderman


Thurman Wilderman
GPA 3.66


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Class Notes
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thurman Wilderman on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1211 at University of Georgia taught by Stanton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/202562/chem-1211-university-of-georgia in Chemistry at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
CHEM EXAM 2 1 MOLARITY 1 36mL of 0140 M FeN033 mixed with 25mLof 0125 M KSCN and 39mLor 0500 M HN03 Calculate the FeN033 concentration at the instant of mixing 2 25mL of 05 M CaCIZ mixed with 146mL of 012 M KCIZ What is the Cl concentration 3 What volume of 0200 M NaOH will react with 500mL of 0200 M AIN033 i What mass in grams of AIN033 either one is limiting 2 ISOTOPES 3 MASS ABUNDANCY 4 PERIODIC LAW Group 1 Alkali Metals Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 6 Chalcogen Elements Group 7 Halogen Elements Group 8 Noble Gases Lanthinide Elements Valent Shell farthest from the nucleus 5 ELECTRONIC RADIATION 1 Long wavelength low energy low frequency 2 Short wavelength high energy high frequency Wavelength is 5200A What is the energy of 100mol of protons 6 QUANTUM LEVEL n energy level My of orbitals in a subshell MS spin List a possible set of quantum numbers for the 39Lh electron of yttrium n7 7m 7msi 5 What is the maximum number of electrons that can have the following sets of quantum numbers P F PPE JI PPN an2ms12 bn5 1 cn3 2m 0ms12 6 The following sets of quantum numbers are incorrect as written Modify each of the following and write a correct set of quantum numbers Each set is written in the order ofn Z ml my a 3 2 10 b 5 1 2 7 c 4 3 4 l 7 Identify the element described in each statement below a The alkaline ea1th metal with n 3 Z 0 m 0 b The halogen with n 2 Z l c A metal with two unpaired electrons with n 4 Z 2 m 2 ms 12 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION 1 Representative elements IA gt 8A elements ns amp np Transition elements SB gt 23 elements ns amp nd 3 EXCEPTIONS Chromium group iI Copper group 4 Write the ground state electron configuration for the substances listed below M g atom As atom core notation Co atom complete orbital notation CHEMICAL PRODUCTIVITY o PERIODIC PROPERTIES O ATOMIC RADII 0 Arrange the elements in order of increasing atomic radii I Al In Ga B Tl lt lt lt lt Se I Cd Mg Ar lt lt lt lt 0 Arrange the elements as the atomic radii decreases Fr Ac Ti 0 N gt gt gt gt n V At I Ca N gt gt gt gt O IONIZATION ENERGY O Atom g energy gt ionT g e39 0 More energy to remove second IE taking from an ion than first Etaking from a neutral atom 0 Three 3 for representative elements 0 EXCEPTIONS I Be Mg P N I Due to filled and halffilled subshells 0 Completely filled subshells are more stable 0 Arrange the elements as the ionization energy increases Sr Be Ca Mg lt lt lt lt AI CI Na P Elements have the same number of electrons 0 Ex Ne atom and Na ion ELECTRON AFFINITY 0 What type of elements on a periodic table will have low ionization energy 0 Absorb EA is because metals don39t want an e39 0 Release I EA is because nonmetals absorb e Metal Nonmetal239 Ionic Compound gt Mnmu Na F gt 2NaF Metals form ions Nonmetals form ions OOOO Cations are ALWAYS smaller than their neutral ion Anions are ALWAYS bigger than their neutral ion I The more electrons the more spread out they are lt Repulse IONIC RADII I Decreasing Ionic radii Ga K Ca gt gt I Increasing ionic radii I Cl Se Br S lt lt lt ELECTRONEGATIVITY O Ionic Na S8 gt 8Na2S I Na 27 Na 58239 O Covalent 0 824 F2gt SF2 OXIDATION O that corresponds to the loss of electrons 0 Mg atom energy gt Mg Ze39 lionizalionl 0 Reduction Redox Gain elections F2 2e gt energy 2F 0 Ionic Ca ion 2 I Ca ion oxid 2 0 Oxidation s must equal to ZERO POLYATOMIC IONS 0 Have an electric charge 0 MEMORIZE ADDITION sue Ha AQUEUOS soumo a smowe Meta smGruup 12nd OH Water Saws 0 WEAK ammoer SDummmd Weakmas Wezkazses shghuy saws sans a uoumcmoum Transmun Mews Du nut cundud Emmy W Water mmze un y shghuy Amds are cuvz ent Basescznbe cuvz ent Why wumd yuu put sumethmg m 2 mmruwzve and nuke n why 5 u was a memszremw 5 fund heatsqumk y Nudeznsmgh ATOM AND ION counsummou Alum cw Ne 25 sz 17p 17a a ma Ar 17p 182 17 cw iniei The number ufprutuns e ectmns and neutmns m a madam atom Ts ml b pf 27 n7 Alumsgm smzHerfrum mm ngm duetu smemwg Sh e d rg ncrezse effedwe nudeus charge Addmg mare prutunsfrum mm mm nggesl 2rez kzhz kzhne earth mews Eli Lust an e edrun Mare prutunsm nudeus N2 N O A m Lust Srdedruns Mare prutunsdrawn dusertu the nuc eus O The Foundations of Chemistry Matter and Energy chemistry science that describes matter its properties the changes it undergoes and the energy changes that accompany those processes matter anything that has mass and occupies space energy the capacity to do work or transfer heat Law of Conservation of Mass matter is neither created or destroyed in a physical or chemical process Law of Conservation of Energy energy is neither created or destroyed in a physical or chemical process it can only be transformed into a different type of energy Law of Conservation of MassEnergy Emc2 3 A Molecular View Dalton s Atomic Theory Dalton s atomic theory summarized the nature of matter as known in 1808 1 An element is composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms 2 All atoms of a given element have identical properties which differ from those of other elements A Molecular View Dalton s Atomic Theory 3 Atoms cannot be created destroyed or transformed into atoms of another element 4 Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other in small wholenumber ratios 5 The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant in a given compound A Molecular View Some De nitions An atom is the smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity through all chemical and physical changes Fundamental particles are the basic building blocks of atoms they consist of electrons protons and neutrons A Molecular View Some De nitions A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can have a stable independent existence A molecule is a combination of two or more atoms the atoms may be identical or they may be different kinds of atoms States of Matter solids 7 de nite shape and volume Ice is solid H20 8 States of Matter liquids have de nite volume but take the shape of their container Liquid H20 9 States of Matter gases do not have a de nite volume and take the shape of their container 45 Steam is gaseous H20 m States of Matter phase changes Changing states of matter involves heating or cooling f a t t f a iquot oq Gas 4 93 t f d a f O v F 3 3 gag o K3 r tt 0 4 3 94quot b Way qg i f F s M 77 Liquid 2004 mm mmmmmm x States of Matter on g m u n 1m g luwid Lnn g mm H Lnn g mm z0quotC m 00 quotC 4l IUU quotL39 r if 7 39 l y v 1 J mlmxrlvrID L HSJ mlwwlhcdb 231 An murbn t gt a 4 7334 J m1 tam11 gt 7 it I R J witNd 7 410m 1 we th a 2mm mmm th rEducaImn Chemical and Physical Properties chemical properties chemical changes or chemical reactions one or more new substances are produced physical properties physical changes changes of state density color solubility Indicate Whether each of the following illustrations represents a physical or a chemical change Indicate Whether each of the following illustrations represents a physical or a chemical change 5021983 chemical change 000 00 00 00 physical change 5 Chemical and Physical Properties extensive properties depend on quantity of the substance intensive properties do not depend on quantity of a substance Mixtures Substances Compounds and Elements substance matter in Which all samples have identical composition and properties elements substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances Via chemical reactions chemical symbols one or two letters that identify an element J M Periodic Table of the Elements 39 2A metals 3A 4A 5A 6A Li Be I Metallmids I I Henmetals an 4a 53 ea 1 aa 113 2a K ca Sc Ti 1 Cr Mn Fe Co Ni CuZn Ga Rh Sr v Zr Nan Tc Rm Rh Pd Ag ca In Sn I CS Ba L5 Hf Ta w Be as It Pt Au Hg n Pb Bi Po Fr Ra AB Uannuth UnsU nnUneUunUuu Lanthanide39 Ce Pr Nd PmSm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb LII Actiinidequot Th Pa I Np PuwAmCm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr illi IKEa Mixtures Substances Compounds and Elements compounds substances composed of two or more elements in a de nite ratio by mass Compounds can be decomposed into the constituent elements For example water is a compound that can be decomposed into simpler substances hydrogen and oxygen 19 Mixtures Substances Compounds and Elements mixtures composed of two or more substances that are not chemically combined homogeneous mixtures uniform throughout only 1 phase present heterogeneous mixtures nonuniform throughout more than one phase present 20 Indicate Whether each of the boxes shown below represent a or a Do the boxes contain only elements only compounds or elements and compounds 5 30 0 Aug a b pure substance or mixture elements or compounds 21 b 0 21 Indicate Whether each of the boxes shown below represent a ora Do the boxes contain only elements only compounds or elements and compounds 5 go o 3 5 a b pure substance or mixture elements or compounds a pure substance an element b mixture an element and a compound c mixture three elements 22 Measurements in Chemistry 9 uantigg length mass time current temperature amt substance Symbol meter m kilogram kg second s ampere A Kelvin K mole mol 23 109 x base unit 106 x base unit 103 x base unit 102 x base unit 101 x base unit 10391 x base unit 10392 x base unit 10393 x base unit 10396 x base unit 10399 x base unit 24 Units of Measurement 1 Determine conversion factors for a converting micrograms pg to hectograms hg 108 pg 1 hg b kiloliter kL to centiliter cL 105 cL 1 kL 25 Units of Measurement mass measure of the quantity of matter in a body weight measure of the gravitational attraction for a body 26 Units of Measurement Length 1 m 3937 inches 254 cm 1 inch Volume 1 liter 106 qt 1 qt 0946 liter See Table 18 for more conversion factors 27 l kilogram lb 1 ounce 1 kilometer 1 meter 1 inch 1 mile 937 inches 1000 m 001 km 100 cm 1000 mm 54 cm 1609 km 1 meter 1 liter 1 milliliter 1 gallon 1057 quart 1 quart 1000 mL 1000 cm3 001 kL 1 cm3 785 L l lilter 946 L 28 Use of Numbers exact numbers no uncertainty in the number eg 1 dozen 12 things for example measured numbers uncertainty in the number due to imperfections in the measuring device and the person making the measurements 29 Use of Numbers accuracy how closely measured values agree With the correct value precision how closely individual measurements agree With each other 30 Use of Numbers signi cant gures digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement exact numbers have an in nite number of signi cant gures 12000000000000000 1 dozen because it is an exact number 31 Signi cant Figure Rules leading zeroes are never signi cant 0000357 has three signi cant gures trailing zeroes may be signi cant must specify signi cance by how the number is written 1300 nails counted or weighed Use scienti c notation to remove doubt 240 X 103 has 2 signi cant gures 32 Use of Numbers Scienti c notation for logarithms log 240 X 103 3380 imbedded zeroes are always signi cant 30604 has ve signi cant gures 33 HOW long is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it CHI 12 13 14 35 HOW Wide is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it cm 8 36 Use of Numbers addition and subtraction the answer is expressed to the same number of decimal places as the number in the problem With the fewest decimal places 37 Use of Numbers 36923 123 202 69463 Use of Numbers 3692 123 202 69463 round off to 695 Use of Numbers 87932 212 66707 Use of Numbers 87931 212 66707 round off to 6671 41 Signi cant Figures multiplication and division the number in the problem With the fewest signi cant gures determines the number of signi cant gures in the nal answer 42 Use of Numbers 424g X 12g Use of Numbers 424g X 12g 521766 Use of Numbers 424g X 12g 521766 522


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