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Pysch 201 Notes from 3-18-16

by: Jennifer Lowery

Pysch 201 Notes from 3-18-16 Psych20

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psych20 > Pysch 201 Notes from 3 18 16
Jennifer Lowery

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About this Document

A full reference of our notes from 3-18-16
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Richard Pak
Class Notes
Psychology 201
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Lowery on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych20 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Richard Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
2-18-16 Cochlea: Hair Cells Outer hair cells Inner hair cells Scars How Do We Code the Pitch of Sound? Place Theory: hair cells @ a particular place on basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound -best describes how we hear HIGH frequencies -the higher the frequency of sound, the higher up -can’t easily explain why we hear LOW frequency Frequency matching theory: firing rate of an auditory nerve matches a sound wave’s frequency -BEST describes how we hear LOW frequency Other Senses/ Perceptual Organization: Olfactory Bulb Receptor Cells Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Area Vomeronasal Organ Tongue Olfaction (smell) -the only sense that does not send its messages through the thalamus -Axons from neurons in the nose have a synapse in the olfactory bulb -Connections from olfactory bulb are especially plentiful in the amygdala Gustation (taste) -taste receptors are concentrated on the tongue (papillae) -Receptors can only discriminate 5 sensations (sweet – sour –salty –bitter – umama(close to salty, but not quite salty) (meso soup at chinese rest.) (fresh chicken)) Perception: -How do we perceive different objects in the environment? -aking raw sensation & adding meaning from our knowledge, & experience of the world. Ex: (which line is longer) (but both really the same) Perceptual Organization: -How do we differentiate an object from its background? -Figure-Ground organization -Grouping Figure-Ground Figure: -part of visual field that has meaning Ground: -visual field w/ less meaning Edges Determine: -the figure/ground border Perceptual Grouping: Gestalt Laws of Organization: -….the whole is greater than the sum…because we add meaning. -What properties of stimuli cause us to group them together, into an object? Gestalt Laws: -Law of Proximity-things that are close together (in close proximity) will be grouped together/perceived as one group -Law of Similarity-things that look similar will be grouped together/assume they belong together --Law of Continuity-things that are smoothly/continuous with each other will be perceived as similar objects -Law of Closure: Law of Common Region Law of Connectedness Depth Perception -How do we perceive a 3-D world from a 2-D image (the projection on our retina). -Depth cues! Monocular Depth Cues (One Eye) -Interposition (occlusion) -Relative Size -Height in the Visual Field -extural Gradient -Linear Perspective -Reduced Clarity -Light & Shadow Binocular Depth Cues (2 eyes) : Accommodation -Information about the muscle activity involved in accommodation serves as one cue -Convergence-A Depth cue resulting from rotation of the eyes so that the image can be projected on each retina -Binocular Disparity: A depth cue based on the difference b/t the retinal images received by each eye Motion Perception: -optical flow -the constantly changing image on the retina -when in motion -Patterns of optical flow -Looming-rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina -Stroboscopic Motion-tendency to perceive movement when a series of still images appear, one at a time, in rapid succession Perceptual Constancy -The perception of objects as constant in size, shape, brightness, etc . . .even when the retina image changes Color Constancy -perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even when changing illumination filters the light reflected by the object.


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