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by: Thurman Wilderman


Thurman Wilderman
GPA 3.66


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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thurman Wilderman on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1311H at University of Georgia taught by Robinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/202574/chem-1311h-university-of-georgia in Chemistry at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 8 Notes Chemical bond 2 atoms or ions are strongly attached to each other Ionic bond electrostatic forcers that exist between ions of opposite charge May be formed from atoms by transfer of electrons metal with nonmetal Ionic bonding violently exothermic Covalent bond sharing of electrons nonmetallic with nonmetallic Melting Points ionic compounds usually solids w high melting points Covalent compounds gases liquids or solids w low melting points Lattice energy the energy required to completely separate a mole ofa solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions Lattice energy increases as the charges on the ions increase and as their radii decrease Born Haber cycle Non polar covalent electrons are shared equally between two atoms Polar covalent bond one of the atoms exerts a greater attraction for the bonding electrons than the other If the difference in relative ability to attract electrons is large enough an ionic bond is formed Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract electons to itself Electronegativity generally increases across a row and decreases from top to bottom ofa group Ionization energy how strongly a gaseous atom holds on to its electrons Electron affinity a measure of how strongly at atom attracts additional electrons The greater difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond Drawing Lewis Structures 1 Sum the valence electrons from all atoms 2 Write the symbols for the atoms to show which atoms are attached to which and connect them with a single bond 3 Complete the octets around all the atoms bonded to the central atom only one pair around hydrogen 4 Place any leftover electrons on the central atom 5 If there are not enough electrons to give the central atom an octet try multiple bonds Formal Charge the charge the atom would have if all the atoms in the molecule had the same electronegativity if each bonding electron pair in molecule were shared equally between its 2 atoms To calculate formal charge assign electrons to atom as follows 1 All unshared nonbonding electrons are assigned to the atom on which they are found 2 For any bond single double or triple half of the bonding electrons are assigned to each atom in the bond Calculate a Group number bonds unshared e 3 V Resonant Structures placement of atoms in 2 different but completely equivalent Lewis Structures placement of electrons differs Exceptions to the Octet Rule 1 Molecules and polyatomic ions containing an odd of electrons a EX NO a complete octet around each molecule is impossible 2 Molecules and polyatomic ions in which an atoms has fewer than an octet ofvalence electrons a EX BF3 3 Molecules and polyatomic ions in which an atom has more than an octet ofvalence electrons a EX SF4 AsF6 ICl4 3ml period Strengths of Covalent Bonds Strength ofa covalent bond between 2 atoms is determined by the energy required to break that bond Stability of a molecule is related to strength of bond Greater the bond enthalpy stronger the bond Bond enthalpy is the enthalpy change for breaking ofa bond of one mole ofa gaseous substance Hm bond enthalpies ofbonds broken bon enthalpies ofbonds formed More number ofbonds between 2 atoms shorter bond length Chapter 9 Notes Shape ofa molecule is determined by bond angle Valenceshell Electronpair Repulsion VSEPR model Electron domain geometry where the electrons are Molecular geometry arrangment of only the bonding atomselectrons Steps in VSEPR 1 Draw lewis structure and count total of electron domains 2 Determine electron domain geometry 3 Use arrangment of only the bonded atoms for molecular geometry Nonbonding pair experiences less nuclear attractionattracted primarily by one nucleus so its electron domain is spread out more in space than the electron domain for a bonding pair attracted by nuclei of both atoms Electron domains for nonbonding electrons exert greater repulsive forces on adjacent electron domains and tend to compress bond angles Electron domains for multiple bonds exert a greater repulsive force on adjacent electron domains than do electron domains for single bonds Valence Bond Theory Orbitals overlap forming a covalent bond There are 2 electrons of opp Spin in the orbital overlap 1 Draw Lewis Structure 2 Determine Electron geometry w VSEPR 3 Specify hybrid orbitals required If there is a difference in electronegaitivity between 2 atoms then the bond is polar Fluorine is most electronegative Overall polarity of a molecule largely depends on molecular geometry Figure out hybrid orbitals Sigma bond electron density on axis between nuclei All single bonds are sigma bonds pi bonds electron density above and below plane of nuclei a double bond consists of one sigma bond and one pi bond a triple bond has one sigma bond and 2 pi bonds 2 p orbitals overlapping pi bond sigma bonds are always localized what does that mean Magnetic Behavior of Molecules Paramagnetism molecules w one or more unpaired electrons attracted to magnetic field Diamagnetism substances w no unpaired electrons are repelled from magnetic field Molecular Orbital M0 Theory electrons in molecules reside in molecular orbitals each MO contains a max of 2 electrons MO s have definite energies MO s associated w entire moleculeion Chapter 3 and 4 Study Guide O Jgt CD l 00 to N N N What is stoichiometry Fundamental principle of chemistry that governs manner in which substances react How can you tell a combination from a decomposition reaction Combination has fewer products than reactants and decomposition only has one reactant What kind of reaction is the reaction in air bags Decomposition of NaNg At STP how many liters of gas are there 22414 L What is 1 mole equal to Avagadro s number 6022E23 What did Antione Lavoisier propose There is no detectable change in quantitiy of matter in ordinary chemical reactions What is the new theory about why Napoleon s army died Disintegration of buttons due to the Sn phase change due to the temperature decrease What molecules have changed history Phenol Nicotine Aspirin Ammonia glucose morphine sodium chloride TNT ethanol What problem was leading to starvation of people in Europe Poor nutrient soil due to lack of usable nitrogen What does nitrogen fixation do Usable nitrogen N2 gas changed into ammonia NHS to be incorporated into living organisms What did Kaiser Wilhelm U want Wanted Germany to expand Why couldn t Germany start a war It is the largest importer of nitrate from Chile What was NH3 needed for To wage war and to fertilize crops What was Fritz Haber s position in Germany What did he develop Chief of Chemical Weapons Division developed CIZCO chemical warfare agent What was the Haber win the Nobel Prize for What was it used for later To produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen the nitrogen bomb What is one way of determining the limiting reactant Determine moles and divide by coefficient smallest number is limiting reactant What is the equation for percent yield ActualTheoretical x 100 What is the equation for percent composition Mass of element mass compound x 100 What are the steps to determining empirical formula Make assumption of 100g sample determine mole divide by smallest moles for whole number What does a solution s potential to conduct electricity depend on Number of ions in solution What happens to ionic compounds in water Molecular lons dissociate molecules dissolve but don t ionize What is the difference between strong and weak electrolytes Strong ionize completely and weak don t What is a metathesis reaction When ions are swapped in solution P E O N N 00 to O W W Jgt Jgt Jgt Jgt Jgt W W W W W W U N n U Jgt Uquot How can metathesis lead to change in solution Precipitate formed weak electrolyte formed insoluble gas formed Name strong acids Strong bases Acids HCI HBr HI HN03 HZSO4 HClOg HCO4 Bases Alkali metals except Fr and 3 middle earth metals Ca Sr Ba What does acidbase strength depend on Solubility What is a conjugate baseacid Differ from acidbase by presence or absence of hydrogen What is the net ionic equation of a strong acidstrong base reaction HOH 9 H20 What is a salt lonic compound with cation from base and anion from acid What does neutralization between an acid and a metal hydroxide yield Water and a salt What kind of acidbase reactions lead to gas formation Sulfide or carbonate ions What happens when metals undergo corrosion Loses an electron to from cation What was the original definition of oxidation and reduction Current Oxidation oxygen added 9 loses electrons Reduction oxygen lost 9 gains electrons How is an activity series written out How can it be used to determine if metal oxidized Top easiest oxidized to bottom hardest oxidized On activity series what metal is above hydrogen Below Lead copper What is a solution comprised of Solute least amount dissolved in solvent most amount What is a titration Use known concentration of one solution to determine the concentration of another How can a titration be used to determine concentration of acid Add NaOH to acid with indicator What is an equivalence point Every molecule of acid has been neutralized by base What does A above the arrow of a reaction signify Heat added What is the equation of hydrocarbon combustion HC029COZHZO What is a formula unit lonic compounds units What is a mole Amount of matter that contains as many objects as number of atoms in 12g of C12 How do you derive molecular from the empirical formula Molecular weight empirical weight yields a whole number which is multiplied to the empirical What is combustion analysis Measures amounts of carbon dioxide and water produced from combustion to determine moles of carbon and hydrogen which is used to determine the empirical formula Chemistry Chapter 1 and 2 Study Guide What is the name of the change ofstate from gas to solid Depostion What is the name of the change of state from solid to gas Sublimation What does the atomic number tell us Number of protons What does the mass number tell us Number of protons plus the number of neutrons What does a mass spectrometer do and how Takes beams ofelectrons and seperaties them based on mass to charge ratio Determines isotope abundance When and who developed the periodic table Medeleev and Meger in 1869 Who determined the mass ratio ofelectrons HowWhat was the purpose of knowing the ratio Thompson using a cathode ray and the amount of deflection The ratio could be used to determine the mass once the charge was determined Who performed the oil drop experiment What was the procedure What was learned from it Milikan Oil drops were sprayed above a plate with a small hole and when they fell through the hole they were given a negative charge An electric eld was used to push them upward as gravity pulled them downward When they were perfectly balanced weight of the drop equals the force of attraction between negative and positive It allowed an electrons charge to be determined What is the chemical difference between methamphetamine and amphetamine Meth has CH3 instead of H What is the only chemical difference between methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine Psuedoephedrine has an OH added What is now used in medicine instead of pseudoephedrine Why It has an OH an extra HO and lacks a CH3 It is hard to synthesize the CH3 and thus is harder to make meth from Who discovered radioactivity How Becquerel when studying pitchblende 13 Who is Marie Curie and what did she discover Discovered Po and Ra and received two Nobel Prizes for it Who discovered the three types of radiation How Rutherford by sending beam of radiation through a radioactive substance in a lead casing and observing spots detected when charge plates added Contrast the three types of radiation Alpha beta gamma based on penetrating power Alpha is positive beta negative and gamma neutral charged N 03 gt 0 07 00 10 O M 4 U I l J 0 M O M M M M M M M on 4 w r M J A A A M 0 A A Describe Thompson s atomic theory How did he come about it Atoms have neutral positive and negative entities all in sphere in center Based on separation from radiation Who performed the gold foil experiment What was the procedure What was discovered by it Rutherford Alpha particles were shot at a piece of gold and the deflection was measured Most of the mass ofan atom and all of its positive charge are in a small dense region nucleus What is an allotrope An isotope An allotrope is an element that can exist in different physical states at STP lsotopes have different numbers of neutrons What makes hydrogen isotopes special Have different names and symbols for the isotopes What are the names ofgroup 1A 2A 15 16 17 18 1A Alkali metal 2A Alkali earth metals 15 Pnictogens 16 Chalcogens 17 Halogens 18 Noble gases What is a salt lonic compound when metal bonds with halogen What are the 5 major elements on earth Oxygen silicon aluminum iron calcium What are the 3 major elements in the body Carbon hydrogen oxygen What is the difference between and intensive and extensive property lntensive is independent of quantity of the substance How can homogeneous mixtures be separated Distillation or chromatography Compare a law to a theory A law summarizes and a theory explains How do you convert from C to K From F to C KC27315 C59F32 What is Dalton s Atomic Theory Elements made ofatoms all atoms ofan element are same and unique to the element atoms are neither created nor destroyed compounds have unique numbers and types of atoms How many meters are in one angstrom 103910 meters One gram is equal to how many amu 6022 E23 What are groups Periods Groups are the columns on the period table periods are the rows Which molecules are diatomic Hydrogen Oxygen Fluorine Nitrogen Bromine Chlorine lodine What is a molecular formula Emperical formula Emperical is the smallest ratio of atoms and molecular is actual numbers A 0 A Oquot A l A 0 4 O 4 4 M 4 A 4 4 4 0 4 Oquot 4 l 4 J 4 0 0 O 0 0 M What are the rules for naming elements that can form more than one cation Which elements do these apply to You use roman numerals after the name Applies to transiton metals except silver and zinc How do you name a cation formed from a nonmetal Add ium How do you name a monatomic anion Add ide What suffixes and prefixes do you use for naming oxyanions write from most to least oxygen Per ate ite hypo How does an oxyanion s name change if hydrogen is added Add hydrogen or dihydrogen to front What are the rules for naming acids Anionide 9 hydro ic ate icite ous When naming molecular compounds which elements name is written 15 The one most to the left ofthe periodic table or with the highest atomic number What is added to the 2nd elements name in a molecular compound Give ide ending What are the greek pre xes used in molecular compounds Mono di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octa nona deca Where was Percy Julian born Montgomery What were his parents occupations Teachers What university did he rst go to DePauw What job did he have to take on at his 15t university Worked for a fraternity Who sparked his dream of becoming a chemist William Blanchard Where did he get a scholarship to Harvard Why did he leave not leave Harvard with his PhD Couldn t keep positon as TA How did he return to Harvard As faculty Where did he end up receiving his PhD from What experiment did he have to perform University ofVienna working to determine the compound in Kabba responsible for heart palpitation and pain treatment What is an alkaloid Hormones used by plants for protection A 4 0 Oquot l J 0 O M A 4 0 Oquot l J 0 O l M What made to structure ofthe compound in Kabba hard to determine It was made mostly ofCarbon which can bond to itself infinitely What events led to his resignation from Harvard His letters were released to the black press Where and how did he return to after resignation DePauw at a lesser positon What big project did Percy take on at DePauw Who was he competing with Calibar bean synthesizing an alkaloid for glycoma treatment Competing with Robinson What was Julian s plan for synthesizing the alkaloid Start with simple substances and make intermediates What is a combustion train You burn molecules with CHN and O in them weigh the resulting gases and determine element ratios based on the masses Robinson thought he had synthesized the alkaloid 15 What was wrong The melting point What did Julian have to do to prove Robinson had synthesized the wrong thing Had to prove other crystals in synthesis melted at the same point as in the natural alkaloid What was signi cant about the paper he wrote about the synthesis It was the rst total synthesis paper Why did Julian have to begin working in the industry Where did he begin working His grant ran out Went to Glidden What was his 15t project in the industry Researching the soybean What did Julian pull out from the soy bean that led to new products Alpha protein Why was Julian interested in progesterone His wife had miscarriages What gave him the idea of using plants to make the steroid Earlier discovery of stigmastarol What mistake made Julian realize how to synthesize stigmastarol Water leaked into his soy bean oil Why was Syntex able to take business from Glidden They found a yam with plentiful hormones What attacks did the Julian s face at Oak Park Bomb threats and house fires What drug was developed to treat rhematiod arthritis What was the problem Cortozone Complex pathway with cattle carcass needed so low supply and high price Who was Julian competing with in mass production ofthe drug Djerassi from Syntex What plant did he look into and what compound Soybean compound S


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