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by: Thurman Wilderman


Thurman Wilderman
GPA 3.66


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thurman Wilderman on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1211 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/202589/chem-1211-university-of-georgia in Chemistry at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chemistry 1211 study guide Conversions and Equations Length 1 in 254cm 1 mile 5280ft 1 A1x103910 m Mass 1 lb 454 g 6022x1o23 amu 1g Volume 1 L 1057 qt 1cm3 1mL Energy lcal 4184 J Formulas q mCAT M1V1M2V2 cAv EhvhcA Ahmv density mV specific gravity density of substancedensity of water M of moles of soluteof liters of solution 1AR1n12 1 n22 Fqqd2 Vrms3RT Mm R1R2 M2M1 D2D1 Pn2av2v nb nRT AH RXN 2 nAHproducts Z nAHreactants Dalton s Atomic Theory 1 An element is composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms 2 All atoms of a given element have identical properties which differ from those of other elements 3 Atoms cannot be created destroyed or transformed into atoms of another element 4 Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other in small whole number ratios 5 The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant in a given compound Metric Prefixes 0 Mega M 106 Kilo k 103 o Deka da 10 o Deci d 10391 o Centi c 10392 o Milli m 10393 0 Micro u 10396 o Nano n 10399 Pico p 103912 o Femto f 103915 Accuracy how closely measured values agree with the correct value Precision how closely individual measurements agree with each other Ions atoms or groups of atoms that possess an electric charge Cations positive ions Anions negative ions Names and formulas of some common molecular compounds Water H20 Sulfur dioxide S02 Butane C4H10 Hydrogen Peroxide H202 Sulfur trioxide 503 pentane C5H12 Hydrogen Chloride HCl Carbon Monoxide CO benzene C6H6 Sulfuric Acid H2S04 Carbon dioxide C02 Methanol CH30H Nitric acid HN03 menthane CH4 ethanol CH3CH20H Acetic acid CH3COOH ethane C2H6 acetone CH3COCH3 Ammonia NH3 propane C3Hg diethyl ether CH3CH20CH2CH3 Composition mass of an individual element in a compound divided by the total mass of the compound X 100 Empirical formula smallest whole number ratio of atoms present in a compound Molecular Formula actual of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound Purity mass of pure substance mass of sample X100 Humphrey Davy passed electricity through compounds and noted that the compounds decomposed into elements and compounds are held together by electrical forces Faraday realized that the amount of reaction that occurs during electrolysis is proportional to the electrical current passed through the compound Cathode Ray Tubes two electrodes sealed in a glass tube containing a gas at very low pressure when a voltage is applied to the cathode a glow discharge is emitted Thomson charge to mass ratio Millikan oil drop experiment charge and mass of the electron Goldstein found protons Rutherford alpha particle scattering from thin gold foils 1 The atom is mostly empty space 2 It contains very small dense center called the nucleus 3 Nearly all ofthe atom s mass is in the nucleus 4 The nuclear diameter is crazy Mass protons neutrons AZN Isotopes are atoms ofthe same element but with different neutron numbers Mass spectrometer Francis Aston generates ions that pass down an evacuated path inside a magnet ions are separated based on their mass 4 factors determine a particle s path 1 Accelerating voltage 2 Magnetic field strength 3 Masses of particles 4 Charge on particles Chemical properties of metals 1 Outer shells w few electrons 2 Form cations by losing electrons 3 Form ionic compounds w nonmetals 4 Solid state characterized by metallic bonds electrons shared all over w all atoms Group IA metals don t like water Group IIA metals alkaline earth metals Chemical properties of nonmetals 1 Outer shells have 4 or more electrons 2 Form anions by gaining electrons 3 Form ion compounds w metals and covalent compounds w other nonmetals 4 Tend to form covalently bonded molecules noble gases are monoatomic Group VIIA nonmetals halogens Metalloids act as metals and nonmetals stairstep Planck black body radiation had to assume 1 energy is quantized 2 light has particle character Bohr 1 Atom has a of definite and discrete energy levels orbits in which an electron may exist wout emitting or absorbing electromagnetic radiation 2 An electron may move from one orbit to another but monochromatic radiation is emitted or absorbed in accordance w E2gtE1 De Broglie electrons are wave like Heisenberg impossible to measure both position and momentum of an electron Basic postulates of Quantum Theory 1 Atoms and molecules exist only in certain energy states same as what Bohr said 2 As atoms molecules emitabsorb light they change their energies same as Bohr 3 The allowed energy states of atoms and molecules can be described by sets of s called quantum numbers Principle quantum n quotshellsquot Angular momentum quantum I O12345 n 1 spdfgh magnetic quantum m m 1 20 I 2 1 if O m0 if 1 m 101 spin quantum ms ms12 or 12 if n1 0 s orbitals n2 0amp1 sampp orbitals n3 01amp2 spampd oritals n4 O12amp3 spdampf orbitals number of orbitals n2 no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum s s orbitals spherically symmetric p orbitals first appears in the n2 shell peanut or dumbbell shaped volumes 3 p orbitals per n level d orbitals first appear in n3 shell 5d orbitals have 2 shapes 4 are clover leaf shaped 1 looks like p orbitals wan innertube around its middle forbitals n4 7 f orbitals per n level Hund s Rule the electrons will fill orbitals w same energy level singly before pairing up but w same spins Noble gases have completely filled electron shells Representative elements A groups have last electron in an outer s or p orbital dtransition elements B groups each metal has d electrons transition from metal to nonmetal ftransition metals electrons are being added to f orbitals electrons are being added 2 below the valence electrons Atomic Radii increases w in column going from top to bottom decreases win a row going from left to right First Ionization Energy IE1 atom energy 9 ion e39 Second ionization energy IE2 ionenergy 9ion2 e39 Periodic trends for ionization energy 1 IE2gtE1 2 IE1 increases moving from IA to VA a 3 IE1 generally decreases moving down a family Electron Affinity energy to put electron into atom decreases going right increases going down Ionic Radii decrease going right and increase going down lsoelectronic same valence shell configuration Electronegativity increases going up and right Fluorine is most electronegative Oxidation Numbers 1 O of any free uncombined element is zero 2 O of monoatomic ion is the charge on the ion 3 Compound sum ofthe O s of all the elements in a compound is zero 4 Polyatomic ion sum of the O s ofthe elements is equal to the charge on the ion 5 F has an O of 1 in its compounds 6 H has an O of 1 usually unless combine wa metal then its 1 7 O has an O of 2 usually except peroxides 9 1 or combined with F 9 2 8 Use periodic table to assign O a IA 9 1 b A9 2 c A9 3 d VA9 3 in binary compounds w H metals or NH4 e VIA 9 2 in binary compounds w H metals or NH4 Electrolytes Strong electrolytes soluble acids soluble bases soluble ionic salts Weak electrolytes weak acids bases some insoluble covalent salts Strong Acids 1 HCI hydrochloric acid 2 HBr hydrobromic acid 3 HI hydroiodic acid 4 HN03 nitric acid 5 H2804 sulfuric acid 6 HC03 chloric acid 7 HCIO4 perchloric acid Weak Acids 1 HF hydrofluoric acid 2 CH3COOH acetic acid 3 HCN hydrocyanic acid 4 HN02 nitrous acid 5 H2C03 carbonic acid 6 H2803 sulfurous acid 7 H3PO4 phosphoric acid 8 COOH2 oxalic acid Strong Bases 1 LiOH 2 NOH 3 KOH 4 RbOH 5 CsOH 6 CaOH2 7 SrOH2 8 BaOH2 Solubility Rules Soluble and chlorates iodides Fluorides Sr Pb Sulfates Nitrates and nitrites soluble Insoluble Oxides and Sulfides arsenates 3 ways to write an aqueous solution 1 Molecular equation 2 Total ionic equation 3 Net ionic equation Naming Name the more metallic element first use element s name Name less metallic element second add suffix quotidequot to the element s stem Cationlst anion 2quot Transition metals have multiple oxidation states so use roman numerals in parentheses to indicate metal s oxidation state Hydrogen nonmetal 9 gases 9 hydrogenstemide 9 dissolve in water 9 hydrostemic acid Covalent prefixes that specify of atoms of each element in the compound use minimum of prefixes Ternary acids and their salts 9 HO and a nonmetal 9 common oxidation state ic ending 9 if 1 oxidation state lower ous 9 if 1 higher per ic ending Acidic Salts made from ternary acids that retain one or more oftheir acidic hydrogen atoms Basic Salts analogous to acidic salts Oxidation Reduction Reactions Oxidation 9 increase in 0 loss of electrons Reduction9 decrease in 0 gain of electrons Oxidizing agents oxidize other substances contain atoms that are reduced gain electrons Reducing agents reduce other substances contain atoms that are oxidized lose electrons Combination Reactions when two or more substances combine to form a compound Decomposition Reactions when one compound decomposes to form 2 elements one or more elements and one or more compounds two or more compounds Displacement Reactions when one element displaces another element from a compound more active displaces less active Metathesis Reactions when two ionic aqueous solutions are mixed and the ions switch partners 1 Form predominantly unionized molecules like H20 2 Form an insoluble solid 1 Acid Base Reactions neutralization acid base9salt water 2 Precipitation reactions insoluble compound is formed Gas Formation Reactions type of reaction in which there is a formation of an insoluble gas when there are no gaseous reactions enough heat is generated in the reaction to cause the formation of a gas Ionic Covalent High melting points Low melting points Soluble in polar solvents Insoluble in polar solvents Insoluble in nonpolar solvents Soluble in nonpolar solvents Conductive Not conductive Lewis Dot N AS Rule N of electrons needed A of electrons available S of shared electrons The Octet Rule states that representative elements usually attain stable noble gas electron configurations in most of their compounds add one e39 to A for each negative charge subtract one e39 from A for each positive charge the central atom is the atom that requires the largest number of electrons and is less electronegative Formal Charge 1 formal charge group of bonds of unshared e39 2 an atom that has the same number of bonds as its periodic group number has a formal charge of zero 3 9 the formal charges of all atoms must sum up to zero in molecules 9 the formal charges must sum up to the ion s charge for a polyatomic ion Violations of the octet Rule 1 Covalent compounds of Be only need 4 electrons 2 Covalent compounds of group A only need 6 electrons 3 Species which contain an odd number of electrons 4 Species in which the central element must have a share of more than 8 valence electrons to accommodate all of the substituents 5 Compounds of the d and f transition metals Resonance two or more lewis formulas are necessary to show the bonding in a molecule Nonpolar covalent bonds in which the electrons are shared equally symmetrical Polar electrons are not shared equally asymmetrical charge distribution different electronegativities Dipole Moments molecules whose centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide have an asymmetric charge distribution and are polar have a dipole moment 2M x2 2MX39 Formula IA VIIA MX A VIIA AVA AVA AVA AVA lA VA IIAVA I M3X2 I Mgst AVA MX AIN Regions Formula of high Electronic Shape Hybridi Lone Polar Examples electron Geometry zation Pairs density AB2 2 Linear Linear sp 0 No if BeClz same B BeBr2 AB3 3 Trigonal Trigonal sp2 0 No if BF3 BCI3 planar planar same B AB4 4 Tetrahedral Tetrahedral sp3 0 No if CH4 CF4 same B AB3U 4 Tetrahedral Trigonal sp3 1 Yes NH3 NF3 pyramidal PH3 AB2U2 4 Tetrahedral Angular sp3 2 Yes H20 H2S bent ABU3 4 Tetrahedral Linear sp3 3 Yes HF HCI HI HBr ABS 5 Trigonal Trigonal No if B PF5 AsF5 bipyramidal bipyramidal sp3d 0 all same PC5 AB4U 5 Trigonal SF4 bipyramidal See saw sp3d 1 Yes AB3U2 5 Trigonal F3 bipyramidal T shaped sp3d 2 Yes AB2U3 5 Trigonal XeF2 bipyramidal Linear sp3d 3 No AB6 6 No if B SF6 SeF6 Octahedral Octahedral sp3d2 0 all same SCI6 AB5U 6 Octahedral Square sp3d2 F5 pyramidal 1 Yes AB4U2 6 Octahedral Square sp3d2 2 XeF4 planar No STP 273K 1atm or 760 torr 224 L Dalton s Law the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases P total PAPBPC The Kinetic Molecular Theory Postulate 1 O Gases consist of discrete far apart molecules 0 Gases have few intermolecular attractions 0 The volume of individual molecules is very small compared to the gas s volume 0 PROOF gases are easily compressible Postulate 2 0 Gas molecules are in constant random straight line motion with varying velocities o PROOF Brownian motion displays molecular motion Postulate 3 0 Gas molecules have elastic collisions with each other and the container 0 The total energy is conserved during a collision o PROOF a confined gas in an insulated and sealed container exhibits no pressure drop over time Postulate 4 o The kinetic energy ofthe molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature 0 The average kinetic energies of the molecules of different gases are equal at a given temperature 0 PROOF Brownian motion increases as temperature increases 0 The kinetic energy ofthe molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature Diffusion is the intermingling of gases Effusion is the escape of gases through tiny holes The rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square roots of the molecular weights or densities Real Gases Deviations from Ideality Real gases behave ideally at ambient temperatures and pressures At low temperatures and high pressures real gases do not behave ideally because 1 the molecules are very close to one another thus their volume is important 2 the molecular interactions also become important Van der Waals equation accounts for the behavior of real gases at low temperature and high pressures What are the intermolecular forces in gases that cause them to deviate from ideality o For nonpolar gases the attractive forces are London Forces 0 For polar gases the attractive forces are dipole dipole attractions or hydrogen bonds First Law of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of energy Exothermic reactions release energy in the form of heat The potential energies ofthe products are lower than the potential energies ofthe reactants


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