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by: Mr. Camilla Green


Mr. Camilla Green
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Camilla Green on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHFD 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Bryant in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/202594/chfd-2100-university-of-georgia in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.

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SCROLL DOWN FOR STUDY GUIDE TOPICS STARTFILLING IN THE INFORMA TION ASAP AT THE BO TTOM We need EVERYONE s HELP PLEASE START lling in answers Study guide is in red CHFD 2100 Test 2 CHAPTER 5 Humans beings are sexual beings throughout their entire livesquot DeLamater and Friedrich 2002 Check out top of page 108 first paragraph Literally first sentence ofthis chapter Children Sexual Development 0 early sexual behavior peaks at age 5 declining until sexual attraction first manifestage 11 or 12 0 sexual orientation I drawn to same sex or opposite sex 0 hetero opposite sex 0 homo same sex 0 bi both sexes o asexual o more women more likely to report being asexual o more likely to have less education 0 Has a genetic difference been conclusively established between gays and straight I No specific genetic diff between heteros and gays have been conclusively established p110 Changing Cultural Scripts 0 colonial times until 19th century purpose of sex in Americagtreproduction 0 19th and 20th century sex was for means of communication and intimacy CHAPTER FIVE QUIZ TWO STUDY HABITUATION the decreased interest in sex that results from the increased accessibility of a sexual partner and the predictability in sexual behavior with that partner over time Pg 125 in the book MARITAL PRIVACY Griswold v Connecticut 1965 recognized a right of marital privacyquot the sale or provision of contraception was illegal in some states Idea that sexual and reproductive decision making belonged to the couple not state was extended to single individuals and minors by subsequent decisions Eisenstadt v Baird 1972 Carey v Population Services International 1977 Pg 113 in the book WHY ARE SOME PEOPLE SEXUALLY SATISFIED reported both the greatest emotional satisfaction and the greatest physical pleasure in their intimate relationships were those who partnered in a monogamous relationshipquot Hendrick Another Study found cohabiting married and single individuals had the highest and equal levels of physical pleasure with emotional satisfaction with sex greatest among MARRIED people Waite and Joyner Pg 125 in the book WHAT FACTORS PREDICT HOW OFTEN PEOPLE HAVE SEX married couples have sex more often than single individuals Younger spouses have sex more frequently than older mates have fewer distractions and worries also may have more sex partly because society expects them to As people get older they have sex less often Factors that influence how often include marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction Women have less desire to have sex than men as they get older Retirement creates the possibility for more erotic spontaneity because leisure time increasesquot Allgeier EW HOW ARE KIDS MATURING NOW COMPARED TO THE PAST Faster sexual attraction first manifests itself around age eleven or twelve children are maturing about two years earlier than in 1500 when puberty was nineteen in England HOW MANY KIDS BY HIGH SCHOOL HAVE HAD A SEXUAL EXPERIENCE 478 percent of high school students responding to the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Eaton Pg 131 in the book RESEARCH ERS Kurdick he studied gay lesbian heterosexual cohabitants and married couples in regards to sexual satisfaction within each group each group was associated with general relationship satisfaction and with sexual frequency Despite variability in structure close dyadic relationships work in similar ways Chapter 5 Book Notes cont Children s Sexual Development Children express rhythmic manipulationquot of their genitals which is the researchers term for a natural form of sexual expressionquot Early sexual behavior peaks at age 5 declining there after until sexual attraction first manifests itself at age 11 or 12 Children are maturing about 2 years earlier than they did about 100 years ago and much earlier than they did in 1500 when the average age of puberty was 19 in England Age of puberty declines and age of marriage increases leaves a longer period of sexual activity Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation whether an individual is attracted to a partner of the same sex or of the opposite sex Heterosexuals are attracted to oppositesex partners Homosexuals are attracted to same sex partners Bisexuals are attracted to people of both sexes A person s sexual orientation does not always predict his or her sexual behavior 0 Abstinence no sex 0 Sexual expression with nonpreferred sex Interactionist point of view bisexual heterosexual and homosexual are social inventions American Psychological Association APA believes that a variety of factors impact s a persons sexuality A complex interaction of environmental cognitive and biological factors But biology and inborn hormonal factors play a significant rolequot Sexual attraction to same sex people occurs as early as ten for boys and fourteen for girls gay and lesbians Coming Out identifying as gay to others occurs just before or after high school graduation No specific genetic differences between heterosexuals and gays have been conclusively establishedquot Pg 110 in the book A Closer Look At Diversity GLBT gay male lesbian bisexual or transgendered attracted to samesex partners or those of either sex as the case may be Asexual individuals have emotional feelings and may desire intimate relationships with others but not sexual ones By age 44 97 of men and 98 of women have had sexual intercourse Study done of British residents between age of 18 and 49 105 reported themselves as asexual even though 44 were or had been married or cohabitating Women more likely to report asexual than men Less educated socialized people are more likely to be asexual unknown amount but small portion of the population that do not experience sexual attraction to others Different from celibacy or abstinence because those are decisions not to have sexual relations with others Theoretical Perspectives on Human Sexuality StructureFunctional perspective we see sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it serves the social function of responsible reproduction Basically to ensure that the guy knows the kid is his Cons tells us little about human emotion Biosocial Humans designed to efficiently transmit genes to the next generation Men are naturally more promiscuous Cons contradicted by cross cultural variation in sexual behavior Interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction Brings sex closer to our human experiencequot Pg111 in the book Sexual satisfaction depends on the rewards and costs comparison level what the person expects out of a relationship comparison level of alternatives what other options are available and how good are they compared to the present relationship Equality expect to have a degree of this in the relationship social class is also an important element within this exchange model Interactionist Perspective on human sexuality holds that women and men are influenced by the sexual scripts that they learn from their culture Sex is symbolic affection communication recreation or play Colonial times until 19th century sex in America was defined as reproductive Since the 19th Century sex is more of a way of communicating or being intimate with someone Patriarchal Sexuality is characterized by many beliefs values attitudes and behaviors developed to protect the male line of descent Expressive sexuality sexuality is seen as basic to humanness of both women and men there is no onesided sense of ownership Orgasm is important for women as well as for men Sex is not just reproductive but intimate 1960s Sexual Revolution birth control pill widely available laws regarding heterosexual relationships became more liberal recognized right to marital privacyquot in Griswold v Connecticut Today sexual activity often begins in the teen yearsquot In 2007 478 of high school students have had sexual experiences And 498 of males and 459 of females 1980s and 1990s fquot quot to l39 terosexism paqes 114113 Recent decades have expanded the liberalism of the 1960s to encompass lesbian and gay male sexuality Heterosexism The takenforgranted system of beliefs values and customs that places superior value on heterosexual behavior and that denies or stigmatizes nonheterosexual relations quot Characterized the thinking of Americans before this time Stonewall 1969 Police raid on a US gay bar Galvanized the gay community into advocacy Gay males and lesbians have become increasingly visible and have challenged the notion that heterosexuality is the one proper form of sexual expression Accomplishments Legal victories New tolerance by some religious denominations Greater understanding on the part of some heterosexuals Sometimes positive action by the government Some states and communities have passed sexual orientation antidiscrimination laws Corporations are increasingly likely to enact antidiscrimination policies Public s attitude became more favorable in the 1990s Early 1970s 70 thought homosexual relations were always wrongquot Chapter 5 free game Someone post outline of chapter 5 here done Sexual development and orientation Children s Sexual development 0 24 hours after birth males get erections infants fondle themselves 0 25 substantial number of children engage in rhythmic manipulation of genitals o 66 of males and 44 of girls touch own sex organs 0 Attachment to parents in infancy and childhood provides the emotional security essential to later sexual relationships 0 Early sexual behavior peaks at age 5 declining until age 1112 0 Children are maturing about 2 years earlier than in 1500 Sexual orientation 0 Definition refers to whether an individual is drawn to a partner of the same sex or the opposite sex Heterosexuals opposite sex Homosexuals same sex partners Bisexuals people of both sexes All it does is determine one s CHOICE in partners Asexuality Same sex attraction starts at 10 for boys 14 for girls Coming out comes just after graduation Female youth are more likely to have a consistent gay sexual orientation than men The existence of fairly constant proportion of gays and lesbians in virtually every society regardless of how harsh they are saying its biological 0 Look at sexuality using structurefunctional perspective We see sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it serves the societal function of responsible reproduction Tells little about emotions and pleasures of sexual relationships 0 Biosocial transmit genes to one another Men are horny Only genetic based that contradicts history The exchange perspective Rewards costs and equality in sexual relationship 0 Women s fertility are resources that can be 39 a 39for 39 support quot and status 0 Interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction Satisfaction depends on the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship as well as the participant s comparison level And comparison level for alternatives OOOOOWIWIWIWI lnteractionist perspective Emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of sexual scripts Sexual because of biology how we are sexual is cultural Proposes morality questions about masturbation sexual encounters positions etc Women and men influenced by sexual scripts Changing Cultural Scripts Early America Patriarchal sex 0 Characterized by many beliefs values attitudes and behaviors developed to protect the male line of descent 0 Men control women s sexual lives 0 Masculinity can be achieved through sexual accomplishment Emergence of expressive sexuality 0 Women s sexual expression is more encouraged than it had been earlier 0 Expressive sexuality sexuality is seen as basic to the humanness of both women and men Orgasm is important for women as well as men Sex is not only for reproduction but is important for intimacy 1960s sexual revolution sex for pleasure Birth control pill became widely available People were freer to have sex without pregnancies scares 45 of people in 1959 disapproved of sex outside of marriage in 2006 25 disapprove Marital couples now have more sexual intercourse and more pleasure and engage in a greater variety of sexual activities and techniques 1980s and 1990s challenges to heterosexism 0 1970s gay relations is 70 wrong 0 2006 56 gays should be legal 0 People who see gay as a choice are less sympathetic o Homophobia viewing homosexuals with fear dread aversion or hatred o the more familiar we are with sexual minorities the more likely we are to support equality o Lesbians have sex less frequently than gay men but its hard to determine because lesbians have less genital contact 0 Gay men are more body centered why lesbians are personcentered 21st century risk caution and intimacy o sexting 71 of teen girls send a pic 67 of boys 0 people now put more knowledge and effort into making relationships succeed Negotiating heterosexual expression Four standards for sex outside committed relationships 0 Abstinence maintains that regardless of the circumstances nonmarital intercourse is wrong for both women and men 0 Teens who do not engage in sexual activity give conservative values or fear of pregnancy disease or parents as their reasons 0 Men s hesitancy to pursue sexual involvement comes more often from feeling inadequate or insecure Permissiveness with affectionFriends with Benefits 0000 00 0000 o Permits nonmarital intercourse for both men and womnen equally provided they have a fairly stable affectionate relationship 0 71 of americans only have one partner in a course of a year Permissiveness without affectionFuck Buddies 0 Allows intercourse for women and men regardless of how much stability or affection is in their relationship Casual sex 0 Friends with benefits 0 Hooking up casually sexual encourters with friends and acquainted completely outside a romantic context 0 Sexual activity is not always intercourse Oral sex is common Double standard 0 Women s sexual behavior must be more conservative than men s 0 Within marriage context feminity sexually desirable and men connotes sexual aggressiveness and prownes 0 Culture tells men to separate sex from intimacy whereas women sexual expression symbolizes connection with a partner and communicates intimacy Sexual infidelity Marriage involves promises of sexual exclusivity Americans believe in fidelity and sexually exclusivity regardless of a legally binding commitment 92 consider extramaritial affairs morally wrong infidelity is higher amongst cohabitated couples than married couples Emotional infidelity intense primarily emotional nonsexual relationship with someone who is not one s own marriage or committed partner 2550 of people will cheat on their partner 92 of men have had sexual contact with one other person before marriage Affairs are generally not spontaneous results of too much alcohol nor are they the consequence of overwhelming romantic passion Usually comes from a complex interplay of sexuality identity ideology ego access and peer pressure Lower satisfaction with a marital or cohabiting relationship Women s economic independence may have something to do with their increasing rates of extramaritial sex Women are working longer hours traveling more and have the same access to technology to create and nurture intimiate connections outside of marriage lnternet allows more relationships to build but also allows partner to find out about affair Union duration of marriage or cohabitation which can be a measure of both investment in the relationship and habituation showed a positive relationship with likelihood of extramaritial sex during the union Habitual hypothesis that familiarity reduces the reward power of a sexual encounter with a spouse or partner compared to a new relationship Men feel more betrayed by their wives having sex with someone else women feel more betrayed by their husbands being emotionally involved in others Affairs can have positive effects such as encouraging closer relationships paying greater attention to couple communication and placing a higher value on the family Infidelity causes divorce Recovering from an affair 0 Consider how important the affair is relative to the marital relationship as a whole 0 Offending partners Apologize sincerely without defending Allow and heard the verbal vent anger and rage Allow for trust to rebuild gradually and to realize this may take long time Do things to help offended partner to regain trust How often Married couples have sex more than other single individuals though less than cohabitating couples Sexual activity is highest among young marrieds 96 of married couples under 25 have sex the last month Gradually declines until age 50 5054 86 6369 57 young spouses may have more sex often because society expects them to Middle age spouses Marital satisfaction second largest predictor of sexual frequency first was body deterioration Sex is very important and it may become more broadly based also sexual relating becomes more advanced Older partners Sex is important But below family friends finances security spiritual wellbeing Good sex over long term includes patience and practice Although maintaining a healthy sex drive into the golden years is normalcare needs to be taken to ensure that people who choose to accept a decreasing sex drive as they age are not treated as victims of a pathology Negative effects alcohol overindulging in food monotony lack of understanding partner Boredom Habituation the decreased sexual interest in sex that results from the increased accessibility of a sexual partner and the predictability in sexual behavior with that partner over time Sexual decline sharply after first year of marriage Reduction of needs to perform well and the newness of sex dies down Arlie Hochschild emotion labor women through their gendered work at home display certain emotions that they believe are expected of them in other words it s a gendered management of emotions Raceethnicity and sexual activity Non Hispanic black and Hispanic men 28a18 were more likely to have had multiple sexual partners than non Hispanic white men 13 Whites are more likely to have unconventional sex Married couples suggest that sexual frequency does not vary significantly with race social class or religion Black and latino gay men may be more likely to be bisexual than exclusively homosexual and less likely to assert a gay identity even when engaged primariliy in samesex relations Sex as a pleasure bond Pleasure bond partners commit themselves to expressing their sexual feelings with each other Sex is viewed as with each other not for each other Sexual responsibility responsible for his or her own sexual response lts important for couples to plan time to be alone and intimate lts important to have us time Sexual expression family relations and HIVAIDS AIDS viral disease that destroys immune system 31 of AIDS cases heterosexuals some heterosexuals have extended periods of celibacy HIVAIDS Many contacts and partners for gay men Most kids who have the disease got it from their mothers or breast milk If women take these drugs before and during birth HIV transmission to their babies is reduced from 25 to lt 2 Cognitivebehaviora emotional problems as well in teens The politics of sex Emergence of sexual and reproductive issues as a political controversies America s acceptance of sexuality is probably the high rates of pregnancy and abortion in the USA Research on sex education which found that providing information about contraception to teens does not increase their sexual activity Adolescent sexuality and sex education 478 sex declined since the 90s more contraceptives versus delayed sex strive to delay sex and prevent pregnancy to avoid the difficult lives they have seen around 55 of males 1519 have had oral 54 of girls Comprehensive sex ed delays start of sexual activity Sexual responsibility Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 0 Nearly of women and almost of men marry by age 30 o By age 40 more than 80 of Americans have married 0 Committing oneself to another person involves working to develop a relationship where problems are worked through where conflict is expected and seen as a normal part of the growing processquot Different types of commitment 0 personal I sense of wanting to stay in relationship 0 moral I feeling morally obligated to stay 0 structural I feeling constrained to stay regardless of the level of personal or moral commitment 0 Personal and moral 0 internal to the individual 0 function of person s own attitudes and values 0 Structural 0 external to individual 0 function of perceptions of constraints that make is costly to leave the relationship 0 Components of PERSONAL commitment o WANT to be with this partner 0 WANT to be in a relationship 0 Components of MORAL commitment 0 values concerning morality of dissolving certain types of relationships 0 Personal moral obligations to a particular person 0 Obligation to continue a relationship because of values regarding consistency I FINISH WHAT I START 0 Components of STRUCTURAL commitment 0 Social Pressure I Reactions that people anticipate from network members who may or may not approve of ending the relationship 0 Termination Procedures I Difficulty of the actions required to end a relationship 0 lrretrievable Investments I Feelings about all the time and resources that have been invested in the relationship 0 Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love 0 intimacy close connected feelings o passion o commitment 1 Divorce and remarriage how many people remarry More than threequarters of Americans who have divorced remarry within ten years p 138 2 Attachment and jealousy Secure Attachment associated with better prospects for a committed relationship ess prone to jealousy then preoccupied and fearful chart positive thought of self and positive thought of partner Insecure anxious attachment called preoccupied on chart fear of abandonment jealousycontrol of partner work hard to seek closeness with others but worry their partners don t love them enough fear of abandonment chartnegative thoughts of self positive thoughts of partner Avoidant attachment called dismissive on chart pass up or shun closeness of intimacy try to distance themselves least affected when relationship is threatened chart positive thought of self negative thoughts of partner Fearful fearful of intimacy socially avoidant more sadness and fear than insecureanxious chart negative thoughts of self negative thought of partners 3 Mateselection and patterns Assortative mating a filtering process Narrowing the pool of eligibles people tend to marry people of similar race age education religious background and social class this is known as homogamn gt exogamy marrying outside of race social class etc Freakonomics video Goodlooking people collected more money vs average looking solicitors Blondes collected more than anyone else Study of internet dating more women list themselves as blonde on websites while men list higher salaries 4 Homogamy heterogamy homogamypeople marry within their groupssimilar race age education religious backgrounds and social class WHY same values comfort more things in common avoid discrimination fit in with your family easier for children heterogamy choosing someone dissimilar in race age education religion or social class pg 148 5 Vocabulary POST ALL VOCAB HERE Commitment characterized by willingness to work through problems and conflicts as opposed to calling it quits when problems arise consciously investing in the relationship Sternberg s triangular theory of love 3 components necessary to authentic love intimacy passion and commitment consummate love complete lovequot composed of all 3 components what we strive for in a romantic relationship Martyring maintaining relationships by consistently minimizing one s own needs while trying to satisfy those of one s partner Manipulating seeking to control the feelings attitudes and behavior of your partner in underhanded ways rather than by directly stating your case Marital stability odds of staying married gt figure 62 on page 142 synonymous with marital happiness lntergenerational transmission of divorce risk a divorced parental family transmits to its children a heightened risk of getting divorced because a more and more serious personality problems b neither have been exposed or learned supportive communication or problemsolving skills c less commitment to the relationship d more accepting attitudes toward divorce Mate selection risk youths from divorced families were more likely to select highrisk partners who were also from divorced families and who were impulsive socially irresponsible and had a history of antisocial behaviors drug and alcohol abuse etc Marriage market people choose partners in the same way that the go to the market with few things to trade or with many depending on their stage in life armed with resources personal and social characteristics and bargain forthe best buy Freechoice culture people choose their own mates US Crossnational marriages one person travels to marry the other usually characterized by the greater Westernization of one partner and the spouse s simultaneous need to adjust not only to marriage but also to a new culture Assortative mating individuals gradually filter those who they think would not make the best life partner or spouse people are willing to date a wider range of individuals than they would live with or become engaged to and they are willing to live with a wider range of people than they would marry gt homogamy the tendency of people to form committed relationships with others with whom they share certain social characteristics Pool of eligibles a group of individuals who are considered most likely to make compatible mates by background or birth Endogamy marrying within one s own social group exogamy the opposite marrying outside of one s own social group Heterogamy choosing someone dissimilar in race age education religion or social class Geographic availability historically a reason that people meet others who are like themselves proximity helps to account for educational and social class homogamy Status exchange hypothesis an individual might trade his or her socially defined superior raceethnic status for the economically or educationally superior status of a partner in a less privileged racialethnic group Wheel of love the theory that the development of love has 4 stages which is a circular process capable of continuing indefinitely gt Rapport mutual trust and respect similarity of values interests and background make this likely gt Selfrevelation gradually sharing intimate information about oneself gt Mutual dependency two people desire to spend more time together and thereby develop interdependence habits etc gt Need fulfillment two people find that they satisfy a majority of each other s emotional needs Experience hypothesis cohabitating experiences themselves affect individuals so that once married they are more likely to divorce Selection hypothesis assumes that individuals who choose serial cohabitation are different from those who do not these differences translate into higher divorce rates 6 Intermarriage pg 151 Interracial marriages unions between partners of the white black Asian or Native American races with a spouse outside their own race Unions between Hispanics and others are considered interethnic marriages Proportion of interethnic and interracial marriages 78 of population 205 of all interracial marriages in 2008 were blackwhite only 63 were Hispanicnon Hispanic 23 of blackwhite marriages involve black men married to white women 1967 Loving v Virginia the supreme court declared that interracial marriages must be considered legally valid in all states Status exchange hypothesis the argument that an individual might trade his or her socially defined superior racialethnic status for the economically or educationally superior status of a partner in a lessprivileged racial ethnic group 7 Which group is most likely to intermarry HELP HELP AfricanAmerican men This questionable Does anyone else have any thoughts on this I believe this answer is correct At least that is what I got out of the reading No it s Arab Americans according to Chapter 6 l have the Kindle eBook version sorry no page number It is in the section titled Homogamy Narrowing the Pool of eligibles Quote More than 90 of nonHisganic and of black couples are racially homogeneous About 60 of Asian Americans and 75 of Hispanics marry within their group However nearly 54 of Native Americans marry outside their race and more than 80 of Arab Americans marry outside their ethnicity 8 Interfaith households 3040 of Jewish Catholic Mormon and Muslim adults and children in the US live in interfaith or interdenominational households Being highly educated seems to lessen individuals commitment to religious homogamy in other words highly educated people are more likely to belong to interfaith households where their partner is of a different religion Homogamously married partners go to church more often and at similar rates gt higher marital satisfaction 9 Children of divorce do they divorce pg 143 NOT CHILDREN OF DIVORCED PARENTS WILL THEMSELVES DIVORCE but studies do showthat based on large national samples parental divorce does increase the risk of marital instability Intergenerational transmission of divorce risk a divorced parental family transmits to its children a heightened risk of getting divorced four hypotheses to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce risk 1 more and more serious personality problems 2 neither been exposed to nor learned supportive communication or problem solving skills 3 less commitment to the relationship 4 more accepting attitudes toward divorce children of divorce are less likely to have developed a secure attachment styles children of divorce will themselves not necessarily divorce Research shows that a supportive welladjusted partner can minimize the risks Beliefs and attitudes of partner or of relationship Satisfaction Stabimy Personality 0V9l39all le ie39 whether traits of each I Partner of positive partners will partner It lteracmns affection remain experience in together over social support relationship time family friends community 10 Marital stability the odds of staying married 0 Determined by the factors in the chart above More perceived social support will result in greater marital satisfaction Belief and attitudes about each other and about their relationship will affect how they interact with each other Supportive interaction results in greater marital satisfaction Greater marital satisfaction in turn results in the greater likelihood of marital stability l Heavy or risky drinking is associated with a host of marital difficulties including infidelity divorce violence and conflict 11 Physical aggression pg 158 Physical violence occurs in 2040 of dating relationships Most incidents of aggression involve pushing slapping or grabbing between 1 and 3 percent of college students have reported experiencing severe violence such as beatings or assault with an object more serious injuries are results of maletofemale violence Women more likely to hit backquot than strike out first Fights begin with verbal aggression about jealousy of sex drug use or drinking problems About 12 of abusive relationships continue without breaking it off Women feel stuck in relationship and assumed caretaker identityquot similar to martyring 12 Kim Bartholomew work and attachment Secure attachment associated with better prospects for a committed relationship insecureanxious attachment fear of abandonment avoidant attachment one to pass up or shun closeness p 140141 chart on eLc also 13 Commitment notes from class and types of commitment de nition from the book pg 139 willingness to work through problems and conflicts as opposed to calling it quits when problems arise Notes from 13113 on commitment Working to develop a relationship work through problems expect conflict in the relationship and understand that is it normal and part of growth in a relationship Promotes growth Types of Commitment 1 Personal Love internal to individual ove for your partner keeps you committed function of attitudes and values want to be with partner want to be in a relationship because attracted to one another 2 Structural externa constraints that make it costly to leave the relationship expense of a divorce financia 3 Moral values concerning morality persona moral obligation to person vaues regarding consistency I finish what I start For example she had a friend who had a wife who was mentally ill and he wanted to divorce her but he didn t leave until she got better Social Pressure Reactions people anticipate from network friends who may not approve if ending the relationship Termination Procedure Difficult actions taken to end a relationship Some people are too lazy to go through the drama and trouble lrretrievable Investments People invest a lot into a relationship and are hesitant to throw it all away for a break up 14 Love styles and what are they pg 141 Eros intense emotional attachment and powerful sexual feelings provides a lasting relationship Storge affectionate companionate love mutual commitment respect friendship over time important only in marriages with children Pragma practical element in relationships ex arranged marriages Agape Altruistic love personal sacrifice unselfish concern for other s needs provides a lasting relationship Ludus love is play or fun elements of recreational sex Mania obsession or craze extreme jealousy and moody emotions they alternate between euphoria and depression Provides high relationship satisfaction 15 Sternberg s Triangular theory of love pg 139140 Consummate love intimacypassioncommitment All elements of love are important Passion develops and fades quickest intimacy develops more slowly and lasts commitment takes longest to develop and is more gradual Chapter 7 Marriage rate trend in last 50 years pg 166 The marriage rate has generally declined from 111 weddings per 1000 population in 1950 to 71 in 2008 In 1960 90 of women and men between the ages of 35 and 44 were married only 70 today 35 divorces per 1000 population in 2008 higherthan in 1960 today only 57 of adults are married 17 Divorce in this country when did it hit its peak pg 167 Divorce revolution between 1965 and 1975 the divorce rate doubled divorces reached an alltime high by the mid 1970s 18 What are functions of marriage p 170 1 guaranteeing property rights and otherwise providing economically for family members 2 assuring the responsible upbringing of children 3 providing love and ongoing social support 19 Permanence and sexual exclusivity Expectations of sexual exclusivity spouses promise to have sexual relations only with each other In the US In Europe requirements for women s sexual exclusivity emerged to maintain the patriarchal line of descent the bride s wedding ring symbolized this expectation The JudeoChristian tradition eventually extended expectations of sexual exclusivity to include not wives but also husbands Expectations for permanence have diminished while those for sexual exclusivity have been extended to include not just physical sex but also emotional centrality derive from fact that marriage was historically a practical institution economic agreements child raising etc Pages 170172 skip page 171 definitions expectations of permanence one component of the marriage premise according to which individuals enter marriage expecting that mutual affection and commitment will be lasting till death do us partquot expectations of sexual exclusivity the cultural idea according to which spouses promise to have sexual relations only with each other 20 Swingers pg 171 Swinging is a marriage arrangement in which couples exchange couples for purely recreational sex In 1960s gained media attention as one of several alternative lifestyles n 1960s 2 of adults in USA had participated in swinging Now swingers like to prefer to be called Lifestyle practitioners Today there are about 3 million married swingers in US which is an increase of about 1 million since 1990 ncrease could be because of the internet Swingers tend to be middleaged middleclass and more sociallypolitically conservative Many swinger couples experience jealousy guilt competing emotional attachments and fear of being discovered by family The fear of disease has apparently not inhibited the recent growth of swinging 21 Reynolds V US court case pg 171 In 1878 the Supreme Court declared that freedom to practice the Mormon religion DID NOT extend to having multiple wives Basically makinq Polyqamyilleqal in the US 22 Individualized marriage pg 176 de nition concept associated with the argument that contemporary marriage in the US is not longer institutionalized 1 It is optional 2 Spouses roles are flexible negotiable and renegotiable 3 Its expected rewards involve love communication and emotional intimacy 4 It exists in conjugation with a vast diversity of family forms 23 Polygamy pg 171 having more than one spouse accepted in many parts of the world has been illegal in the United States since 1878 14th of Americans think that Mormons endorse in Polygamy this IS NOT the case The ChurchofJesusChristofLatterdaySaints LDS no longer permits polygamy some dissidents of mormons take on polygamy but are not recognized by LDS Wives involved in polygyny argue that polygyny is a feminist arrangement because of the sharing of domestic responsibilities benefits working women Federal law prohibits immigrants who practice polygamy from entering the US However some polygamy can be found in New York among some immigrants 24 What of people think extramarital sex is wrong pg 172 90 believing an affair is morally wrong top of page 172 I am not sure this question is supposed to be about affairs Just in case the question isjust about sex outside of marriage generally this is the right answer In 2006 only 25 percent said it sex outside of marriage was always wrong quot compared to 45ths in 1959 Chapter 5 The 1960s Sexual Revolution Sex for Pleasurequot I have the Kindle version so no page number sorry 25What s covenant marriage pg 184 Partners agree to be bound by a marriage quotcovenantquot stronger than an ordinary contract that will not let them get divorced easily Conservative Christian organizations and legislators advocate this type of marriage Couples are required to get premarital counseling and may divorce only after being separated for at least 2 years must submit to counseling before a divorce Failed to become a serious social movement hasn t spread beyond Louisiana Arizona and Arkansas 26When do people get married pg 188 Median age at first marriage today is about 26 for women and 28 for men Those who marry young are more emotionally immature and impulsive and less apt to be educationally financially or psychologically prepared to responsibly choose a partner or perform marital roles Marriages occurring today when spouses are between the ages of 22 and 24 are most likely to be happy gt study contradicts the typical thoughts on marrying young 27What does it mean to be single According to the US Census Bureau single means unmarried p 194 28 Why do people postpone marriage what is happening pg 194195 Social factorsdemographic sex ratios economic expanded educational and career options for women technological birth control and cultural emerging adulthood singlehood more desirable to someencourage postponing marriage not to marry at all orto choose divorce rather than stay married Chapter 8 29 Researchers Glick and Glenn what did they do pg 197 39 I think this might actually be Glick and Linquot Suggest why the proportion of adults under 30 yrs living with their parents was high in the 1940s because of economic depression of the 1930s difficult for employment discouraged establishing new homes birth rate was low for several years meaning more room for young adult sons and daughters to live with their parents 30Work conducted by Trimberger Sociologistp 215 Pillars of support for unattached single women a nurturing home satisfying work satisfaction with their sexuality connections to the next generation a network of friends and possibly family members and a feeling of community 31 Cohabitation how many people cohabit 68 million US heterosexual couples cohabit p 199 Uncommitted cohabitors those who live together has an alternative to being single Committed cohabitorsliving together as an alternative to getting married 32What happened in 1996 something passed Defense of Marriage Act DOMA declared marriage to be a legal union of one man and one womenquot withholding federal recognition of legal samesex marriages in any state and relieving states of the obligation to grant reciprocity to marriages performed in another state 33 Child abuse domestic violence domestic partner Domestic Partner p202 requires joint residence and finances plus a statement of loyalty and commitment Domestic Violencep203 occurs at all economic and educational levels however low income and education are associated with higher levels of domestic violence Child Abuseover acts of aggression against a child such as beating or inflicting physical injury or excessive verbal derogation Sexual abuse is a form of child abuse 34 Video on 21213 answers to those questions Someone post video notes here 1 Who is Dr Helen Fisher Anthropologist at Rutgers Behind Chemistrycom 2 What does a low level of serotonin cause an obsessive thinking 3 Since the dawn of evolution mammals use their nose to find a mate 4 Who is Dr Charles Wysocki Chemical neuropsychologist what did his research reveal Smells trigger us to fall in love 5 What are pheromones odorless chemicals that come from our scent an odor print 6 What does the Vomeronasal organ VNO do Provides vital information that allows us to communicate with other individuals without speaking 7 Who is Louis Monti Searching for a love scent that VNO brings sexual drives to the brain VNO s change and monitor our behavior it s kind of like a sixth sense 8 Professor Aron s work is mentioned in this video what did he do Said that fear helps us to fall in love He set up an experiment where he put an attractive woman on a high suspension bridge and had her give a survey out to each man that crossed the bridge she then would have the men look at a picture of a woman covering her eyes and they had to write a story about the picture After they were done with that she said that she did not have enough time to talk more about her research project but that the men could call her at her hotel The experiment was CHFD Test 1 8182011 32800 PM How do you define family o Anyone related by blood o Strong relational connection o Group living together which may or may not be related o Mom dad 23 kids lab Traditionally both law and social science have specified that the family consists of people related by blood marriage or adoption the US census bureau defines a family group as group of two or more persons related by blood marriage or adoption and residing together in a household identifying with a certain group of people What are the 3 major functions of families 1 raising children responsibly continue society history leading in the future 2 providing members with economic and other practical support housing education preparation 3 offering emotional security support that will help them be careful defining family by function alone is a neighbor helping with childcare family There are fewer people married today 51 of Americans are married in 2008 compared to 61 in 1990 population of 15 and older o People are marrying younger Do marriage rates differ by states o Cohabitation is an emergent family form as well as a traditional lifestyle choice The number of cohabiting adults has increased more than 10fold since 1970 Has fertility increased or decreased since 1950 s decreased it was a high 36 in 1957 and now around 2 for about 20 years c better birth control and women having children later in life nonmarital birth rate has risen over the past 60 years o 38 of births are nonmarital today o 4 of births were nonmarital in 1950 What has happened to the divorce rate divorce rate has doubled from 1965 to 1980 o Nevada had highest divorce rate it has now since decreased in 2004 the lowest state divorce rate was Massachusetts o 24 per 1000 population as opposed to Texas with a 41 per 1000 population 10 southern states with a high divorce rate Alabama Arkansas Arizona Florida Georgia Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Texas o More people in the south get married younger o Average household income is lower in the south o Education Remarriage The remarriage rate has declined recently o 52 of men amp 44 of women remarry o 12 of all men amp 13 of women remarry twice o 3 of men and women remarry 3 or more times Relaxed institutional control over relationships family is understood to be social institution social institutions are patterned and largely predictable ways of thinking and behaving that are organized around vital aspects of group life and serve essential social functions as young people began postponing marriage and more divorces the adult married population decreased Same sex marriages are legally available in Connecticut Iowa Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Vermont Around 1950 there began changes from obligations to others and the family and more of an obligation to ones self first Family decline perspective Cultural change toward excessive individualism and selfindulgence has led to high divorce rates and could undermine responsible parenting Family change perspective c View family from historical standpoint o In 19th and early 20th century o Families broken up but illness death o Children sent to orphanages foster homes or over burdened relatives means today s family forms need to be seen as historically expected adjustments to changing conditions in wider society o economy o jobs families struggle with economic and time pressures scholars believe increase in divorce living together has less to do with values than with inadequate support Society wide trends 1 New communication and reproductive technologies o Cell phones videos texts GPS gt missing one on one face time 2 Changes in America s raceethnic composition 3 Economic uncertainty Lin T 0 Mary Ainsworth attachment theory strange situation o Secure attachment 66 o Insecure avoidant 22 o Insecure resistant 12 Insecure disorganized There are two slightly different versions of the federal poverty measure o The poverty thresholds statistical purposes 0 Dollar amounts used to determine poverty status o The poverty guidelines administrative purposes 0 Department of health and human services determines eligibility for welfare or other federal programs How the census bureau measures poverty if income is less than the threshold of the family then everyone in the family is in poverty o Age structure 0 Increased longevity In 1900 the life expectancy was 47 years American child bon in 2006 is expected to live to 78 years 0 Results of increased longevity More years invested in education Longer marriages Longer retirement Increased need for care for the elderly o The Economy and social class 0 Class differences in economic resources affect a variety of options and choices Timing of leaving home Marrying o Economic Change and Inequality Income 0 64 of families were classified as working poor in 2007 o saying that now the income gap is as extreme as in the 20 s o Race 0 Race gt social construction 0 The 2000 census used five major categories 1 White 2 Black or African American 3 Asian 4 American Indian or Alaska Native 5 Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 0 26 of population checked more than one o Latino or Hispanic is missing considered ethnic identity not race o Diversity in the US 0 In 2008 the US was 655 nonHispanic white 12 black 43 Asian less than 1 American IndianAlaskan Native less than 1 native Hawaiian and other pacific islander Hispanics are 154 of the population o Multiethnic Families 0 Multiracial families are formed through Interracial marriage Formation of a nonmarital partnership The adoption of children across racial lines About 7 of households differ in marital race a Loving vs Virginia challenged interracial laws 0 Religion Miscegenation marriage or cohabitation between a man and woman of different races especially in the US between a black and a white person r jl Mai lll i biological male and female Gender societal attitudes behaviors expected between the two sexes Gender identity degree to which an individual sees self as feminine or masculine Sexism Traditional sexism women s roles should be confined to family o Modern sexism denies gender discrimination Masculinities promotes that there are differences between men o Man expected to be confident selfreliant aggressive adventuresome o Liberated male sensitive expressive equal relationships Feminities many ways of being a woman o Woman physically attractive good listener good mom emotional support not to competitive ambitious selfconfident o Emerging female expectation satisfied single Challenges to gender boundaries o Between 1 and 4 of live births are intersexual o Intersex Society of North America ISNA 1993 Gender and Health o Life expectancy for the total population reached 777 years in 2006 o 802 years for females 0 751 years for males o Greater risk factors for boys and men 0 Smoking 0 Drinking o Vulnerability to infection amp stress not well understood o Partly due to the feminist movement women s health has been a national priority 0 Funding for breast cancer exceeds funding for prostate cancer by 40 Gender and Education o In 2007 women earned o 57 of bachelor s degrees 0 605 of master s degrees 0 50 of first professional degrees and doctorates o Data have been made visible two patterns 0 College achievement gap is greater among racialethnic groups within gender categories 0 Some scholars believe that the new emphasis on young men s problems is misguided in a world where men still have more power than women 0 Women LESS likely to be fulltime faculty Is anatomy destiny o Is male dominance anchored in biology o Sociologists are finding complex interactions among gender social roles and biological indicators rather than categorical gender differences c There is convergence on the opinion that with regard to gender biology interacts with culture in complex and constantly changing ways that cannot be reduced to biological determinism Theories of Socialization o Socialization 0 Process by which people develop their human capacities and acquire a unique personality and identity and by which culture is passed from generation to generation Gender roles o Children learn much about gender roles from their parents Theories of Socialization o Social learning Theory 0 Children learn gender roles as they are taught by parents schools and the media o SelfIdentification Theory 0 Children categorize themselves by age 3 and identify behaviors in their families the media and elsewhere that are appropriate to their sex and adopt these behaviors o Gender Schema Theory 0 Children develop a frame of knowledge about what girls and boys typically do and then use this framework to interpret and think about gender o Symbolic Interaction Theory 0 Children develop selfconcepts based on social feedback the lookingglass self Also important is their roletaking as they play out roles in interaction with significant others such as parents and peers CHFD Test 2 8182011 32800 PM Children s Sexual Development c As early as 24 hours after birth male newborns get erections What is the Child Behavior Checklist CBCL o Parentreport questionnaire on which the child was rated on various behavioral and emotional problems o Thomas Achenbach o Assessed internalizing and externalizing behaviors What is the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory CSBI o Developed to assess children who have been sexually abused or are suspected of having been sexually abused o Designed to be completely by a female caregiver Sexual Development and Orientation o Children s Sexual Development 0 Early sexual behavior peaks at age 5 declining until sexual attraction first manifests itself around age 11 or 12 What is meant by sexual orientation o Heterosexuals attracted to oppositesex partners o Homosexuals attracted to samesex partners o Bisexuals attracted to people of both sexes o Freud Kinsey and many presentday psychologists and biologists maintain that humans are inherently bisexual o Does bisexuality exist 0 Are bisexual men really homosexual In ch 2 interactionist framework claims the categories of sexual orientation heterosexuality homosexuality and bisexuality are social inventions According to the American Psycological Association o Sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental cognitive and biological factorsis shaped at an early age o Sexual attraction to samesex people occurs as early as 10 for boys and 14 for girls o Samesex sexual activity typically begins around age 14 for males whereas women s initial experiences tend to occur around age 16 Asexuals women are more likely to report being asexual normally less educated Theoretical Perspective on Human Sexuality o Structurefunctional perspective 0 Responsible reproduction o Biosocial Perspective 0 Transmit genes o The structurefunctional perspective tells us little about the emotions and pleasures of sexual relationships whereas the biosocial perspective argues a genetic determinism that is contradicted by historical and crosscultural variation in sexual behavior and relationships The Exchange Perspective Rewards Costs and Equality in Sexual Relationships o Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction o Satisfaction depends on the costs and rewards of a sexual relationship and what the person expects out of the relationship The Interactionist Perspective Negotiating Cultural Messages o Sexual scripts influence women and men and are learned from their culture Changing Cultural Scripts o Sex became significant to many as a means of communication and intimacy beginning in the 19th century and flourishing in the 20th century F Love and Commitment o Nearly threequarters of women and almost twothirds of men marry by the age of 30 o By age 40 more than 80 of Americans have married o Committing oneself to another person involves working to develop a relationship where problems are worked through where conflict is expected and seen as a normal part of the growth process Commitment o Committed lovers have fun together they also share tedious times o They express themselves freely o They do not see problems as indications that their relationship is over o They work to maintain their relationship o They work through problems and conflicts Different Types of Commitment o Personal 0 Sense of wanting to stay in the relationship o Moral 0 Feeling morally obligated to stay o Structural 0 Feeling constrained to stay regardless of the level of personal or moral commitment Personal amp Moral o Internal to the individual o Function of the person s own attitudes and values Structual Commitment o External to the individual o Function of perceptions of constraints that make it costly to leave the relationship Components of personal commitments o Want to be in a relationship o Want to be with this partner Components of moral commitment o Values concerning morality of dissolving certain types of relationships o Personal moral obligation to a particular person o Obligation to continue a relationship because of values regarding consistency I finish what I start Components of Structural Commitment o Social Pressure reactions that people anticipate from network members who may or may not approve of ending the relationship o Termination Procedures difficulty of the actions required to end a relationship o Irretrievable Investments feelings about all the time and resources that have been invested in the relationship Sternberg s Triangular Theory of Love Three components of love o Intimacy close connected feelings o Passion drives that lead to romance physical attraction and sexual consummation o Commitment decision to love someone and maintain that love Three components develop at different times o Passion is the quickest to develop and the quickest to fade o Intimacy develops more slowly o Commitment develops gradually Six love styles o Eros o Characterized by intense emotional attachment and powerful sexual feelings o Storge 0 An affectionate companionate style of loving focused on mutual commitment respect friendship and common goals o Pragma o Involves rational assessment of a potential partner s assets and liabilities o Agape o Emphasizes unselfish concern for the beloved s needs o Ludus o Emphasizes enjoying many sexual partners rather than searching for a serious relationship o Mania 0 Strong sexual attraction and emotional intensity It differs from Eros in that manic partners are extremely jealous and moody need attention Attachment Theory and Loving Relationships o Secure attachment style 0 associated with better prospects for a committed relationship o Insecureanxious attachment style 0 entails fear of abandonment o Avoidant attachment style 0 leads to one to pass up or shun closeness or intimacy Preoccupied o Work hard to seek closeness with others but remain worried that their partners don t love them enough in return o Experience more jealousy than do those with the other style Dismissive o Least affected when a relationship is threatened Bartholomew s Lab o Researchers suggest that we use the Likert Scale version of the Attachment Measure along with the paragraph version rather than just use the paragraph version alone Three Things Love Isn t o Martyring 0 Be reluctant to suggest what they want 0 Allow others to be constantly late and never protest 0 Help loved ones develop talents while neglecting their own 0 Be sensitive to others feelings and hide their own o Manipulating 0 Assume that others will happily do whatever they choose 0 Want others to help them develop their talents but seldom thing of reciprocating o Limerance Dorothy Tennov 0 Not just lust fantasies with object of desire in many situations Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce Risk o A divorced parental family transmits to its children a heightened risk of getting divorced o However not all children of divorced parents will divorce o Children of divorce are themselves more likely to get divorced because they have 0 More and more serious personality problems 0 Neither been exposed to nor learned supportive communication or problemsolving skills 0 More accepting attitudes towards divorce Assortative Mating A filtering Process o Individuals gradually filter those whom they thing would not make the best spouse o People are willing to date a wider range of individuals than they would live with or become engaged to and they are willing to live with a wider range of people than they would marry Narrowing the Pool of Eligibles o People tend to marry people of similar race age education religious background and social class Pool of Eligibles o A group of individuals who by virtue of background or social status are most likely to be considered eligible to make compatible marriage partners Reasons for Homogamy o Geographic availability propinquity or proximity geographic segregation o Social pressure cultural values encourage marrying someone who is socially similar to ourselves Heterogamy InterracialInterethnic Marriages in the US o June 1967 State of Virginia o Doles preventing marriages between persons solely on the basis of racial class Reasons for Interracial and Interethnic Unions o Numbers o Status Exchange Hypothesis 0 Individual might trade his or her socially defined superior racialethnic status for the economically or educationally superior status of a partner in a less privileged racialethnic group Li SinglesTheir various living arrangements o Living alone 0 Individuals make up over onequarter of the US households up from 8 in 1940 o Living alone together 0 LAT a couple is engaged in a longterm relationship but each partner maintains a separate dwelling o difficult to ascertain number of these relationships but it is clearly emerging in the US o Living with parents o Group or communally living o Communes situations or places characterized by group living 0 Designed to provide enhanced opportunities for social support and companionship Increase in Boomerangers o The economic recession that began in 2008 led to an increase in boomerangers Cohousing o Started in Denmark and spread to the US in the early 1980s o Cohosing complexes can be a way to cope with some of the problems of aging unattached singlehood or single parenthood CHFD Test 3 8182011 32800 PM cundity vs Fertility o Fecundity reproductive capacity biological capability to have children o Fertility births to a woman or category of women actual births not reproductive capacity What does TFR mean The US Total Fertility Rate o TFR dropped from 35 peak of baby boom period to 1738 in 1976 o Childbearing gt later ages o 2008 gt 2 drop in teen birthrates and a 3 drop in birthrates to women in their twenties o childlessness is higher now 0 2006gt 20 of women 4044 years old were childless twice the percent of childless women in that age group in 1976 Hispanics Reasons for High Birthrates o from nations that have high birthrates o catholic and rural traditions hat value large families o large families may serve important functions especially in poorer families Native American Fertility Rates o Native American women who live on reservations have significantly higher fertility than those who do not o Differential birthrates reflect the fact that cultures have different beliefs and values about having children The Decision to Parent or Not to Parent o Variations in birthrates reflect decisions shaped by values and attitudes about children o In a 2002 survey women reported tat over onethird of their recent births were unintended o 14 unwanted o 21 mistimes c As many as half of all births may be unintended Social Pressures to Have Children F o Our society has a pronatalist bias having children is taken for granted o 83 of American women say being or becoming a mother is important to their identity Is American Society Antinatalist o Some argue that US society has become antinatalist slanted against having children or not doing all it can to support parents and their children o Compared to other nations at our economic level nutrition social service financial aid and education programs directly affecting the welfare of children are not adequate Value of Children o Children can bring vitality and a sense of purpose into a household c Having a child broadens a parent s role in the world 0 Mothers and father become nurturers advocates authority figures counselors caregivers and playmates Motivations for Parenthood o Value of children perspective idea that children bring unique benefits to parents o Social capital perspective motivation for parenthood in anticipation of the links parenthood provides to social networks and their resources Costs of Having Children o Cost of raising a child born in 2007 to the age of 18 including college 269040 o Opportunity Costs 0 Parents forego income and investment when they raise children 0 Parents work additional hours and have less leisure time How Children Affect Marital Happiness o Children especially young ones stabilize marriage o A stable marriage is not necessarily a happy one o Research finds that not only do parents report lower marital satisfaction than nonparents but the more children there are the lower marital satisfaction is Remaining Childfree o Voluntary Childlessness o Factors 0 Greater ability to control fertility 0 Participation of women in work force 0 Concern about overpopulations o Rejection of the traditional family The Lives of the Childfree o The voluntarily childless have more education and are more likely to have managerial or professional employment and higher incomes o More urban less traditional in gender roles less likely to have a religious affiliation and less conventional than their counterparts o Value relative freedom to change jobs or careers move around the country and pursue endeavors Postponing Parenthood o Many couples today are postponing parenthood into their thirties sometimes later The OneChild Family o In 2006 169 of women 4044 had just one child o The proportion of onechild families in America appears to be growing due to three factors 0 Women s increasing career opportunities 0 The high cost of raising a child through college 0 Peer support Having One Child o Some families choose to have only one child a decision that can ease time energy and economic concerns Advantages The OneChild Family o Report they can enjoy parenthood without feeling overwhelmed and tied down o More free time and are better of financially o Family members share decisions more equally and can afford to do more things together o Higher educational expectations for the child o More likely to know child s friends o More money saved for college education Disadvantages OneChild Family o Lack of opportunity to experience sibling relationships o Only children may face extra pressure from parents to succeed c As adults they have no help in caring for aging parents o For parents there is the fear that the only child will be injured or die and that they only have one chance to prove themselves good parents Nonmarital Births o In 2008 406 of births were to unmarried women c From 1940 until the early 1960s only 4 to 5 percent of all births were to unmarried women o Around 1980 about 18 of births were to married women Adoption o The US census looked at adoption for the first time in 2000 when there were more than 2 million adopted children in US households about 25 of all children In terms of numbers most adopted children are in nonHispanic white families Asianpacific islander families have the highest rate of adoption relative to their population o More girls than boys are adopted Open Adoptions o The birth and adoptive parents meet of have some knowledge of each other s identities Putative Father Registry The Putative Father Registry is a list of the names of men who have either acknowledged paternity of a child by completing the paternity acknowledgement form or indicated the possibility of paternity without acknowledging paternity of the child Fourfifths of men age 2039 who were interviewed in 2000 rated a work schedule that would give them more family time as a more desirable job quality than challenging work or high income 70 of young men said they would exchange money for time with their families compared to 26 of men over 65 37 of fathers with children under the age of 18 would leave their job if their significant other made enough money to support family o 38 would accept less pay in exchange for more time with their children Careers vs Jobs o Careers differ from jobs o Careers 0 Hold promise of advancement o Are considered important in themselves not just source of money 0 Demand high degree of commitment o The vast majority of twoearner marriages would not be classified as dual career because the wife s or husband s employment does not have the features of a career Workfamily options o Options for working couples 0 Two career marriage Parttime employment Shift work Working at home Temporarily leaving labor force 0 Shift work 0 Any work schedule in which more than half an employee s hours are before 8 am or after 4 pm 0 Some spouses use shift work for higher wages or to ease child care arrangements 0 Physical stress 0 Reduces the overlap of family members leisure time 0 Associated with a decrease in marital stability 0 O O O CH FD Test 4 John Gottman 8182011 32800 PM o Studied newly married couples in a university lab while they talked casually discussed issues that they disagreed about or tried to solve problems o In 2007 a team of researchers said that Gottman s work may apply only to middleclass married couples 0 Femaledemandmale withdraw communication pattern o Kim Capaldi and Crosby said that they were not able to replicate Gottman s work o Four Horseman of the Apocalypse 0 Research identified predictors of divorce Contempt Criticism Defensiveness Stonewalling Belligerence Warning Signs of the Four Horsemen o Ways of interacting that sabotage peoples attempts to communicate with their partners 0 Criticism Blaming making a personal attack or an accusation Attack on your spouse s character You always put yourself first Complaint n Negative comment about something you wish were otherwise Specific statement of anger displeasure distress I am very upset you didn t ask me about how my day went but just talked about your day all through dinner Complaint We don t go out as much as I d like to Criticism You never take me anywhere n n o Contempt Insults amp name calling Hostile humor Mockery n Husband I really do care about you n Wifesarcastically Oh sure you really do care about me Body language rolling eyes sneering o Defensiveness Denying responsibility Making excuses Disagreeing with negative mind reading Crosscomplaining Rubber man rubber woman Yesbutting Repeating yourself Whining Body language 0 Stonewalling Stony silence o Belligerence added later A negative communicationrelationship behavior that challenges the partner s power and authority What can you do ifI do go drinking with Dave What are you going to do abut it The Horsemen create a cycle of discord and negativity Repair Mechanisms Different couples employ various types of repair mechanisms As a general rule they often entail commenting on what s happening in the interaction while it s taking place They remind their partners that they admire them and empathize with them despite the conflict Counteract defensiveness and deescalate tension Go on It really hurt my feelings when you said I looked heavier That s off the subject Pritte Defining Domestic violence o No universal definition o Can occur in any interpersonal relationship o use of illegitimate physical force andor control tactics within a cohabiting familial or intimate relationship o NCS vs family conflict studies Perpetrators of domestic violence o 3 categories of male batterers 0 family only least violent o dysphoricborderline moderately violent o violentantisocial most violent o women batterers also can be categorized as above Intimate terrorism o Dynamics 0 More frequent incidences of violence per couple 0 Escalates in severity and frequency until abuser believes he has control 0 Overwhelmingly committed by men 0 Less likely to have witnesses o Emotional abuse sexual abuse coercive control 0 Isolation jealousy o Impact and Effects on Victim 0 Depression Less likely to retain employment Isolation from social support Focus on immediate safety needs Intermittent violence leads to belief that things will change o Power ability to exercise ones will o Personal power or autonomy power exercised over oneself o Social power ability of people to exercise their wills over wills of others o Parental power power between parents and children o Marital power power between married partners 0 Involves decision making division of labor partners sense of empowerment objective measures of power subjective measures of fairness How is fairness judged o Equality standards both partners should share equally in the rights and responsibilities of the relationship o Equity rewards and privileges of relationship are proportional to contribution to marriage Six basessources of social power o Coercive based on dominant partner s ability to punish partner with psychological emotional or physical abuse o Reward based on ability to give gifts and favors o Expert stems from dominant partner s superior judgment knowledge or ability o Informational based on the persuasive content of what the dominant partner tells another individual o Referent based on less dominant partner s emotional identification with the dominant partner o Legitimate based on individual s ability to claim authority Resource Hypothesis o Spouse with more resources has more power in the marriage intimate terrorism formerly called patriarchal terrorism Situational couple violence formerly called common couple violence Intimate Terrorism o Violence is not focused on a particular matter of dispute between the partners but is intended to establish a genera pattern of dominance in the relationship Situational Couple Violence o Refers to mutual violence between partners that often occurs in conjunction with a specific argument trill lll39lv i i39i lquot o Situations that we think of as good as well as those that we think of as bad are all capable of creating stress in our families Eustress o A moderatetohigh level or a lowtomoderate level of stress that is energizing motivating positive and healthy Defining crisis o Change o Turning point o Relative instability Crisis involves the problem and your reaction to it Theoretical Perspectives o Structurefunctional o Family development life course o Family ecology o Family system Closer look at diversity young caregivers o An estimated 15 million US children under age 18 serve as caregiver to a family member o Caretaking can give purpose to a young person s life so some child caregivers do well What precipitates a family crisis o Addition of a family member o Loss of a family member ambiguous loss o Sudden change in income or social statues o Ongoing family conflict o Daily family hassles Family stress crisis adjustment and adaptation a theoretical model o The ABCX model states that A the stressor event interacting with B the family s ability to cope with a crisis interacting with C the family s appraisal Hills model of family stress o Family s attempt to deal with stress involves several components 0 Stressor A 0 Resources B 0 Definition C Stress and family life o Stress can emerge as a result of common life and family events 0 Having a child o Stress can occur as a result of unexpected events


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