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by: Ellen Abshire


Ellen Abshire
GPA 3.79


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This 70 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellen Abshire on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Brigman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/202620/fdns-2100-university-of-georgia in Forensic Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
FDNS Exam 2 2272012 73900 PM FatSoluble Vitamins H N 0 Vitamin A 0 Vitamin D 0 Vitamin E 0 Vitamin K Vitamin A Preformed Vitamin A 0 Dietary sourcesiver fortified milk fortified cereal ProVitamin A precursor to Betacarotene 0 Dietary sourcesdark greendeep orange fruitveg sweet potato spinach Major Functions 0 vision 0 promote cell growth 0 support immune system 0 support reproductive system 0 act as an antioxidant betacarotene Deficiency Symptoms 0 night blindness o xeropthalmia 0 poor growth 0 dry skin Toxicity Symptoms 0 fetal malformations 0 hair loss 0 skin changes 0 bone painfractures o seen in supplementation too much liver not too much fruitveg Vitamin D Choecacifero synthesized in body by sunlight hormone only vit to act as a hormone Major Functions 0 increase absorption of calciumphosphorous o maintain optimal blood calciumcalcification of bone Dietary Sources 0 ONLY animalbased 0 Some fortified nonanimal based foods Deficiency Symptoms o kidsRickets o adultsOsteomalacia softening of bones Toxicity Symptoms o kidney damage 0 calcium deposits in soft tissue 0 MOST LIKELY vitamin to become TOXIC 3 Vitamin E Tocophero Major Functions 0 antioxidantsprevents breakdowns of vit Aunsaturated fatty acids Dietary Sources 0 vegetable oils 0 nutsseeds o fortified cereals 0 some greensfruits Deficiency Symptoms 0 NOT common 0 Nerve degeneration o Hemolysis of red blood cells Toxicity Symptoms 0 NOT common 0 muscle weakness 0 headaches o nausea 4 Vitamin K Other Names menadione menaquinone and phyllopuinone Major Functions 0 blood clotting 0 synthesis of blood proteins Dietary Sources o green veg 0 liver 0 garbanzo beans o bananas 0 some calcium supplements Deficiency Symptoms o hemorrhage o fractures Toxicity Symptoms 0 can occur with SUPPLEMENTATION o jaundice o anemia WaterSoluble Vitamins o B Vitamins o Vitamin C 1 B Vitamins A Thiamin Vit Bl Major Functions 0 coenzyme of energy metabolism 0 nerve memory intergrity Dietary Sources 0 pork 0 whole grains 0 enriched grains 0 nuts Deficiency Symptoms o Beriberimuscle weakness wasting of lower extremities and edema Toxicity Symptomsnone B Riboflavin Vit BZ Major Functions 0 coenzyme of energy metabolism Dietary Sources 0 milkmilk productsBEST source 0 spinach 0 enriched grains Deficiency Symptoms 0 cracks at corner of mouth o sensitivity to light 0 eye disorders Toxicity Symptomsnone C Niacin Vit B3I nicotinic acidI and nicotinamide Major Functions 0 coenzyme of energy metabolism Dietary Sources 0 protein foods 0 enriched grains Deficiency Symptoms o Pellagradeath dermatitis and diarrhea Toxicity Symptons 0 skin flushing D Folate Folic AcidI FolacinI and PGA Major Functions 0 coenzyme involved in DNA synthesis Dietary Sources 0 o green veg 0 enriched grains 0 sunflower seeds Deficiency Symptoms o Megaloblastic Anemia o diarrhea 0 poor growth Toxicity Symptomsnone likely E Vitamin BlZ cynocobalamin Major Functions 0 coenzyme of folate metabolism 0 nerve function Dietary Sources 0 ONLY from animal sources Deficiency Symptoms o Macrocytic Anemia 0 poor nerve functioning Toxicity Symptomsnone F Vitamin B6 Dvridoxal Dvridoxine and Dvridoxamine Major Functions 0 active in amino acid and urea metabolism Dietary Sources 0 meat 0 fish 0 most veg Deficiency Symptoms o rashesscaly skin 0 anemia o headache o vomiting Toxicity Symptomsnone G Biotin sufurcontaining vitamin Major Functions 0 coenzyme of energy metabolism Dietary Sources 0 widely distributed in foods 0 peanut butter 0 egg yolks Deficiency Symptoms o depression 0 anorexia 0 muscle pain Toxicity Symptomsunknown H Panothenic Acid Major Functions 0 coenzyme of energy metabolism 0 involved of synthesis of many compounds Dietary Sources 0 widespread o meats o wholegrain cereals Deficiency Symptoms o intestinal issues o hypoglycemia o insomnia Toxicity Symptomsnone 2 Vitamin C ascorbic acid Major Functions 0 antioxidant o collagen synthesis 0 helps in iron absorption 0 cancer prevention Dietary Sources 0 citrus fruits o cabbagetype veg o darkgreen veg Deficiency Symptoms o Scurvybleeding gums impaired wound healing and loosedecaying teeth Toxicity Symptoms o intestinal disorders 0 interferes with medications exblood clotting Minerals 1 Calcium MOST abundant mineral in body Major Functions 0 structure of bonesteeth 0 muscle contraction o nerve transmission 0 blood clotting other cell functions Dietary Sources milkmilk products 0 soy milk 0 broccoli o fortified oj Deficiency Symptoms o Osteoporosissilent disease until elderly porousfragile bones NOT the same as Osteomalacia o Ricketschildhood form of osteoporosis Other Information 0 to decrease bone loss exercise intake adequate calcium ampVit D and estrogen replacement after menopause 2 Phosphorous 2nd most abundant mineral in body Major Functions 0 boneteeth structure 0 major buffer 0 part of DNARNA o role in metabolism 0 phospholipids 0 high phosphorousdecreases Ca absorption Dietary Sources 0 soft drinks 0 animal products 0 legumes 0 dairy 0 fish Deficiency Symptomsrare 3 Magnesium Major Functions 0 component of bones 0 important to enzymes 0 ATP metabolism 0 inhibits muscle contractionblood clotting o prevents dental carries 0 protects against hypertension Dietary Sources 0 dark green foods 0 legumes 0 whole grains 0 nuts 0 chocolate Deficiency Symptomsrare o weakness 0 muscle pain 0 poor heart functioning Sodium Major Functions 0 principal positive cation outside of cell 0 fluidelectrolytes 45 0 salt sensitive sodium intake increases risk of hypertension Dietary Sources 0 processed foods 0 table salt 0 condiments o sauces o soups Deficiency Symptoms 0 muscle cramps Other Information 0 salt pill is NOT recommended for endurance athletes o diets RARELY lack sodium 5 Potassium Major Functions 0 principal cation within the body of cells 0 fluidelectrolyte balance 0 nerve transmission 0 muscle contraction Dietary Sources 0 fresh fruitsveg o oj 0 bananas 0 meat milk 0 whole grains Deficiency Symptoms 0 dietary def is rare Other Information 0 toxicityoveruse of salt pill in heart patients 6 Chloride Major Functions 0 major anion outside of the cell 0 fluidelectrolyte balance 0 HCL in stomach Dietary Sources 0 table salt 0 processed foods o some veg Deficiency Symptomsrare 7 Sulfur Major Functions 0 sulfur isn t used as a nutrient by itself part of other compounds 0 bridges in proteinsstabilizes shape 0 acidbase balance Dietary Sources 0 all protein containing foods Deficiency Symptomsunknown 2272012 73900 PM Guest Speaker 32912 Energy Balance Weight Control and Physical Fitness Dr William P Flatt background in animal nutrition DeanongcoHege 1 Components of Energy Expenditure A Basal metabolism 7075 a energy to stay alive b height weight gender hormonal conditions cnotalotofconUoloverthE B Physical Activity1525 a something we can control CThernucE bctofFoodlv51096 a how many calories to chew and digest food bheatproduc on c animals energy can be lost in methane age adds to the excretion of methane in humans HBMI A weight in km height mAZ B BMI Categories a BMI lt20 underweight b BM12025 normal c BM12530 overweight d BMIgt30 obe C How do we determine if BMI is right a Bioelectrical Impedance 1 Passage of electricity through body and measurement of Uavehngthne ii The way Dean Flatt s body composition was measured in 1989 b Under water weight hydrodensitometry i Weighed on scale then put in water to measure water displacement and weighed again c Bod Pod Air Displacement i A pod machine measures body composition d DXA Dual XRay Absoptiometry 1 How much ofbody is fatmusclebone and bone density e Cahperspinchtesn 111 Negative Energy Balance Lose about 51 1b a weekin order to not lose muscle with fat B 3500cmR C 0 calgram in dietary fiber D Keep it off for 5 years your chances of keeping it off for life increase dras caHy IVSarcopenia I What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss l Meal Spacing People who eat small frequent meals are more successful at weight loss Make sure hunger prompts eating Eat regularly before becoming extremely hungry I What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss Eat breakfast Eating breakfast may reduce food intake all day long People who skip breakfast are more likely to be overweight l Physical Activity for Weight Loss l 230 60 minutes ofmoderate physical activity per day are needed to prevent weight gain and support weight loss Physical Activity for Weight Loss Increasing Metabolism and Reducing Appetite Short term increase in energy expenditure From exercise and a slight rise in metabolism Long term increase from BMR From an increase in lean tissue Improved body composition l Physical Activity for Weight Loss I More physical activity benefits Appetite control Stress reduction and control of stress eating Physical and therefore psychological wellbeing Improved selfesteem l Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity l Herbal laxatives containing senna aloe rhubarb root cascara castor oil or buckthorn Sold as quotdieter s tea Can cause temporary water loss of 12 pounds Side effects include nausea vomiting diarrhea cramping fainting Suspect in 4 deaths Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity l Other Gimmicks Steam baths and saunas do not melt off fat May dehydrate you and result in water loss Brushes sponges wraps creams and massages intended to move burn or break up cellulite are useless for fat loss l Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity l Cellulite rumpled dimpled fat tissue on thighs and buttocks is simply fat Due to tendons pulling fat through muscle l Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity l FDA has sent letters warning supplement distributors to stop claiming that their products Block starch fat sugar absorption Neutralize starch fat or sugar in a meal Promote weight loss with no effort Once I ve Changed My Weight How Can I Stay Changed l A reason why gimmicks fail is that they fail to produce lasting changes I Once I ve Changed My Weight I A key to weight maintenance is accepting it as a lifelong endeavor Prepare the mind for making permanent changes More physically active than the average person Monitor fat grams caloric intake and body weight I Food Feature Behavior Modification for Weight Control I How Does Behavior Modification Work Do not attempt too many changes at once I Chain breaking Separates behaviors that occur together I Stimulus control Puts us in charge of temptations l Cognitive Restructuring Changes our frame of mind I Contingency Management Prepares us for potential pitfalls and high risk situations I Self Monitoring Can reveal patterns Diet diary I Some things to think about How do you deal with it when you quotgo of your diet What happens to a person s body composition weight and metabolism when they end a fad diet What Strategies are Best for Weight Gain Ifyou eat enough to support the activity you will gain muscle at the expense of body fat if you eat more you will gain both muscle and fat FAST Gaining a lb of muscle and fat requires an intake of 3 000 extra calories a week People wanting to build muscle are advised to eat 7001000 caloriesday above normal energy needs FOOD What are Some Concerns About Frequent Eating at Fast Food Restaurants Too much fat Too much cholesterol Too many calories Too much sodium Obesity Trends Among US Adults BR F85 1993 Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1995 Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1997 Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 1999 Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2001 Obesity Trends Among US Adults BRFSS 2003 A Gloomy Forecast The Obesogenic Environment Obesogenic a recently coined term meaning the environment that sets people up for weight gain These factors include increase in use of cars High number and variety ofineXpensive high calorie food options Physical inactivity Fast Food and Obesity Adults who eat fast food 2 or mores times a week are 50 more likely to be obese and have double to risk for abnormal glucose metabolism leads to diabetes Adults who consume fast food 2 timesdayM spend over 25 hoursday watching TV have triple the risk for obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism Immigrants and Obesity Immigrants living in the US for lt 1 year 8 obese Immigrants living in the US for 15 years 19 obese Study concluded that immigrants tend to be healthier when theu first arrive in the US and consumed veggie fruits and fiberrich diets Targeting New Markets 0 From the website 0 We39re Asian and Pacific Islander Americans quotliving on the rimquot where our diverse cultures and the everyday American lifestyle become one We39re hanging on to our great traditions while we move to the beat of the times We honor our heritage but we love being Americans From high fashion to high tech from Asian Pacific American hip hop to haute cuisine we39re weaving the threads of our culture into the fabric of everyday American life Whether we39re sipping green tea or enjoying a Big Mac sandwich we39re helping make the magic mix called America become even richer And McDonald39s is right there with us everyday How Did Portions Get SO BIG 0 Movie theater tycoon David Wallerstein realized people never buy two popcorns Sin of Gluttony Appearing piggish 0 However people looking for good deals DID buy larger sizes of popcorn for a few cent more and Coke sales went up too 0 Wallerstein brought this concept to McDonalds Psychology of Supersizing McDonald s Smart Marketing The quotBigger is Better Rule Large sizes are now the norm so an even bigger size for a few more cents doesn t seem excessive Gluttony is no longer thought of a sinful We want bigger cars houses Wal Marts and meals What are you eating Processed Food Most fast food is highlyprocessed Processed food food that undergoes canning freezing dehydrating or other techniques used to extend shelf life To make processed food tasty with a good mouthfeel procedures add extra fat sweeteners and avors Why is Coke so plentiful In the 70s had a surplus of corn Sugar was expensive Japanese scientists invented technique to make a sweeter from corn call high fructose corn syrup HighFructose Corn Syrup HFCS Today most processed foods are sweetened with HFCS HFCS makes up 9 of the average adult s calorie intake and 20 of the average child s intake Glucose Main function is for energy Basiccarbohydrate unit that each cell uses for energy Body maintains internal supply in case of need Body controls blood glucose concentration Serve as structural roles in the body Splitting glucose for energy Below a healthy medium Body fat cnnot be converted to glucose Need glucose to feed brain W a severe deficiency the body must use protein to make glucose This is the protein sparing action of carbohydrate The minimum DRI to feed the brain and reduce ketosis is 130 g a day for an average person Storing Glucose a s Glycogen As blood glucose rises the pancreas releases insulin Body will take up glucose When blood glucose concentration drops the pancreas produces glucagon Releases glucose into bloodstream Some carbohydraterich foods raise blood glucose and insulin concentraitons higher relative to others Glycemic index Returning Glucose to the Blood Evidence suggests that a low glycemic load may help control body weight Many factors can affect glycemic index test results May vary from person to person Handling Excess Glucose Excess glucose is stored as glycogen Until lmuscle and liver are full If there is still excess glucose It is converted to fats which are stored in fat tissues Evidence concerning sugar Sugara has been accused of Promoting and maintaining obesity Casuing and aggravating diabetes Increasing the risk of heart disease Disrupting behavior in children and adulats Causing dental decay and gum disease Does sugar cause obesity Over the past decade obesity rates have sharply risen What about sugar and behavior Children do not react behaviorally to sugar NO scientific evidence Causign cavities Sugar can cause cavitites Aspartame Cannot be heated Sucralose Only artificial sweetener made form sucrose Three cl substiture for three H and 0 groups on sucrose 600x sweeter than sucrose Stevia game with test 3 info httpwww cram comflashuu lx ition test 3 4677996 Information from Exam One From Koofers TrueFalse Section Malnutrition only includes deficiencies of nutrients FALSE includes excesses as well So Far the DRI has only published recommendations for only carbs proteins and fats FALSE The US is among many countries which establishes and publishes guidelines for appropriate nutrient intakeTRUE Nutrient contents of packaged foods are stated on food labels as RDA s FALSE they re Nutrition Facts A tolerable upper intake level for nutrient means it s safe to consume in any amount FALSE UL means its recommended not to consume over that level There is no perfect food in terms of meeting nutrient needs TRUE A poor diet is a risk factor for many of the major chronic diseases today TRUE Disaccharides are absorbed directly in the bloodstream FALSE Monosaccharides are Insoluble fibers accelerate transit time less time to absorb toxinscarcinogensTRUE An intervention study raises entire population eating habits to build a hypothesis FALSE epidemiological study studies whole population intervention has control and variable groups One of the major disadvantages of the USDA food guide is that it can39t be adapted to other nutritional and cultural causesFALSE it can be adapted to other nutritional and cultural causes Carbohydrates have lightly been accused of being a fattening ingredient of food therefore we need to consume fewer starchy foods FALSE we don t need to consume fewer starchy foods Term l brown bread on a label is a guarantee its been made with whole grain flour FALSE only whole grain denotes that it has been made with whole grain flour Reading food labels helps consumers identify amount of fiber in a product TRUE Some vitamins are studied in the body without limits even though they can reach toxic levelsTRUE FACTS FROM EXAM ON KOOFERSwhat is koofers gt kooferscom UGA online test notes and test banks where people get notes and test banks from duhh how have you survived college Iron Deficiency Anemia is the most nutrient responsive change in diet would eliminate the disease FAT is the most energy rich of the nutrients Energy yielding nutrients include protein carbs and fats The source of valid nutrition info is scientific journals A certain amount of fiber in food contributes to health of the digestive tract but too much fiber can lead to nutrient loss so you must follow moderation One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the food provide enough of the essential nutrients fiber and energy This diet planning is called balance or adequacy Remember the 4 4 9 rule Carbs and protein each contain 4 calories in a gram while fat contains 9 calories in a gram Alcohol contains 7 calories per gram ldk if we need to know this Characteristics of a nutritionist includes use of the term nutritionist after the individual s name DRls have not been scientifically tested Characteristic of daily values include apply to healthy people used on a nutrition label they are set based on DRI The food guide pyramid recommends There is no measurable RDI recommended daily intake for fats sweets Phytochemicals are substances that provide health benefits The bottom portion of nutrition facts panel on a food package is identical on every label lists daily value standards The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the small intestine A plants storage of carbs is starch Peristalsis is a wave like muscular squeezing Timing of meal is important to feeling well If someone has heartburn they should drink liquids before and after meals and eat small meals A high ber diet helps to alleviate constipation V2 cup of potatoes woulda serving from the food pyramids group vegetable Water is the most important nutrient to a diet Complex carbs include potatoes pasta bread Labeling requires that ingredient in food products be listed on the container in descending order of their weight The stomachs main function is digestion of protein For someone suffering from constipation consume food adequate fiber drink enough water Milk is animal derived food that provide an ample amount of carbs Fiber does not promote weight gain and feeling of fullness it does promote fullness A desirable intake of carbs is 4565 Maltose is not a polysaccharide Maltose is a lisaccharide two glucoses The large intestine reabsorbs water and minerals Mouth chews and mixes food with saliva Esophagus passes food to the stomach Stomach chews mixes and grinds food into a liquid mass Small intestine utilizes enzymes that digest food into carbs proteins and fats FructoseGlucoseSucrose GalactoseGlucoselactose GlucoseGlucosemaltose Class notes from exam 1 Please add anything that39s missing My notes may not be 100 complete 1 Nutrition the science of how food nourishes the body a nutrients support growth maintenance and repair of the body b top 3 leading causes of death in the USA are related to poor nutrition heart disease cancer stroke c We are now seeing grade school children developing type II diabetes Chronic diseases can not be entirely prevented by good diet genetics play a role Only two common lifestyle choices smoking and alcohol use have a greater impact on health than diet Nutrients components of food required for body s functioning 6 categories water carbs lipids vitamins protein minerals a Provide energy building material repair and support body growth b a calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise one kilo of water 1 degree celsius c Carbs protein and lipids fats all provide energy according to the 449 calgram rule respectively carbs and proteins 4 calories per gram fat 9 calories per gram i Alcohol provides 7 calgram ofenergy BEEEEEER Digestive system breaks down whole food best Whole food also provides physical and psychological comfort and phyto chemicals not found in supplements Phyto chemicals are non nutrients that provide color taste and possible health benefits example lycopene in tomatoes How do you find a nutritious diet Adequacy must provide enough essential nutrients Balance contains good proportion of nutrients wo overemphasis of any food group Calorie control enough to maintain ideal body weight Moderation any food is acceptable in reasonable portion sizes Variety must be able to eat many different types of food to prevent boredom Food research many studies take a long time to complete so research may not always be available Epidemiological studies studies the diet of an entire population Lab studies frequently use animals tightly controlled conditions Case studies look at individuals Intervention studies use control and treatment groups Two ongoing national research projects NHAN ES asks 50000 people what they eat and their health status 1 National and Nutrition Examination Surveys i CSFII records what people eat and how it compares to recommended values 1 Continuing Survey of Food intakes by Individuals DRI Dietary Reference Index sets values for vitamins minerals carbohydrates lipids protein water Is designed to provide dietary guidance to HEALTHY people EAR Estimated Average Requirements Women 2000 calories Men 3000 a RDA Recommended Daily Allowance based on scientific evidence Emphasizes adequacy not just prevention of deficiency b AI adequate intakes based on evidence and guess work 9969 9969 c UL Upper Intake Levels establish potential toxicity and safety guidelines d On food labels quotdaily value which is an average of the RDA s Based on a person eating a 2000 calorie diet e To prevent chronic diseases the DRI recommends the following energy intake 45 65 carbohydrate i 25 35 fat ii 10 35 protein iii Food labels must include information about Vitamin C amp A and Calcium and Iron Carbohydrates may need more information here come from photosynthesis water and carbon dioxide combine to form the sugar glucose a carbohydrate rich foods come almost exclusively from plants exception is milk which is animal based b complex carbs disaccharides which are made of starch and fiber Composed of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen simple carbs monosaccharides sugars Grains and Dairy and Fruit are good sources veggies med source protein bad source main function to get energy from glucose protein and fats DRI recommends 45 65 of daily calories come from carbs 10 or less from sugars Fats are not normally used as fuel by the brain and central nervous system Sugars single sugars monosaccharides glucose found in all carbs i fructose mostly in fruit ii galactose mostly in milk amp dairy a double sugars disaccharides must be broken down first lactose found in milk Glucose Galactose i maltose grain Glucose Glucose ii sucrose sugar glucose fructose rurqu rhsv 51939 b simple sugars or monosaccharides are absorbed directly into the bloodstream c disaccharides must be split into monosaccharides before they can be absorbed Starches polysaccharides starch i glycogen ii fiber a starch is the plant39s form of glucose glycogen is animals form of glucose b Veggies corn potatoes peas and beans are good sources c fruits are very good sources 12 Fiber a provides support to plant structures retains water to protect seeds from drying i helps regulate GI tract ii weight maintenance how does it help It helps you feel satiated so you eat less frequently Also it keeps you regular which helps too fibers are polysaccharides c soluble fibers dissolve in water and easily digested by Colon i delays stomach emptying help one feel fuller for longer ii delays glucose absorption iii helps lower blood cholesterol iv found in barley legumes fruit oats carrots d insoluble fibers regulates digestive system helps with weight against how does soluble not Insoluble just passes through the body soluble goes into the bloodstream helps control blood sugar levels and blood cholesterol levels helps reduce risk for diverticulitis found in veggies wheat cereal accelerates transit time less time to absorb toxins carcinogens e ADA recommends 25 35g of fiber per day f too much fiber blocked intestine 13 Digestive System a food39s flavor is affected by basic chemical tastes aroma texture temperature etc a digest to break molecules into smaller molecules b absorb the movement of nutrients into intestinal cells after digestion know difference of two c digestive tract a flexible muscular tube extending from the mouth to the anus d the digestive system absorbs nutrients some non nutrients alcohol and leaves substances such as fiber that are excreted e villi lines the small intestine is how nutrients are absorbed 14 Mechanical aspect of digestion digestion begins in the mouth chewing adds water in saliva form releases trapped nutrients in skins no extra chewing needed a stomach and intestines liquefy food b peristalsis wave like muscular squeezing pushes food along digestive tract c stomach holds foods and mashes it in charge of absorption of proteins d sphincter muscle at base of esophagus prevents reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus e stomach stores food in upper portion and is squeezed into lower portion slowly as it is grinded f chyme the fluid resulting from the stomach39s actions upon a meal g large intestine colon digestion and absorption are nearly complete there reabsorbs water and absorbs minerals fiber and undigested materials make up the feces fiber provides bulk against which muscles can work the rectum stores fecal material that is later excreted transit from mouth to rectum takes 1 3 days digestion is only limited by sleep and exercise Chemical aspect of digestion digestion begins in the mouth an enzyme in saliva breaks down starch another for fat a protein digestion begins in the stomach b stomach releases gastric juice mixture of water enzymes HCI required to activate a protein digesting enzyme c protein digestion is the stomach39s main function the digestive tract is protected from acid by mucus most digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine gallbladder releases bile into intestine for fat pancreas release pancreatic juice and break down nutrients with intestinal enzymes h i j k I 15 d e f g h certain fibers can39t be digested by human enzymes but instead by bacteria in the GI tract 16 Stomach food stays in stomach for 1 2 hours a higher fat longer food stays b stomach main area for protein digestion c food is collected in upper storage area slowly goes into lower area d stomach contains chyme 17 Exc retory system waste is pulled out of the blood by the liver either sent to digestive tract or kidneys a kidneys are waste and water removal specialists they filter blood b waste is dissolved in water c overeating causes heartburn G ERD d ulcers erosion of stomach or intestinal lining e constipation difficult or infrequent evacuation of bowels This is from when we went over Test 2 cholesterol can be made by the body true cholesterol is not an essential nutrient true LDL is not good cholesterol true HDL is good amp LDL is bad most people in the US find it impossible to meet their protein requirements false foods containing proteins are not uncommon in the US vegetarians have lower rates of certain cancers true If a small amount of a vitamin is good more is better false can lead to toxicity Riboflavin is the nutrient essential for synthesis of blood clotting factors false calcium is The coenzyme FAD is made from niacin false made from Riboflavin The coenzyme DHF is made from folate true French fries in corn oil contain cholesterol falsecorn is a plant product and therefore doesn t contain cholesterol because only animals have livers where cholesterol is produced Butter is an unsaturated fat false butter is a saturated fat Broccoli is a good source of vitamin C true ijust wrote broccoli and vitamin C on my notes but I m pretty sure it was good source of Vit C Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of folate false intrinsic factor is needed to absorb 312 Matching thiamin pork riboflavin milk scurvy the lack of vitamin C type of deficiency foate Best source is orange juice vitamin C Best source is cabbage type vegs Beriberi is the deficiency of vitamin Thiamin Perniciousanemia is the deficiency of Vit B12 Most heart healthy margarines are those which list oil or water first Trans fats arise when oils are hydrogenated Nitrogen found in protein but not in carbohydrates or fat Calorie deficiency disease is marasmus Swollen belly fluid build up kwashiorkor All the following are vegetarian diet reasons except can39t digest proteins nobody is a vegetarian because they cannot digest proteins Vitamin 312 found in ground beef Vitamin 312 is ONLY found in animal based foods niacin can be made from tryptophan 11 non essential amino acids and 9 essential amino acid supplements not needed don t need to consume cholesterol folic acid was fortified in enriched grains watersoluble vitamins are easily ltered by kidneys leached from food during washing Lacto vegetarians will eat all except eggsmore specifically Lacto means they ll consume dairy product as a vegetarian Pregnant women 1998 folic acid not sure what exact question was i think it was about folic acid being fortified in 1998 Water soluble vitamins easily filtered by kidneys Which of the following contains cholesterol ice cream milk product Which of the following contains all essential amino acids milk Enzymes are organic compounds that speed up chemical reactions 20 35 fat consumption 130 grams of carbs needed a day Products of incomplete breakdown of fat are ketones Artificial sweetener made from sucrose sucralose Hydrogenated oil and shortening indicate trans fat vegetarian diets can lack vitamin BlZ Glycemic index extent a food raises blood glucose levels If you have a Vitamin BlZ deficiency also folate deficiency megoblastic anemia large and immature blood cells 25 percent of people with eating disorders are men 130 grams of carbs lt The minimum DRI to feed the brain and reduce ketosis fat not normally used as fuel for brain and nervous system carbs donate fewer calories than fat folacin 0r Vit b12 de ciencies blood cells small packed with hemoglobin NOTES FROM AFI39ER TEST ONE 1 Carbs continued must break down carbs into monosaccharides digestion begins in mouth carbs travel to liver in the bloodstream fructose and galactose are converted to glucose or related product glucose is the basic carb unit the each cell uses for energy body maintains body fat cannot be converted to glucose How is fat used for energy Body release triglycerides protein sparing action body uses protein to make glucose due to deficiency when too much glucose pancreas release insulin and glucose is absorbed decreasing high amounts 999579 h when blood glucose concentration drops pancreas produces glucagon which releases glucose increasing levels i excess glucose is stored as glycogen if there is still more glucose then it becomes converted to fats in fat tissue type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin k type 2 can make insulin but something is wrong I anything ending in quotolquot is a sugar alcohol m body absorbs sugar alcohols more slowly I saccharin Sweet n low bitter aftertaste ii aspartme equal cannot be heated or will be destroyed composed of amino acids iii sucralose only sweetener from sucrose 600X sweeter than sucrose chlorine atoms used instead of hydrogen iv stevia naturally sweet herb contains erythritol v nectresse monk fruit can be used in cooking produced by splenda makers Lipids fats lipids not water solvent visible fats can see and remove skin on meat salad dressing i invisible fats can39t physically remove fat inside meat cookies a without carbs incomplete breakdown of fat produces ketones build up in blood and urine provide energy functions of fat shock absorbers thermoregulation transport fat soluble vitamins storesupply energy flavortexture c keep trans fat intake below 1 of calorie intake d fats triglycerides 3 fatty acids glycerol e glycerol serves as backbone for triglycerides the energy part of fats triglycerides DO NOT MAKE ENERGY f saturation whether or not a fatty acid chain is holding all of the hydrogen atoms it can hold g saturated fatty acid every bond from the carbons is holding a hydrogen atom limit it worst fats coconut oil butter steak fat keep below 10 of calorie intake monounsaturated fatty acid one point of unsaturation IIgood fatII canola oil olive oil peanut oil i polyunsaturated fatty acid two or more points of unsaturation in between goodbad lower LDL levels lower HDL levels don t want HDL levels low sunflower oil j linoleic acid omega 6 and linolenic acid omega 3 is essential in sh k 20 35 of calories should be from fat soluble food I hyd rogenation the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make the fat more solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation Transport of fats lipoproteins transport lipids associated with protein a chylomicrons transport triglycerides to fat depots b major lipoproteins VLDL LDLHDL VLDL very low density lipoproteins i LDL lowdensity lipoproteins bad because they take cholesterol to arteries ii HDL high density lipoproteins good because help take cholesterol out monounsaturated have no effect polyunsaturated lower 91999st a b c have liv exercisi e f 6 a b Phospholipids and Sterols phospholipids 2 fatty acids glycerol a phosphorus containing molecule phospholipids are emulsifiers play key role in cell membranes MILK sterol cholesterol serves as precursor for making bile vit D and sex hormones are sterols Cholesterol component of cell membranes body can make it so not essential most saturated food fats and trans fats raise blood cholesterol more than food cholesterol found in all meat egg yolks butter plants cannot produce cholesterol because they do not ers Where it is normally produced HDL cholesterol increased by exercise no smoking decreased by not eating healthy or not g Eggs shellfish and liver are good sources Forms the major parts of the plaques that narrow arteries in atherosclerosis Trans fatty acids not made by body usually comes from processed foods raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol Fat replacers qurhsv 97900 9 d replacers include fibers sugars proteins Olestra is a popular artificial fat sucrose polymer human enzymes of digestive tract do not recognize the molecules of olestra no calories Safe in most regards When consumed in large quantities can cause Digestive distress Nutrient losses Losses of phytochemicals Reducing Fat intake Boil not fry reduce fat products remove visible fat Use 2 egg whites instead whole egg recipe Use applesauce in recipes that call for Fat High fat foods olive oil may protect against heart disease butter or margarine both have pros and cons butter is better overall The reason she said BUTI39ER was better was that it does not contain hydrogenated oils which contribute to Trans fats which are much worse than saturated Structure of proteins proteins contain nitrogen Made of amino acids 9 essential amino acids that can39t be synthesized at all by the body need them some food sources 11 non essential body can make them body breaks down proteins and reuses those amino acids RECYCLING f cells can use them for energy g build proteins through peptide bonds 9 Roles of protein in the body amino acids must be always available to build the proteins of new tissue a protein helps replace cell structuresworn cells b enzymes are among the most important of the proteins formed in living cells c hormones chemical messengers secreted by a number of body organs in response to conditions that require regulation d antibodies large proteins of the blood immune system e protein maintains fluid and electrolyte balance too much fluid in cell gt cell ruptures proteins attract water i too little water the cell is unable to function f proteins maintain acidbase balance blood proteins acts as buffers to maintain the blood s normal pH g protein provides energy and glucose 10 Amino acid composition highquality proteins proteins containing all essential amino acids all animal products a non essential if not available from food cell can synthesize it b either have to have all the amino acids or none c complementary proteins two proteins whose amino acids complement each other beans completed with grains nuts seeds i grains completed with legumes ii nuts and seeds completed with legumes iii veggies completed with grains nuts seeds iv corn completed with legumes d DRI 8gkg body weightday min 10 of calories 11 Nitrogen balance under normal circumstance adults are in nitrogen equilibrium a zero balance equilibrium gt nitrogen in nitrogen out college student b positive balance gt more nitrogen goes in than the nitrogen going out pregnant women growing child c negative balance gt less nitrogen goes in than the nitrogen going out surgery patients 12 Protein deficiency and excess protein deficienciesenergy def are the world39s leading form of malnutrition a proteinenergy malnutrition PEM world s most widespread malnutrition problem marasmus extreme food energy deficiency not enough calories 1 extreme loss of muscle and fat skin and bones look 2 can reach point of no return i kwashiorkor not enough protein 1 belly often bulges 2 fluids leak out of blood and go in belly and legs causing edema b diet should contain no more than 35 of calories from protein 13 Vegetarian and meat containing diets lacto eat all plants and include milk products a ovo plants and include egg products b partial exclude red meats pesco plants and include fish vegan no animal products at all vegetarian some animal products but not all B vitamins Thiamin energy metabolism Beriberi water soluble many serve as coenzymes that release energy from fuel energy sources helps cells such as blood cells to multiply Thiamin converted to TPP coenzyme in energy metabolism rich source pork deficiency 1 Beriberi dry muscle weakness and wasting of lower extremities wet heart failure and edema alcoholicselderly at risk Riboflavin FMNFAD energy metabolism Milk eggs and meat converted to FMN and FAD coenzyme in numerous reactions of energy metabolism rich sources milk eggs meat deficiency cracks at the corner of the mouth sensitivity to light Niacin NADNADP energy metabolism Pellagra coenzyme form NAD and NADP energy metabolism rich sources protein foods enriched grains The body can convert the amino acid tryptophan into niacin deficiency Pellagra seen in low protein diets which center on corn Folate DHFTHF DNA GreensOrange Juicefortified aka folic acid folacin PGA coenzyme form DHF and THF helps synthesize DNA rich sources legumes greens orange juice all enriched grains must be fortified with folate fortified not there originally enriched there originally and re added deficiency impaired cell division and protein synthesis anemia megaloblastic neural tube defect Spina bifida two halves of the slender bone that should complete the casement of the spinal cord does not connect I g leads to paralysis of the lower limbs Vitamin BlZ folate animal products cell synthesis closely related to folate coenzyme of folate sinesv ED 16 9 needed for cell synthesis only found in animal products Who s at Risk Some elderly have marked deficiencies of Vitamin 312 Vitamin BlZ deficiency can look like senility poor memory dementia depression and Vegan diet can produce a deficiency deficiency intrinsic factor from stomach needed for absorption if low IF gt Pernicious Anemia elderly alcoholics poorly planned vegan diets commonly lack 312 Vitamin B6 coenzyme form PLP active in amino acid and urea metabolism rich sources meat fish veggies elderly and alcoholics at risk for deficiency upper level limit 01 gram too much symptoms Biotin sulfur containing coenzyme of energy metabolism found in most foods egg yolks peanut butter deficiency risk in raw eggs and alcoholics raw eggs block absorption of biotin Pantothenic acid coenzyme form Acetyl CoA used in energy metabolism involved with synthesis of many compounds hemoglobin found in many foods deficiency Hypoglycemia insomnia intestinal problems Vitamin C Vitamin C water soluble antioxidant iron absorption cancer prevention free radicals can cause damage to cells deficiency Scurvy toxicity intestinal disorders rich sources citrus cabbage types dark greens Trace Minerals trace mineral content of food depends on soil water processing de ciencies are typically failure to thrive and grow TM used in all body systems are toxic at intakes not far above estimated requirements P rhea9579 FDA cannot limit amounts in supplements Iodine sources ocean mist seafood water iodized salt deficiencies Goiter enlargement of thyroid gland Cretinism deficiency during pregnancy mentalphysical retardation in baby Iron part of hemoglobin and myoglobin carry and release oxygen heme is found in animal foods better absorbed red meat oysters turkey chicken non heme found in plants absorbed poorly spinach lentils tofu increased by vitamin C meat fish poultry childhoodpregnancy deficiencies most common nutrient deficiency in worldUS iron def depleted iron stores anemia severe depletion of iron stores with low hemoglobin concentration symptoms chronic fatigue recurring illness frequent colds iron toxicity hemochromatosis Zinc deficiencies growth retardation slowed sexual maturation sources shellfish meats poultry liver Selenium works as antioxidant makes thyroid hormone active deficiencies may increase risk for heart disease Fluoride forms crystal structure of teeth dental caries cavities most widespread health problem def increased risk toxicity where water Fl is too high fluorosis darkened teeth is seen source drinking water Chromium associated with insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into cells supplements do not help lose fat and build muscle sources eggs meats Copper helps form hemoglobin collagen synthesis def is rare sources legumes whole grains nuts organ meats Vitamin A fat soluble proVitamin A recursor is beta carotene beta carotene is antioxidant Vitamin A is not only in animal products biggest function vision def night blindness total blindness poor growth toxicity teratogenesis birth defect liver failure seen in supplements g rich source animal foods dark green and deep orange fruits and veggies from beta carotene 18 Vitamin D fat soluble also a hormone a synthesized in body by sunlight b increases absorption of calcium and phosphorous c maintains optimal blood calcium and calci cation of bone d def Rickets in children bones fail to calcify Osteomalacia in adults softening of bones e liver has small storage capacity toxic through too much supplements f sources sunlight animal based foods fortified cereals g dark skinned up to three hours for several days h light skinned 10 15 minutes 19 Vitamin E fat soluble a antioxidant b sources raw veg oils high temps destroy it nuts and seeds fortified cereals c def or toxicity not common 20 Vitamin K fat soluble a blood clotting bone protein synthesis b def newborn infants given dose at birth c sources GI bacteria leafy greens cabbage like vegs d toxicity supplements Jaundice yellowing of skin anemia Water Soluble vitamin B amp Vitamin C Fat Soluble Vitamin A amp D amp E amp K Someone sent me a pdf of test 3 and I typed it to learn it better so here is it Also this is an old test so some questions have been omitted and others added TF 1 Weight loss takes time and practice True 2 In fad dieting most of the initial weight loss is due to a fat loss False its due to a loss of water weight 3 A deficiency in sodium is not harmful False sodium deficiency causes muscle cramps 4 Stomach stapling is a good method of weight loss FALSE not unless it is needed for serious health reasons 5 Eating certain foods can elevate the basal metabolic rate and this promotes weight loss FALSE BMR is elevated by increasing energy expenditure while maintaining healthy energy intake 6 In less than one hour of fasting liver glycogen stores are depleted FALSE one DAY into fasting depletes the liver glycogen stores 7 Appetite refers to our psychological desire for food TRUE 8 Yo yo dieters may end up with more fat on their body even if they end up weighing the sameon the scale TRUE 9 Almost all effective weight control programs involve exercise as well as diet TRUE 10 Your energy expenditure is influenced by all except The excess water you drink 11 Which of the following is not a harmful effect of fasting Increased metabolic rate 12 The best predictor of your BMR is Your lean body mass 13 The theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls is Set point theory 14 BMI between 25 and 299 indicates Overweight 15 Successful weight maintainers Exercise regularly 16 Increases iron absorption Use Vitamin C 17 Vitamin A Maintenance of body linings and reproduction 18 In fatty acid synthesis the quotstartingquot molecule is a Acetyl CoA 19 mpairs iron absorption a Tea and phytates 20 Best source of phosphorous is in a Animal protein 21 In choosing what and when to eat most Americans respond to a Appetite and related signals 22 Glycolysis is a pathway that a Breaks down glucose 23 Water assists in a Temp regulation and shock protection 24 Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose because a As Acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle and can never reform pyruvate 25 Energy released from nutrients a ATP 26 All are good sources of Vitamin D except a Cereal is not a good source of Vitamin D 27 Susie s eating problems a External cues 28 Excess fat and associated health risk a Central abdominal area 29 After a week of fasting the body uses what for glucose a Protein 30 Who absorbs the least calcium a Adults 31 What would you eat with a food source of iron in order to facilitate iron absorption a Tomato and meat fish or poultry 32 All have vitamin A except a French fries 33 Vitamin D deficiency disease a Osteomalacia 34 Limitations of heightweight tables a Based on selected population no allowance for muscle vs fat 35 Thermic effect of food takes up what percent of daily calories a 10 13 36 Obese football players a Muscle weight is responsible for escalated scale 37 Fluoride toxicity results in a Skeletal fluorosis 38 Primary function of selenium a Antioxidant enzyme 39 Ice chewing tired friend a Iron deficiency 40 Obesity is a risk for all but a Dental decay 41 Obtain more calcium a Eat more dairy 42 Quick large changes in weight are likely due to a Changes in body fluid content 43 Fast foods improve nutrition quality and vitamin A a Order a salad with cheese and carrots 44 Severe iodine deficiency baby born to deficient mother a Cretinism 45 Methods for determining percent body fat a All the above 46 The conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA is a Irreversible 47 Non heme iron is found where not in animals non heme is poorly absorbed and from plants a All the above 48 Stabilizes bones and makes teeth resistant to decay a Fluoride Forms the crystal structure of teeth 49 Making glucose from noncarbs a Gluconeogenesis what the process is called 50 Child with growth retardation impaired immunity and poor appetite a Zinc deficiency is growth retardation 51 Chromium a Insulin generates insulin in order to facilitate the uptake of glucose by cells 52 Most common deficiency worldwide a ron iron deficiency anemia 53 All the chemical and physical processes involved in maintaining life are a Metabolism 54 Electron transport chain transfers energy to a ATP 55 False statement about trace minerals a Toxic level of trace minerals are much higher than the estimated requirements toxic level is quite close to the estimated requirements 56 Healthy weight should be determined based on a Total amount of body fat and presence of weight related medical problem 57 Reasonable weight loss goal a 1 2 pounds per week 58 Vitamin E serves as a An antioxidant 59 Citric acid cycle a Krebs cycle What can39t be converted to glucose a Fatty acids because starting molecule is acetyl CoA which cannot be converted to pyruvate Not a risk associated with deficient body weight a Hypertension 62 Positive energy balance a Increase body weight putting more into body than the energy being utilized 63 The principal food source in chloride a Salt 64 Which is not true a Carbs from food are especially easy for the body to store as fat KgmAZ a BMI formula Which of the following hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and prevent decay a Fluoride 67 Total energy expenditure is estimated from a All the above Chief ion used to maintain fluid outside of the cell is a sodium 0 3 as J 0 U as 3 as 39 A some of these answers are wrong which ones i Why are some of Me above questions bolclecl and others e not no reason i eaily From EXAM 3 Body mass index is a ratio of weight to height true Weight loss takes time and patience true duh don t be trying to hurry that shit up lolz The best weight for an individual is a healthy weight that they can maintain over a lifetime true Don39t you want to keep that shit healthy forever Appetite refers to our psychological desire for foodtrue we see food we get hungry Trace minerals are toxic at levels not far above the estimated true Selenium works as an antioxidant true Fluorosis occurs in communities where too little fluoride is present false fluorosis occurs when there is too much fluoride present Copper deficiency is common false copper deficiency is rare because it is not uncommon After about 25 years fase bone mass peaks around 35 yrs old after that you can only prevent loss but not add to bone Which of the following is not a health risk associated with deficient body fat increased risk of developing hypertension not sure Set point theory not sure Body has a natural tendency to go back to original weight i think this is true its worded weird Best predictor for basal metabolic rateyour lean body mass What and when to eat is controlled by appetite related signals Greatest portion of energy expended frombasal metabolism 25 29 is overweight Body is capable of making glucose from non carb nutrients such as protein by a process gluconeogenesis Energy from the metabolism of energy nutrients is released ATP Glycolysis is a pathway thatbreaks down glucose Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coaAirreversible Fatty acid synthesis llstarting moleculequot acetyl CoA All the chemical and physical processes involved in maintaining life are referred to as metabolism Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose because as acetyle CoA enter the citric acid cycle and can never reform pyruvate Obesity is a risk factor for all the following except dental decay Increases iron absorptionvitamin C Not good source of zincolive oil Goiter is seen in iodine deficiency Following cannot be converted to glucose fatty acids Total energy expenditure is estimated from all of the above Healthy weight for an individual should not be based on weight but total amount of body fat and absence of weight related mental problems Thermic effect of food 10 13 Regulator of hungerdigestive organ functions BMI between 25 30 overweight Water makes up 60 of body and weight Water excretion brains and kidneys Water assists in temp regulation and shock protection Most abundant mineral in bodycalcium Best way to obtain calcium milk cheese yogurt Chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cell is sodium More processed food high in sodium and low in potassium Over half of the body s magnesium is stored in bones Principal food source chloride is salt Adults absorb least amount of calcium Iron absorption tomato and meat fish or poultry Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin C is not fat solube but water soluble Vitamin D deficiency diseases in adultsosteomalcaia Vitamin D except cereal Vitamin E is an antioxidant Vitamin k obtained by intestinal bacteria in the GI tract Highest amount of vitamin E wheat germ oil NOTES FROM AFI39ER TEST THREE 1 Bottled water 1 in 15 use bottled water b not safer than tap c FDA regulates standards less than for tap 9 Water most indispensable nutrient 60 of adult s weight essential nutrient solvent cushions lubricant maintains blood volume transports water is inside and outside cells water follows salt Water regulation alcohol inhibits ADH a hormone dehydrationhangover i that s why you gotta pee a lot when pre gaming a when BP too low or blood too concentrated ADH is released kidneys reabsorb water kidneys release renin when blood is too concentrated ADH released kidneys absorb water i when blood pressure too low kidneys release renin activates angiotensin increases BP 1 Angiotensin causes adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone 573539579quot Electrolytes salts that dissolve in water and dissociate a ex sodium chloride potassium b attract water c some reside in cells K some outside Na Cl d pos charge cation e negative charge anion f create osmotic pressure g pumped across cell membranes by transport proteins h to control flow of water cells must expend energy moving electrolytes from one component to another result is fluid and electrolyte balance Minerals Calcium most abundant mineral in body i 99 in bones and teeth 1 in blood ii usually absorb quot30 of ingested calcium iii functions boneteeth structure muscle contraction nerve transmission iv low intakes increased risk of colon and rectal cancer v when blood Ca too low 1 intestines absorb more calcium 2 bones release more calcium 3 kidneys excrete more calcium 4 these all depend on Vit D too vi blood calcium maintained at expense of bones can t tell by blood sample vii def is silent until elderly viii sources milk broccoli fortified orange juice ix def bone mass peaks at 35 years after that cannot add to bone 1 osteoporosis porous and fragile bones 2 rickets childhood form of osteoporosis usually Vit D deff x exercise adequate calcium and vit D estrogen replacement after menopause a Phosphorus g 2nd most abundant in body bone and teeth structure role in metabolism major buffer part of DNA and RNA phospholipids in cell membranes decreases Ca absorption in large doses sources soft drinks animal protein legumes Magnesium component of bones important to enzymes ATP metabolism inhibits muscle contraction opposes Ca inhibits blood clotting opposes Ca prevents dental caries and protects against hypertension sources dark greens legumes whole grains rare def Sodium principal cation outside cell maintains fluid and electrolytes balance nerve transmission and muscle contraction mainly in processed foods and salt added to foods rare def Potassium crucial in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance principal cation inside cell water balance nerve transmission muscle contraction helps correct hypertension def is rare sources fresh fruit and veggies meats whole grain as processing increases K decreases and sodium increases Chloride major anion outside cell needed for fluid and electrolyte balance needed for HCI in the stomach def rare abundant in food Sulfur not used as nutrient itself part of other compounds quotbridgesquot in proteins part of vitamins biotin thiamin and insulin skin hair nails no rec intake def unknown found in most food besides fruit Metabolism extraction of energy from food energy source chemical energy in carbs fats protein food energy to cellular energy digestion of food i absorption and transport of molecules to tissues and organs ii 39 39 39 of 39 39 and r 39 quot of energy within cells c catabolism reactions that breakdown compounds into small units d anabolism reactions that build complex molecules from smaller ones e cell is the metabolic processing center f ATP is the body s energy currency ATP form of energy for cells g h NAD and FAD transport shuttles coupled reactions energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create another compound i energy can be captured by some molecules and transferred to others ATP Energy Breakdown and Release of Energy a Extracting Energy from carbohydrate i Glycolysis 1 Pathway splits glucose into 2 pyruvate 2 Transfers electrons to NAD 3 Produces some ATP ii Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 1 Releases C02 2 Transfers electrons to NAD iii Citric acid cycle TCA cycle Release C02 2 Produces GTP like ATP 3 Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD iv Electron transport chain 1 Accepts electrons from NAD and FAD 2 Produces large amounts of ATP 3 Produces water v End products of glucose breakdown 1 ATP H20 C02 b Extracting energy from fat Split triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids i Beta oxidation 1 Breaks apart fatty acids into acetyl CoA 2 Transfers electrons to NAD and FAD ii Citric Acid Cycle same shit as krebs cycle Acetyl CoA from beta oxidation enters cycle iii Electron transport chain iv End products of fat breakdown 1 ATP H20 C02 c Extracting energy from protein Split protein into amino acids i Split off amino group 1 Converted to urea for excretion ii Carbon skeleton enters breakdown pathways iii End products 1 ATP H20 C02 urea d Biosynthesis and Storage Making carbohydrate glucose 1 Gluconeogenesis a Uses pyruvate lactate glycerol certain amino acids i Storing carbohydrate glycogen Liver muscle make glycogen from glucose ii Making fat fatty acids Lipogenesis Uses Acetyl CoA from fat amino acids glucose iii Storing fat triglycerides Stored in adipose tissue iv Making ketone bodies ketogenesis Made from Acetyl CoA Inadequate glucose in cells v Making protein amino acids Amino acid pool supplied from Diet protein breakdown cell synthesis hunger prompts eating physiological desire satiation signals to stop eating satiety lack of hunger appetite psychological desire energy intake expenditure energy balance energy expenditure basal metabolic rate greatest percentage i thermic effect of food 10 13 ii genetics iii environment iv behavior e basal metabolic rate BMR energy for basic body functions affected by body size fitness level type of activity thermic effect of food TEF energy to digest absorb metabolize food g BMR females 9 24hr weightkg h BMR males 1 24hr weightkg i total energy needs MBRthermic effectactivity level BMR 11 activity level Body composition BMI weightkg heightquot2 m a estimating body fat anthropometry skinfold test i underwater weighing weight in water vs air ii bioelectric impedance electrical current iii DEXA x rays b overweight BMI 25 30 c obese BMI gt 30 d underweight BMI lt 185 53957 e theories of weight regulation fat cell theory obesity increases number and size of fat cells i set point theory the point at which controls are set the body tends to maintain at a certain weight by means of internal control Weight Management quick weight change can be due to water gain or loss when energy input is less than energy output the body draws on its energy stores less than 1 day into fasting liver glycogen stores are exhausted protein is broken down in order to meet the brain s need for glucose if left unchecked the breakdown of protein results in death in about 10 days body converts fats into ketones to prevent this 9969 e ketosis upsets the acid base balance of the blood f decrease calorie intake by 500 kcal per day to lose llb per week g biggest enemy portion sizes h 30 60 minutes of moderate physical activity needed per day to prevent weight gain i short term increase in energy expenditure from exercise and slight rise in metabolism j long term increase in BMR from increase in lean tissue k cellulite rumpled dimpled fat tissue on thighs and buttocks fat 11 Eating well on campus a pretty obvious stuffcommon sense for most things b the quotobesogenicquot environment increased use of cars cheap high calorie food little exercise c obesogenic meaning the environment that sets people up for weight gain d adults who eat fast food 2 or more times a week are 50 more likely to be obese e Wallerstein brought supersize concept to McDonalds f HFCS high fructose corn syrup makes up 9 of the average adult39s calorie intake and 20 of the average child39s intake g eat breakfast h put yourself on a schedule 12 Food safety 80 of food borne illness is caused by error in HOME setting a pregnant children elderly at risk the most b types biological chemical physical c microbial food borne illness commonly called food poisoning caused by infectious agent or poisonous substance d microbes cause illness by infection or intoxication e infection infectious agents infect and multiply in the tissue of the body f intoxication i enterotoxins poisons that act upon mucous membranes ii neurotoxins poisons that act upon the cells of the nervous system g disease causing bacteria require warmth moisture and nutrients h keep hot food hot cold food cold raw food separate hands and kitchen clean 13 Pesticides EPA sets tolerance level a FDA monitors produce and livestock feed b pesticides chemicals used to control diseases weeds insects that hinder growth of produce or animals 14 Food additives functions to better food in health quality spoilage taste a approved by FDA if effective detectable and safe b antimicrobial agents preserve flavor color inhibit bacterial growth c antioxidants prevent foods from undergoing changes in colorflavor due to oxygen exposure d artificial colors only few approved most investigated e artificial flavorsflavor additives largest group of additives f enrichment to replace lost nutrients after processing 9 fortification to add extra nutrients h 12 hormones are approved i Bovine growth hormone BGH peptide digested by humans no health risk j antibiotics small amounts of residues may remain in foods k FDA assumes foods genetically engineered are similar to other quotnatura l foods 14 Fast Food a too much fat cholesterol calories sodium b In the next 50 yrs obesity may shorten average lifespan 776 yrs by 2 5 yrs c in the 70 s surplus of corn sugar was expensive Japanese scientists created high fructose corn syrup HFCS as a cheaper alternative sweetener 15 Sports Nutrition Why is nutrition important for athletes a properly nourish your body for exercise i fuel muscles hydrate prevent cramping delay fatigue maintain focus b attain ideal body composition c prevent and aid in recovery from illness and injury Consequences of poor nutrition a loss of muscle mass b fatigue increased risk of getting sick c slow injury recovery d increased risk of injury e poor bone health f lack of concentration How many calories do athletes need Depends on a weight b body composition c age d gender e sport Carbs and Fat are the body s main source of fuel during exercise Carbohydrates a fuels muscles during activity b maintains blood sugar levels c replaces muscle glycogen Protein a not a major fuel source during exercise b provides amino acids to repair tissues c involved in muscle synthesis a fuel for low to moderate intensity exercise main fuel source for endurance exercise Preexercise nutrition a 3 4 hrs pre exercise eat a full meal b 30 mins pre exercise eat a smaller snack c limit high fat high fiber foods Fueling during workouts Purpose for 60 mins or longer a to maintain blood glucose and hydrate b food should be easy to digest possibly liquid quotsimple sugar c guidelines 20 40 02 fluid per hour 120 240 calories per hour Postexercise nutrition a to reload glycogen stores repair tissue and rehydrate b recovery food should be carbohydrate protein c timing aim to eat within 30 mins post workout d full recovery meal 2 hrs post exercise Dehydration fluid loss 9 decreased blood volume 9 inadequate oxygen to muscles 9 exhaustion 9 poor performance Body Composition Tools a skinfold test b underwater weighing c bioelectrical impedance d DXA best e Bod Pod best Dietary Supplements a herbals and botanical are neither food nor drugs b companies can legitimately market and sell supplements without having to demonstrate safety or effectiveness c supplements should be safe effective and compliant d contamination is common in supplements and results from poor manufacturing practices POPULAR HERBAL MEDS GARLIC Purposes lowers serum cholesterol lowers triglyceride levels improves circulation chewingcrushing activates sulfur containing compounds may cause GI symptoms allergies ST JOHN39S WORT Purposes Kidneylung disorders anxiety depression sleep disorders can cause fatigue dizziness itching GINKO BILOBA Purposes alzheimer39s disease memory booster need some of this right now antioxidant antidepressant improve circulation may cause nausea bleeding GINSENG Purposes enhance physical capacity aertnessconcentration combat feelings of lethargy don t use if have hypertension high blood pressure ECHINACEA Purpose stimulate immune system enhance white blood cells preventreieve coldflu symptoms NO known side effects dont take longer than 8 weeks Vitamins Water Soluble o BVitamins ThiaminaTPP energy metabolism Pork Beriberi RiboflavinaFMNFAD energy metabolism milk eggs meat mouth cracks NiacinaNADNADP Energy metabolism protein enriched Pellagra FolateaDHFTHF synthesize DNA legumes greens orange juice Impaired cell division protein synthesis anemia neural tube defect Vitamin Blzaclose to folate Cell synthesis animal products Def Poor memory dementia depression death Vegan or Vegetarians Needed for absorption pernicious anemia Vitamin B6aPLP amino acid and urea metabolism meat fish veggies Biotinasulfur energy metabolism egg yolks Pb raw eggs block absorption Pantothenic acidaacetyl CoA energy metabolism synthesis of 39 39 insomnia Vitamin C intestinal problems quot39 Def39 VITAMIN S Water Soluble Vitamins B Vitamins Thiamin 5391 Coenzyme Energy metabolism Rich Sources Pork Deficiency Beriberi muscle weaknessheart failure Most at risk Alcoholics and Elderly Ribo avin BZ Coenzyme Energy metabolism Rich Sources Milkmilk products Deficiency cracks at corners of mouth sensitivity to light Niacin B3 Coenzyme Energy metabolism glucose fat alcohol Deficiency Pellagra diarrhea dermatitis eventually death seen in low protein diets which center on corn Rich Sources Protein foods enriched grains Folate folic acid Known as folic acid folacin or PGA Coenzyme Helps synthesis DNA requires Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impaired cell division anemia diarrhea poor growth depression Neural Tube Defect Paralysis of the lower limbs Rich Sources Legumes green veggies enriched grains orange juice sun ower seeds Vitamin 812 Characterized by the presence of a cobalt atom Coenzyme of folate metabolism Know as cyanocobalamin Maintains the sheath that surrounds and protect nerves Needed for new cell synthesis Deficiency Intristic Factor needed for absorption from stomach If lowgt Pernicious Anemia Risks elderly vegans Rich Sources ONLY from animal products Vitamin B6 Pyridoxal pyridoxine and pyridoxamine Coenzyme Active in amino acid metabolism Deficiency rashes scaly skin anemia headache vomiting Biotin It is a sulfer containing vitamin Coenzyme Deficiency depression muscle pain anorexia Risk raw eggs alcoholics Rich Sources cereal legumes egg yolks peanut butter Pantothenic Acid Coenzyme Involved in synthesis of many compounds hemoglobin neurotransmitters hormones Deficiency intestinal problems hypoglycemia insomnia Rich Sources widespread in foods meats wholegrain cereals legumes Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Most mammals can make Functions antioxidant collagen synthesis helps in absorption of iron cancer prevention Deficiency scurvy bleeding gums impaired wound healing loose decaying teeth Toxicity Symptomsintestinal disorder interferes with medications to prevent blood clotting Rich Sources Citrus fruits cabbage type veggies dark green veggies Antioxidant Compounds that protect our cells from damage caused by oxidation During metabolism atoms may lose electrons oxidation Atoms are also capable of gaining electrons during metabolism reduction Free Radicals can cause serious damage to our cells If atom does not immediately pair up with other unpaired electrons Caused by Immune system producing in ammation to ght allergens and infections exposure to air pollution UV rays from sun tobacco smoke industrial chemicals asbestos Steal electrons from stable atoms Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A Retinal retinal retinoic acid difference is how function in body Provitamin A precursor is BetaCarotene an orange pigment found in plants Functions Vision promote cell growth support immune system support reproductive system Deficiency night blindness total blindness Xerophthalmia poor growth Toxicity Birth Defect teratogenis liver failure Rich Sources Vitamin A Precursor to Vit A Liver Animal foods BetaCarotene and Carotenoids Extra beta carotene is not toxic but it does turn the skin yellow Vitamin D Cholecalciferol Synthesized in body by sunlight actually a hormone Roles in body Increase absorption of calcium and phosphorus maintain optimal blood calcium and calcification of bone Deficiency Rickets in childrenbones fail to calcijji osteomalacia in adults softening of bones Toxicity liver has small storage capacity and is most likely to become toxic calcium deposits in soft tissues kidney damage Rich Sources sunlight animal based foods milk fatty sh Vitamin E Tocopherol Function Antioxidants Eating Well on Campus Skipping breakfast ShorTchanges your body brain and aTTiTude Can make you feel crabby come mid morning Tends To more Than make up for calories missed in The morning by overeaTing in The afTernoon and evening Whal if I sleep in Try To eal your meal wilhin an hour of waking w Slill make Time for lunch and dinner Plan your day wilh a Iale nighl meal in mind How To manage The all you cah eaT concepT aT The dining halls Walk Through The whole line To geT The lay of The land Decide on whaT looks good oUT iT all on your oaTe ahd don T go back for seconds Try hoT To arrive famished Lunch and Dinner Ideas ThaT pass The CafeTeria TesT EnTrees Sandwiches made on bread or small roll Turkey roasT beef ham grilled chicken Plain veggie and Turkey burgers Cheese or veggie pizza Grilled or broiled fish and chicken Bean soups Plain pasTa wiTh TomaTo sauce Plain rice and sTeamed vegeTables Sides BroTh based or TomaTo based soups STeamed or fresh vegeTables FruiT fruiT Plain breads Baked poTaTo Corn on The cob STeamed rice Skim low faT or soy milk yogun Deciphering The language of Menus Au gra rin vs marinara sauce Fried vs sleamed Broiled vs breaded Grilled vs scampi slyle Alfredo vs lamalo sauce Barbecued vs baller dipped Tempura The Freshmen 15 Why does This occur What can be done To help avoid The weighi gain Obslocles lo Eolihg Well Whooked Oul Schedules Put yourself on 0 schedule Give up grozihg ond eo r meols ihs reod Eo r shor rly of rer you woke up Choose deoeh r Io re high r Shocks Obslacles lo Ealing Well So Many Choices Make 2 rrips rhrough the line go back for desser r quot Commit to al leas r one serving of frui r and vege rables at lunch and dinner Balance your choices Obslacles la Ealing Well 0 So Lillle Conlrol Go for plain food Cruise rhrough the cafeteria before making any selec rions Ask for saucesdressings on The side Ask forsmallerservings Emotionol ond Non Hunger Eoting Become owore of non hunger cues thot motivote you to eot Hove low oolorie munchies on hond Creote 0 list of ot Ieost 3 things you con do insteod of eoting when you re stressed bored tired or sod Obslacles lo Ealing Well Recrealional Ealing Take delibera re steps to end your meal When you re done ea ring ge r up and remove your pla re Crea al rerna rive ac rivi ries Obslacles lo Ealing Well The Drinking Ivlan s or Woman s Diel Pay a r ren rion ro calories in alcohol Never drink on an empty stomach Al rerna re each alcoholic beverage wi rh wafer or sel rzer Dilu re mixers with water or sel rzer It is always accep rable ro aeCIine a arink Eating Right when Eating Out Avoid going ravenously hungry If you plan on having alcohol first drink something thirst quenching Split meals or take a doggie bag Always request sauces and dressings on the side Grilled or broiled foods are often brushed with oil before serving Request that your foods be grilled dry Bollom LineFallting OUT The Freshmen Fifleen Prepare yourself To manage The array of food choices available Sel an ealing schedule Decrease high calorie paang Develop slralegies for dealing wilh non hunger ea ng Ki rchen Essenlials in The Dorm Room 2 microwave safe mixing bowls 2 sharp knives Liquid and dry measuring cups Small cu r ring board 1 wooden spoon 1 rubber spatula Can opener Bo r rle opener Small hand gra rer Aluminum foil Plas ric wrap Ziplock bags Sponge Colander Paper Towels pla res napkins plas ric u rensils po rholder Staples for Dorm Room Refrigerator Basics Eggs Bu r rer Yogur r Skim milk Tor rillos Cheese Cottage Cheese Baby corro rs Frui r i STapIes far Dorm Room Freezer Staples Broccoli flore rs Peas Chopped spinach Staples for Dorm Room Grains Boxed pesto Rice Dry cereal lns ron r cereal pockets BogelsbreodEnglish muffins Siaples for Dorm Room Canned and packaged food Chicken and vegetable bro rh Vegetarian refried beans Wa rer packed runa Canned soup Applesauce Plain microwave popcorn Slaples far Dorm Roam Bo r rled or Jarred foods Olive oil Lemon juice Balsamic vinegar Salsa Soysauce lvlus rard Low far mayonnaise Barbecue sauce Spaghe r ri sauce Peanu r bu r rer Jelly STapIes for Dorm Room Spices and Seasonings Salt and pepper Garlic powder onion sal r celery sal r Sugar O rner s ruff Tea bags Coffee Snack foods Metabolism Metabolism the sum total ofall the chemical reactions that go on in living cells Food energy to cellular energy Stage 1 digestion of food Stage 2 absorption amp transport of molecules to tissuesorgans Stage 3 metabolic breakdown of molecules amp production of energy within cells Anabolism reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones reguires ener Anabolic reactions building up Glucose Energy gt Glycogen Glycerol Fatty acids Energy gt Triglycerides Amino acids Energy gt Protein 0atabolism reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones releases energy Catabolic reactions breaking down Glycogen gt Glucose Energy Triglycerides gt Glycerol Fatty acids Energy Protein gt Amino acids Energy ATP adenosine triphosphate the currency of cells a common high energy compound containing 3 phosphate groups Glycolysis Glucose 9 Pyruvate 9 Acetyl 00 A carbon dioxide 002 TCA cycle Acetyl 00A cycles around and molecules get transformed and 002 is a byproduct which we breathe out Other highenergy compounds are made and are transformed in the Electron Transport 0hain a series of chemical reactions and ATP is made Many B vitamins act as cofactors helpers for enzymes in the TCA cycle Important Glucose to pyruvate is reversible ie ifa chemical enters the cycle at pyruvate it can be reversed to make glucose eg if blood glucose is low and the body needs glucose Once pyruvate goes to Acetyl 00A it is irreversible ie if a chemical enters the cycle at Acetyl 00A it must be cycled through the TCA cycle or alternatively Acetyl 00A can be made in to ketones


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