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by: Ellen Abshire


Ellen Abshire
GPA 3.79


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellen Abshire on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Grider in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/202627/fdns-3100-university-of-georgia in Forensic Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
FDNS 3100 Notes none superirnposable mirror images gtKNOW the Fisher projection as it relates to cyclization which is then the Hawwoith projection bases to form negative products such as forming free radicals inhibiting enzymes relates to hyperglcimia aging and diabetes ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS oxidation of the carbo l l or terminal Monosaccharides polyhydrox aldeh desall aldoses are related to glyceraldehyde C2 usual position of the carbonyl groupone ketone group polydroxy ketonesall ketones are related to 39 dih glyceraldehydethe simplest s is carbonsystematic names for roxyacetoneno chiral 7 con rations vary at only one carbonEX Galactose and enzyme will alter the arrangements of carbon e imers reaction between the hydroxyl group and carbonyl group with aldosesCl with C4 or C5 with ketoses C2 with C50r C6 gamwmctr the carbonyl carbon becomes chiral with cyclizationanomeric carbon results in alpha and beta anomers stereoisomers at the anomeric carbon Glycosidic linkages gl All any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond characterized by the sugar group reduce products of aldoses and ketoses to alcoholsweet like sugar but not metabolized like sugar and not involved in the millard reaction basically none reactive but sweet comiound Oxidation of terminal H20H forms which makes nondiestible polysaccharides in plants and algae 39 we a hydroxyl group is replaced by hydrogenLfructose2 Driboseimportant in cell signaling c2 hydroxyl is replaced by an amino group Nacetyl lucosamine and Nacetylgalactosamine Mnitrogen or oxygen replacementassociation with cell surface functionEX Nacetylneuraminic acid Monosaccharides The most important dietary monosaccharides aiDeglucose iDigalactose iDi 39uctose All other carbohydrates are digested to these es monosacchan X 39 39 multiple monosaccharaides units linked covalently by glycosidic bondsreducingunsubstituted anomericOH group nonreducing the anomeric carbons of the terminal sugars are linked such that there are no free anomericOH groups Three ma39or dietary disaccharides a table sugar glucosefructose b glucosegalactose c digestion of starch by alphaamylase yields maltosemaltotriose and alha dextrins glucoseglucose lpha galactosides in legumes pass into the lower gut and are metabolized by gut bacteria without agalactosidases they do not digest fructans in legumesinsulinfructose polymer beta2lglycosidic linkages are also in synthetic 21 a type of insulin used as a bulking agent emulsi er sugar substitute and fat replacer starch digestion quotm aquot processing produced by enzymatic digestion or acid hydrolysis the shorter chains are sweeter and more soluble EX Glucose syrupscorn syrup food 10913 1 Polysaccharidespolymers of sugars linked by glycosidic bonds 20 to gt10 i glucose polymers most abundant polysaccharide in plants amylose is linear tightly linked by hydrogen bonds and in order to break them to allow for digestion we heat cook the starch in plants ii Resistant starch15 of starches physical structure of the food matrix does not allow for the amylopectin to be broken tightly packed TE L v r reestablishment of hydrogen bonds over time after cooking and cooling processed foods have chemical modi ed cross links 1014 units btw branch ptsbranched glucose polymer like amylopectin one of the differences is the number of branch points More soluble than starch soluble at cool temps solutions of low viscosity easier enzyme access Present in most animal tissues present in most animal tissues in the highest concentrations in the liver10 and the skeletal muscle Has rapid solvation because of the branching pattern a beta glycogen particles 103 0nm diameters b al ha particles up to 300nm diameters covalently linked to betaparticles iii If uronic acid can be glucoronate or iduronate and the n acetylated sugar can be nacetyl glucosamine or nacetylgalactosamine can be a site for rec tor sites or virus identi cation 9 m39 allows for cellcell movement and allows for cell locomotion hel s With the cell matrix allows for water inclusion sulfate at the 4 or 6 carbon epimer no protein coreconsidered a glycosaminoglycan no uranic acid lactose replaces highly sulfated 1quot u have additional unit to gylcosaminoglycans that are N or O linked 3 r proteins that have covalent links with oligosaccharides involved in protein folding 39 cerebrosides and gangliosides can be neutral or acidic based on what is attached to themtumor cells exhibit altered and aberrant glycosylation Gram negative bacterialipopolysaccharidespathogenic bacteria endotoxins sugar 1 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 and quot 39 39 fatty acid chains are about 1424 carb units are sulfated globosidesmanage blood grouping types gangliosidereceptor recognition 1 11 12 2 Proteins and Amino Acids 9Amino acids make up proteins lnterface between an organism and the environment proteinsVirus will interact with your body and then the bod will roduce roteinsantibodies Know that this structure has a chiral carbon center C 7 carbon Side Chain Selenocysteinesulfur containing groupduring protein synthesis has the stop codonUGAcovalent bonds ii Cysteinesulfur containing groupno charge at neutral pHimportant to binding two sections of a long polypeptide to bring ends together forms disul de bonds iii Methioninethioether no charge at neutral pH iV 4basic amino acidslysinearginine and histidinehave one carboxyl group L and H can be methylated V 5Acidic amino acids and amidesaspartate and glutamate asparagineglutaminecarbine tyrosineimportant when linked with lysine to form the thyroid gland hormone carboxylglutamatehelps with clotting proteins and in bone proteins associated with binding calcium homocysteinenonproteinogenice amino acidsprecurser to methionine GBA is a neurotransmitter Vi We are made of L amino acids Acid Base characteristicshas titratable groups 1 COOnegative charge NH3positive charge 2 Loose the zbond ion when linked to peptide bond 3 None polarassociated with higher numberinternalized in a solution 4 Polar aminohas a carbonylhydroxyl groupmore likely tointeract with waterassociated with external cell 9Valine Leucine and Isoleucinenonpolarsmetabolized in muscle and are branched structures 9Serine and Threosine polar form phospoproteins make phosphorylation to turn the protein function on or off B Protein Structure i quot 1 amino acid chain and can get a feel of the secondary structure related to n ostranslation modi cation Beta sheetsrepeats the 1 14 13 exam9know the three letter and one letter abbreviations of the amino acids beta sheets are most common in the antiparallel shape protein folding two or more structurally different domains forms disul de covalent bondspromote folding cleave removed enzymatically before secretion LI EX Hemoglobinclosely associated with alpha helices v Carbonic anhydraseenzyme identi ed as Zinc depen ent vi Oligomerizationforces holding oligomers to getherionichydrophobichydrogen bondsimportant in determining whether or not a protein is functional or not important inactivation or deactivation v11 Higher levels of assembl for protein structurei important in crosslinking see g mimportant in mobility viiiNaturationproper con rmation for folding chaperones involved ix Denaturationassociated with heatingcooking pH changes and chemical X Posttranslational modi cations important for protein functionsoccurs at the point of synthesis for mRNA polypeptide tRNA enters the A site 9binds to the mRNAcontains the stop codon to release bond forms the peptide bond with amnio acid allowing for the creation of the new structureonce release from the ribosome a Peptide bond cleavages peptide hormones EXproinsulin9 insulin Zymogens9active enzymes EX Trypsinoen b modification of amino acidscarboxylterminal amino acids c modification of amino acid side chains Xi Regulation of the amount of cellular protein Transcriptionalgene copy less or more could determine how a drug will affect a person Posttrans criptionalpremRNA processingintrons 9 intermediate Translationbinding of small RNA portions that signal message Protein foldingposttranslational modi cations traf cking compartmentalization Regulation of protein activity U39 eENN 1 16 13 3 Structure Nomenclature Properties of Lipids A Biological functions are numerous i Energy storagelipid association ii Cellular membranescompartmentalizationallow for certain actions to be performed in cells so that they could be carried out iii Electrical insulationmyelin sheathto control electrical current iv Signaling moleculessignal transduction 50 fr 11 V Receptorscell surface receptors with positiverespond to environment and negativeuptake of viruses vi Antigensselfnonselfrecognition vii Membrane protein anchorsanchor proteins to the membrane to perform speci c functions the protein needs to perform Mnatrually occurring compounds grouped together on the basis of their relative solubility in water and solubility in nonpolar solvents i F ster containing triglycerides ii V steroidsprostaglandins Less than 10 of diet comes from saturated fat intake Fatty acids are a bunch of carbonsmore carbons the more HYDROPHOBIC i Hydroxyl group binds other structures ii Counting carbons starts from the hydroxyl end which is the alpha carbon iii The last carbon is the omega carbon which is like the omega fatty acids Structure and Nomenclature Fatty acids 51 i 14 H C C C C l I II ll 1 7 O l Fatty acids classi cation 1 Shortchain 6 or less than that carbons ii Medium8l4 Structure and Nomenclature i Fatty acid s nthaseenzyme responsible for elongation and goes until a l6carbon unit ii Other elongation enzymes will add two carbons as needed to synthesize longer fatty acids iii Fatty acid names that are good to know also note that they increase by two carbons n Hexadecanoic Palmitic aci 18 nioctadecanoic Stearic acid nAEicosanoic acid Arachidic l l DOCDSanOil acid Behenic n Tetracosanoic Lignoceric 1 AH PUFA s two or more double bonds desaturases are responsible for adding double bonds destaturationelongation 4 however many carbons there are subtract the number given to tell where the double bond is same for the NHquot gm Mn wshape J f HN U ns aw 17a Fatty Acid 1 39Abhremed yv elnanc Name I Nulaum 182n 6 is 912 octadecadienuic Linoleic 18 3n 6 is 6912 ocradecatrienuic y Linulemc 204n76 Arachadonic cisvS81114 elcosmetraenni 183n73 c37921570ctadecatrienoic CALlHOIEI IlC 20511 3 ins 581 14 EPA eicu sapentaennic 226n73 cisA47IO1316197 DHA ducnsahexaenaic V Acylglycerolhas an alcohol attached to the central carbonhas a prochiral carbon3 of the 4 groups are differentif the fourth group becomes different then it is chiral a Monocylglycerol b Diacyglycerolscan function as second messengers c Both are not abundant but function as intermediates for lipolytic reactions substrate for many complex phospholipids and triacylglycerols 1 1820 13 Vi Glycerophospholipids a Phospholipidsphosphoglycerides derived from diacylgycerol 3 phosphatephosphatidic acid b Inner and outer lea et composition of the lipid bilayer Innerphosphatidylethanolamine serineinositol Outerphosphatidylcholinepredominate Phosphatidyserine and iinositol Signaling functions docking of proteins phosphorylation and second messenger functions d Glycosylphosphatidylinositol GPI membrane anchor for certain cellsurface proteins phosphatifylinositolassociated with phosphorylation as wellimportant in signal transduction and allow for the singnal for cellular response mannose unitscan also be phosphorylated to allow for other types of functions e lysophospholipids removal of a acyl group by phospholipaseshydrolysis at snl or sn2 which impairs the endothelial functionextremely detrimental f Diphosphatidylglycerols cardiolipinimportant for mitochondria function and are synthesized there too associated with linoleic acids platelet activating factorsimportant in clottingcellcell interactions plasmalogens found in the heart and protectedin the picture shown against oxidation 12313 Friday is a review session Platelet activating Factors Platelet aggregation Plasmalogenshas a coline or an ethanolamine at the phosphate groupassociated with membrane 50 of coline in glyceriopholipids in the heartprotectant as an antioxidant in the heart 0 Sphingolipids o Sphingosine replaces the glycerol as the lipid backbone 0 Only has one fatty acid chain as the normal lipid has at least two 0 25lipids are sphingolipids o Rgroup can be a H Phosphocholine making it a sphingomylin and a sugar Glycophingolipids o 39 quot 39 39 quot m 1 sheath 39 J39 Isoprenoids Terpenesterpenoidsoxygen substitutes5 carbon units Used in posttranslational modi cation Signal transduction Gproteins GTPbinding protein Upiquinoneelectron transport Dolicholmembrane anchor in ER and Golgi Squalinecholesterol synthesis Precurser to carotinoids and vitamins A E K O Steroids 4rings3cyclohexane rings lcyclopentane ring Most btw c5amp6 double bond Hydroxyl at C3 Methyl at 10amp 13 Alkyl group at 17 Variations associated with the functional groups and the oxidation state of the rings


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