HUMAN NUTR & FOOD
HUMAN NUTR & FOOD FDNS 2100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellen Abshire on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/202628/fdns-2100-university-of-georgia in Forensic Science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
VV V VV V V V Exam 3 Material 110 Americans sufferedwitnessed an eating disorder Eating Disorders On Campus 0 0male dealt with anorexia amp bulimia Female13 A amp 16 B o Dieting 46 Women amp 28 Men 0 Unhealthy Practices 89 Women amp low ofmen Psychological Factors 0 Ex Personality traits mood disorders amp Obsessive or Compulsive Tendencies BiologicalGenetic Predisposition Social 0 Ex Life events trauma transitions amp relationships 0 Dieting 1 trigger for eating disorders 0 Obsession for control unrealistic images amp cultural standards Risk Factors for Men 0 Childhood teasing sexuality societal images of masculinity unrealistic body portrayals o S orts fitness associated disorders Why don t they just eat 0 Eating disorder provides Sense of control sense of stability feeling of calmness avoidance of feelings and it numbs the pain Anorexia affects whole body 0 Braincannot think Hairthin amp brittle heartlow blood pressure amp blood 0 Muscles Ioints Osteoporosis weak muscles amp swollen joints 0 Kidneysstores amp failure and body uidslow K Mg amp Na 0 Intestinesbloating amp constipation amp Hormonesperiods stop amp bone loss 0 Skinbrittle dry growing extra hair Bulimia o Braindepression amp Cheeksswelling amp sore o Mouthcavities Musclesfatigue amp Stomachulcers 0 Skin dry skin amp abrasion of knuckles V V V V 0 Heart irregular heart beat muscle weakened low pulse amp blood pressure 0 Bloodanemia Intestines bloating amp Hormones Irregular Periods Binge Eating amp Compulsive Overeating 35 Women and 2 Men 0 Prevalence eating and not hungry 0 Symptoms 0 Physical Changes Obesity diabetes Heart disease weight uctuations high cholesterol amp high blood pressure amp gallbladder disease 0 Mental Changes depression difficulty sleeping amp suicidal thoughts Concerned About a Friend 0 Be patient amp approach person in private place 0 Ifimmediate physical danger take action amp call someone 0 Listen be supportive encourage professional help 0 Encourage to look beyond food amp weight concerns 102510 Chapter 14Be Food Safe Food borne Illness o Spoilage Bacteria bacteria that makes foods spoil 0 May cause food to look or smell bad 0 Makes food undesirable to eat but generally does not cause food borne illness 0 Pathogenal Bacteria Bacteria we can t see smell or taste 0 One of MAIOR causes of food borne illness o o AKA quotFood Poisoning o Caused by consuming contaminated food or beverages o Pathogenic Bacteria viruses amp parasites can all lead to F Illness Examples 0 1 Salmonella most common FBI in US V VV V 0 Found in contaminated eggs poultry unpasteurized milk or juices amp raw fruits and vegetable o 2 E Coli 0157H7 produces a toxin 0 Undercooked or raw hamburger unpasteurized milk or juice amp produce 0 3 Norovirus very common cause but rarely diagnosed o Linked to poor hygiene 0 Spread from person to person 0 4 Listeria monocytogenes major concern for immune compromised elderly amp pregnant woman 0 Found in unpasteurized dairy products sliced deli meats hot dogs smoked fish amp deliprepared salad ex chicken salad 0 Can grow at fridge temperatures 0 5 Campylobacter most commonly identified cause of diarrheal illness in world 0 Raw uncooked poultry raw milk amp untreated H20 CDC estimates around 76 million cases occur each year with 3 25000 hospitalizations amp 5000 deaths amp Robert Scharff Produce Food Safety Project estimates meat annual cost of FBI in US to be 152 billion What can you do CLEAN SEPARATE COOK amp CHILL CLEAN 0 Wash hands w warm H20 amp soap for least 20 sec before amp after handling food 0 Wash cutting boards dishes utensils amp counter tops w soapy H20 0 Wash dish towels in warm cycle of washing machine 0 Rinse fresh fruits amp veggies under running tap H20 no matter what fruitveggie it is o Sponges are not recommended SEPARATE 0 Raw meats poultry seafood amp eggs from other foods in grocery cart bag amp fridge 0 Place raw meats at bottom of fridge to make sure no juices contaminate other food 0 Use 2 cutting board for fresh produce amp 1 board for raw meats poultry amp seafood 0 Never place cooked food on plate that just had raw meat poultry seafood amp eggs COOK 0 Food is safely cooked when it reaches high enough internal temp to kill bacteria that could cause a FBI 0 Poultry165 F Porkampground meat160 K o Fish145 F or until opaque amp akes easily with fork 0 Fresh beef veal amp Lamb min 145 F amp 160 F is for medium 0 Leftovers amp casseroles165 F 0 Egg dishes160 F amp cook eggs until yolk amp white are FIRM gt CHILL 0 Keep out of temp danger zone 40140 F allows variety of bacterial growth 0 Don t leave food out room temp for more than 2 hours amp 1 hour when it is warmer than 90 F 0 Never defrost food amp room temp bc it must be kept at safe temp o Thaw by FRIDGE Cold H20 or Microwave 0 Always marinate food in fridge 0 Food thawed in cold H20 or microwave should be cooked immediately gt Food Recalls issued for safety amp shouldn t cause panic o Classifications 0 Class 1 dangerous or defective products that predictably could cause serious health problems or death ltgt EX Food found to contain bolutinum toxin food w undeclared allergies a label miXup on lifesaving drug or a defective artificial health valve 0 Class 2 Products that might temporarily cause health problems or pose only slight threat of a serious nature ltgt EX drug understrength but that is not used to treat lifethreatening situation ltgt Class 3 Unlikely to cause any adverse health reaction but that violates FDA labeling or manufacturing laws ltgt EX A minor container defect amp lack of English labeling in retail food 102810 Alcohol amp Nutrition gt UHCHealth Promotion Sexual health SHHUGA Anonymous HIV testing Violence Promotion RSVP Dietician Nutritionist VVVV V VVVV V V HighRisk Groups Athletes Greek Life amp Freshman How many UGA students drink alcohol 79 UGA students had estimated BAC ofless than 08 the last time they partied 70 Biggest predictor of alcohol consumption among college students is the perception of what peers are doing What in uences our choices 0 Personality attitude amp beliefs 0 Family Peers 0 Culture amp Society 0 Media billboards movies radio logos ads amp music Alcohol Survey Through Body 0 It goes anywhere blood goes 0 It s metabolized in liverone standard drink per hour 0 Oxidation Process it s toxified amp removed from body 0 Diuretic helps body remove uids Mental Impairment occurs before physical impairment Physical depends on tolerance signs ofphysical impairment Dangerous Consequences Tolerance gets above trigger level How can alcohol Impact Nutrition 0 Interferes with process of digestion storage utilization amp excretion of nutrients 0 Can impair way body controls blood sugar levels 0 Hyperglycemia increased blood sugar 0 Hypoglycemia decreased blood sugar Mineral ampVitamin Deficiencies o Impairs excreted minerals 0 Ca bone growth Mg maintains normal muscle 0 Zn immune system to work properly amp nerve function 0 K proper muscle contractions o Interferes with absorption ofVitamins 0 Bl thiamin B amp BlZ wound healing amp cell maintenance V V VVVVV V o Folate formation of red amp white cells 0 Processing Vitamin A night blindness Vitamin D softening of bones Alcoholinduced Liver Diseases 0 Fatty liver buildup of fat cells in liver 0 Alcohol Lepatitis in ammation ofliver 0 Alcohol Cirrhosis replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue Calories ONLY no protein vitamins or minerals 7 calg Estimate calories 0 Hard liquor ounces X proofX 08 0 Beer or wine ounces X alcohol X 16 DrunkareXia starve to even out calories to be able to drink Drink moderately 12 standard drinksday Heart Health reduces risk of coronary heart disease amp linked to anti0Xidants High risk foralcohol high tolerance amp family history High Risk Drinking vs Binge Drinking 0 4 for women amp 5 for men 0 High risk is not just quantity but other risks of impairment Individual Impairment factors gender empty stomach drugsmedication illness tiredness body size body uid mood amp eXpectancy and BC pill or menstruation Consequences of HR drinking 0 Health fatty liver cancer amp alcoholism 0 Academic impair abstract thinking amp lower GPA 0 Social drunk dialsteth hookups reputation amp other regrets o Impairment DUI seX assault fight or injury Strategies before drinking eat before avoid drinking games DD have someone check up and use nonalcoholic drinks every other one 101510 Energy Balance Weight Control amp Physical Fitness gt A Case Study of a Senior Citizen Dr William Flatt o DW Brooks Distinguished Professor Emeritus o Wore a cow tie 0 Checked body composition at Sunbelt Expo ltgt Bioelectrical Impedance 0 Body Fat Similar to Hotdog 30 o Danced to quotSweating By the Olds by Richard Simmons 101810 Nutrients Physical Activity amp the Body s Response gt Benefits of Fitness 0 Compared with unfit people physically fit people enjoy 0 More restful sleep ampimproved nutritional health 0 Improved body composition amp bone density 0 Longer life amp higher quality oflife in later years 0 Reduced risk of gallbladder disease women 0 Lower incidence amp severity of anxiety amp depression 0 Lower risk of type 2 diabetes 0 Stronger selfimage o Lowers risk of some cancers amp cardiovascular diseases gt Essentials of FitnessTo be physically fit you need 0 Flexibility muscle strength amp muscle endurance o Cardio respiratory endurance amp reasonable body composition gt How do my muscles gain strength amp size 0 Stretching enhances exibility 0 Weight training develops muscle strengths amp endurance o Aerobic Activity improves cardio respiratory endurance 0 Muscle cells respond to overload of physical activity by gaining strength amp size 0 Muscles adapt to activities they repeatedly perform 0 Swim to be better swimmer bikegtbetter biker o Bodies are shaped by activities they perform gt How does muscle training benefit health amp fitness 0 Muscle strength high resistance heavy weights with a low number of repetitions 0 Muscle endurance less resistance lighter weights with more repetitions V V V V V V Weight Training 0 Improves mobility amp reduces risk of cardio diseases 0 Maximizes amp maintains bone mass How does cardio respiratory training benefit heart 0 Heart becomes stronger o Enhances ability to deliver oxygen 0 Breathing becomes more efficient 0 Measure cardio fitness by 0 Maximal oxygen intake C02 max 0 Heart pumps more blood per beat amp heart s stroke volume increases Active Body Use of Fuels 0 Physical Activity is supported by different mixtures of o Glucose fatty acids amp small amount of amino acids 0 Type of fuel utilized depends on o Intensity amp duration of activities 0 Prior Training Glucose Use of Storage 0 Glucose is supplies by dietary carbs or made by liver 0 Stored in both liver amp muscle tissue as glycogen 0 Total glucose stores affect an athlete s endurance Activity Intensity Glucose Use amp Glycogen Stores 0 Glycogen stores less than 2000 calories of energy 0 Fat storesalmost unlimited around 70000 cells Anaerobic Use of Glucose o Intensity activity uses glycogen quickly 0 Muscles use glucose ie glycogen which unlike fat can be partially broken down by anaerobic metabolism 0 Anaerobicwithout oxygen Aerobic Use of Glucose V V V V 0 Activity 0 Moderate physical activity uses glycogen slowly 0 Can breathe easily amp heart beats faster but steadily o Muscles get energy from both glucose amp fatty acids this saves glycogen stores 0 Aerobicwith oxygen Lactate from anaerobic of glucose 0 Lactate goes from muscles to liver where it is converted back to glucose 0 Iflactate production exceeds its clearance intense activity can be maintained for only 13 minutes Activity Duration Affects Glucose Use 0 Glucose depends on 0 Duration of activity 0 Intensity 1st 10 minglycogen used by muscles 20 min of moderate activity 20 glycogen used up amp 20 more minuse less glucose amp more fat 0 Glucose depletion occurs after 2 hrs ofvigorous exercise 0 After 2 hrs liver converts lactate amp some amino acids into glucose 0 Finally hypoglycemia occurs amp shuts down nervous system making intense activity impossible o This is what marathon runners call quothitting the wall Maintaining Blood Glucose for Activity4 strategies 0 1 Eat highcarb diet 70 energy 0 2 Take glycogen usually in sports drinks during activity 0 Glucose ingested before amp during exercise lasting greater than 45 min will be used by muscle 0 3Eat carbrich foods after performance 0 4 Train muscles to maximize glycogen stores Carbohydrate Loading 0 Carb loading to maximize muscle glycogen before competing 0 Can nearly double muscle glycogen concentrations 0 Benefits athlete who keeps going 90 min or longer V V V V V V Glucose After Activity 0 Eat high carb foods 2 hrs after exercise to increase glycogen stores 0 Ex Crackers OI toast cereal sports drinks etc Protein For Muscle Tissue Building 0 Physical activity itself triggers building of muscle proteins 0 Hours after physical activity muscles increase protein synthesis Protein for Fuel 0 10 of total fuel used during activity amp rest Athletes use a little more protein as fuel than nonathletes O Endurance athletes may deplete their glycogen stores amp be more dependent on body 0 protein for energy 0 Dietary techniques to spare protein 0 A carbrich diet spares protein from getting used as fuel 0 Some amino acids will convert to glucose if your diet is low in carbs Intensity amp Duration Affect Protein Use 0 Endurance Training more protein for energy 0 Strength Training more protein to build muscle 0 The protein needs ofboth strength amp endurance activities 0 Higher than those of sedentary people but not as high as protein intake of athletes Vitamins amp Minerals Keys to Performance 0 Many assist in releasing energy from fuels amp transporting oxygen 0 Nutrient supplements don t enhance performance 0 Active people eat more if they choose right they ll get more nutrients Nutrients of Special Concern Vitamin E 0 During prolonged highintensity activity 0 Oxygen consumption increases tenfold or more enhancing production offri radicalsoxidative damage 0 Vitamin E is an antioxidant some athletes take mega doses of Vitamin E to prevent oxidative damage to muscles V V V V V V 0 There is little evidence that Vitamin E improves performance Iron 0 Young women are prone to iron deficiency bc 0 Low intakes of ironrich foods 0 Iron losses through menstruation o Demands ofmuscles for iron 0 Early in training athletes can develop lowblood hemoglobin 0 Sports Anemia temporary response to endurance training Fluids amp Temperature Regulation in Physical Activity 0 Must replace them to avoid dehydration o Awater loss of 7 leads to collapse Temperature Regulation 0 Heat stroke dangerous accumulation ofbody heat 0 Symptoms clumsiness stumbling dizziness headache nausea confusion body temp above 104 deg F o Sudden cessation of sweating hot dry skin 0 Hypothermia loss ofbody heat can occur in cold weather Fluid Needs During Physical Activity 0 Endurance Athletes can lose 15 quarts or more during each hour 0 During activity the rest becomes detectable only after uid stores are depleted Water amp Sports Drinks Water is best drink for most 0 Endurance athletes need drinks with glucose amp uids Electrolyte Losses amp Replacement 0 Body adapts to compensate for sweat losses of electrolytes 0 Athletes are advised to use foods not supplements to make up for losses Sodium Depletion o Hyponatremia dangerous condition ofNa depletion 0 When endurance athletes drink large amts of water ltgt Diluting body uids amp Na concentrations gets too low 0 To prevent Hyponatremia
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