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by: Kathleen Hyatt


Kathleen Hyatt
GPA 3.7


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Hyatt on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 3050 at University of Georgia taught by Wilder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/202630/engl-3050-university-of-georgia in Foreign Language at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Meter 0 Alexandrine o Averse of iambichexameter ie a verse of siX feet each of which has the stress on the second beat 0 Amphibrach amphibrachic foot 0 Amphibrachic the noun is quotamphibrachquot also called quotrocking rhythm three syllablesa stressed syllable between two unstressed syllables as in the first five feet of this line from Swinbume quotThe search and the sought and the seeker the soul and the body that is H Anapest anapestic foot 0 Anapestic opposite of dactylic39 the noun is quotanapestquot two light syllables followed by a stressed syllable quotThe Assyrian came down like a wolf on the foldquot Byron s quotThe Destruction of Sennacheribquot Blank verse 0 The verse form most like everyday human speech39 blank verse consists of unrhymed lines in iambic pentameter Many of Shakespeare s plays are in blank verse Dactyl dactylic foot 0 The metrical pattem in which each foot consists of a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones opposite of anapestic39 the noun is quotdactylquot a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables quotEve with her basket was Deep in the bells and grassquot Ralph Hodgson s quotEvequot Diameter 0 Two feet Duple meter 0 Duple meters such as iambs trochees and spondees have two beats per foot Free verse 0 Poetry characterized by varying line lengths lack of traditional meter and nonrhyming lines Heptameter 0 Seven feet Hexameter 0 Six feet Iamb iambic foot 0 A metrical foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one Meter 0 When rhythm is regular it is often called meter Each verse is made up of a number of metrical feet Use a pair of temis to describe a line of verse first an adjective for the basic kind of foot Typical feet include iambs the most common in English poetry trochees and spondees Less common are dactyls anapests and amphibrachs o The second term gives the number of feet in each line The most common in English are pentameter five beats per verse and tetrameter four beats per verse other possibilities are monometer dimeter trimeter and hexameter o No meter is perfectly regular Apart from the theoretical problem that no two syllables will receive precisely the same stress most poets even the most apparently regular try to vary their verse by introducing occasional metrical substitutions o Monometer 0 One feet Octameter 0 Eight feet Pentameter 0 Five feet Pyrrhic pyrrhic foot 0 Pyrrhic the noun is quotpyrrhicquot two successive syllables with approximately equal light stresses or unstressed as in the second and fourth feet in this line quotMy way is to be gin with the beginningquot Byron s Don Juan Some traditional metrists do not admit the existence of a true pyrrhic on the grounds that the prevailing metrical accen in this instance iambicalways imposes a slightly stronger stress on one of the two syllables Spondee Spondaic foot 0 Spondaic the noun is quotspondeequot two successive syllables with approximately equal strong stresses as in the first two feet of this line quotGood strong thick stupefying incense smokequot Browning s quotThe Bishop Orders His Tombquot Tetrameter o A line of verse with four feet is known as tetrameter Greek tetra quotfourquot Tetrameter is second in popularity only to pentameter in English Altemating lines of tetrameter and trimeter make up ballad stanza Trimeter 0 Three feet Triple meter 0 Triple meters such as dactyls anapests and amphibrachs have three beats per foot Trochee trochaic foot 0 Trochaic opposite of iambic39 the noun is quottrocheequot a stressed followed 3 by a light syllable quotThere they are my fifty men and womenquot ampendash39Browning s quotOne Word Morequot Most lrochaic lines lack the nal syllable In the technical sense such lines are catalectic quotTyger Tyger burning bright In the forest of the nigh quot Blake s quotThe Tygerquot Stanza forms 0 Couplet o A pair of rhymed lines The octosyllabic couplet has lines of eight syllables usually consisting of four iambic feet So in Marvell s quotTo His Coy Mistressquot quotThe grave s a fme and private place But none I think do there embracequot lambic pentameter couplets are called heroic couplets The adjective was applied in the latter seventeenth century because of the frequent use of such couplets in quotheroicquot that is epic poems and plays This verse form was introduced into English poetry by Chaucer In the neoclassic period poets wrote these in closed couplets39 that is the end of each couplet tends to coincide with the end either of a sentence or of a selfcontained unit of syntaX 0 Heroic couplet o lambicpentameterverse that rhymes in couplets is known as quotheroic versequot from its use in epic poetry in English especially Dryden s translation of Virgil 1697 and Pope s translation of Homer 1715 26 But heroic couplets needn t be used in heroic verse 0 Tercet o The tercet or triplet is a stanza of three lines with a single rhyme The lines may be the same length or of varying lengths o Terza rima o Composed of tercets which are interlinked in that each is joined to the one following by a common rhyme aba bcb cdc and so on Dante composed his Divine Comedy in terza rima but although Wyatt introduced the form early in the sixteenth century it has not been a common meter in English in which rhymes are much harder to find than in Italian Shelley however used it brilliantly in quotOde to the West Windquot and it occurs also in the poetry of lIilton Browning and T S Eliot Quatrain o The quatrain or fourline stanza is the most common in English versif1cation and is employed with various meters and rhyme schemes The ballad stanza in altemating four and threefoot lines is one common quatrain and the heroic quatrain in iambic pentameter rhyming abab is the stanza of Gray s quotElegy Written in a Country Churchyardquot Ballad stanza o The ballad stanza named for its frequent use in traditional ballads is quatrains of alternating tetrameter and trimeter rhyming either abab or abcb Sestet o The last siX lines of the Italian or Petrarchan sonnet Rhyme royal o Rhyme Royal was introduced by Chaucer in Troilus and Criseyde and other narrative poems39 it is believed to take its name however from its later use in the verses of King James I of Scotland It is a sevenline iambic pentameter stanza rhyming ababbcc Octave o The last eight lines of the Italian or Petrarchan sonnet Ottava rima o Ottava rima as the Italian name indicates has eight lines39 it rhymes abababcc Like terza rima and the sonnet it was brought from Italian into English by Wyatt Although employed by a number of earlier poets it is peculiarly the stanza which helped Byron discover what he was born to write the satiric Don Juan 0 Sonnet o The sonnet is a lyric poem written in a single stanza which consists of fourteen iambic pentameter lines linked by an intricate rhyme scheme The rhyme in English usually follows one of two main pattems I Italian Sonnet 0 Specific rhyme scheme The rhyme scheme is ABBA The sestet may have CDE CDE or CDC CDC I English Sonnet 0 Sometimes known as the shakespearian sonnet Two Quatrains ABAB CDCD EFEF GG I Spencerian Sonnet o The Quatrains interlock ABAB BCBC CDCD EE m o Caesura o A pause somewhere in the middle of a verse Some lines have strong easily recognizable caesurae which usually coincide with punctuation in the line while others have weak ones It s conventional to mark them with a double bar39 the closest HTIVIL allows me to come is H o Endstopped lines 0 When the units of sense in a passage of poetry coincide with the verses and the sense does not run on from one verse to another the lines are said to be endstopped When the verse length does not match the length of the units of sense clauses sentences whatever the lines are said to be enjambed o Enj ambment 0 When the units of sense in a passage of poetry don t coincide with the verses and the sense runs on from one verse to another the lines are said to be enjambed When the verse length matches the length of the units of sense clauses sentences whatever the lines are said to be endstopped The term comes from the French for quotstraddlingquot since sentences quotstraddlequot several lines For examples see the entry for endstopped o Alliteration o The repetition of sounds especially consonant sounds within a passage of prose or verse The repetition of vowel sounds is sometimes distinguished from alliteration and called assonance Consonance is a kind of alliteration in which a similar sequence of consonants is varied by a changing vowel sound as in quottop tap tip quot o Assonance o The repetition of vowel sounds within a short passage of verse or prose is called assonance When the repeated sounds are consonants use either consonance or the more familiar term alliteration o Anapho ra o Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses sentences or lines o Ballad o The ballad is a narrative meant to be sung usually composed inthe ballad stanza Although some ballads are carefully crafted poems written by literate authors and meant to be read silently such as those in Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge the folk ballad or popular ballad or traditional ballad is derived from the oral tradition 0 Two of the most important collections of ballads are Reliques of AncientEnglish Poetry collected by the eighteenthcentury cleric Thomas Percy and the late Victorian collection by Francis James Child called The English and Scottish Popular Ballads Child s collection contains 305 ballads and many variants and many ballads are still known by their quotChild numberquot 0 Sometimes quotborder balladquot is used to refer to those ballads that originated from the area around the border between England and Scotland 0 Consonance o The repetition of consonants in words stressed in the same place but whose vowels differ Also a kind of inverted alliteration in which final consonants rather than initial or medial ones repeat in nearby words Consonance is more properly a term associated with modern poetics than with historical rhetorical terminology o Metaphor o A metaphor is an implied comparison of two things See also simile metonymy and synecdoche o Metonym metonymy o Metonymy quotmetAH nameequot is the rhetorical or metaphorical substitution of a one thing for another based on their association or proximity 0 Examples a monarch is not the same thing as a crown but we often refer to the monarch as quotthe crownquot because the two are associated o Ode 0 An ode is simply a poem of celebration Odes are usually longish a few pages serious and digni ed o Onomatopoeia o Linguists are now agreed that the vast majority of words in every language are entirely arbitrary but a small class of signifiers somehow mimic their signifieds Examples include quotthudquot quotscreechquot quotbarkquot the sound a dog makes not treeskin quotpopquot and so on Of course these words vary from language to language so the mimicry isn t perfect Sometimes poetry can use words which through their very sound suggest their subject 0 Parallelism o Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words phrases or clauses o Personi cation prosopopoeia 0 When something other than a human being often an abstract quality is treated as a human being as when we speak of blind Justice it is said to be personi ed o Simile 0 An explicit comparison of two things usually with the word quotasquot or quotlikequot When you say quotReading D H Lawrence is like having teeth pulledquot you liken one unpleasant experience to another 0 Synecdoche o Therhetorical or metaphorical substitution of a part for the whole or vice versa


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