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SPTPGPS Use & Applications

by: Anabel Ankunding

SPTPGPS Use & Applications RESM 493A

Anabel Ankunding
GPA 3.55


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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anabel Ankunding on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RESM 493A at West Virginia University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/202641/resm-493a-west-virginia-university in Business, management at West Virginia University.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Hydrology Modeling Sample Extension 10 Surface 39 J 39 39 analvsis in ArcGIS 20 Drainage system 30 Digital elevation model 40 Deriving surface runoff characteristics using the Sample Extension 50 Flow direction 60 Creating a depressionless DEM 61 Identifying sinks 62 Filling sinks 63 Finding sink depth 70 Flow Accumulation 80 Watershed delineation 90 Stream network 91 Delineating stream network 92 Vectorizing stream network 100 Interactive Tools 101 Rain drop tool 102 Watershed tool 110 References 10 Surface hydrologic analysis in ArcGIS The shape of a surface determines how water will ow across it The sample hydrologic analysis extension in ArcGIS provides a method to describe the physical characteristics of a surface Using a digital elevation model as input it is possible to delineate a drainage system and then quantify the characteristics of that system The tools in the extension let you determine for any location in a grid the upslope area contributing to that point and the downslope path water would follow Watersheds and stream networks created from DEMs using the sample extension are the primary input to most surface hydrologic models These models are used for determining the height timing and inundation of a ood as well as locating areas contributing pollutants to a stream or predicting the effects of altering the landscape An understanding of the shape of the Earth s surface is useful for many elds such as regional planning agriculture and forestry These elds require an understanding of how water ows across an area and how changes in that area may affect that ow Before you can model the behavior of water you must determine where the water came from and where it is going The following sections explain how to use the tools in the sample extension to help model the movement of water across a surface The next section brie y explains the concepts and key terms regarding drainage systems and surface processes Later sections explain how the sample extension 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mebemg ms aausa Thzbrmchzs arms am an stnamclunmls Th2 masasssamaa aflvm smam alumna as referred m as amid ammo Th2 secunns afasmamchanml canmc ng m sucessm Juncnans aa a Juncunn and ms saw an nfemdm as winter mic Extmm mks m m aaasmasabaaashss amas measuasy1aavs m mbntnnzs ilnlmeink 7 mm Ink Junuium mn39 aldzvzl39nnmudd Th2 mast camman agm data arm shape thhz Eam39s Mac 5 ccuccasca DEMsdngtal cxcyauanmaacxs mg data 5 Wed as mpua m m sample zxumm ta quannfythz c a mc A DEst aaaga xepzesemmm a a cammuaus sacracc mallyxefenmgtathz surface thhz Eam The accaacy am data is de39zmunzd pamauy by mc xesaluhm m distance hawzen sample paints OLhzx facials a ecung accaacy ac data type xnteger a aaung palm and mc acma sampxmgamc surface whcn acamgmc ungnal DEM Eaas m DEMs ac usuany dass ed as cauca snks a peaks A my 5 an aca slxmunded by hugth elevman yams mdxs asa Jarred in as a acpacsaan a pa Tm 5 an aca a mums drng Same armcsc maybenamnl pamculadyxn gaaas mkust neasMuk 1922 althnughmany am ac mmcarccuans m mc DEM kaewxse a cpakc axpmkxs an aca surmmdedby ccns a laver value Thcsc ac mac cammmly nullxal rcaaacs and ac less detnmmul m m calcuhnan Df aw aaccaa Eaas such as mcsc especu y snks shwu d be acmaycawac aucng m acnyc my Mac mfammhan Smks bcmg acas Dfmtemal aamagc may causc mdemable acsunc whcn calcuhnng aw aaccuan Refer in m sechm Creaung a acpacsaan css DEM fax further discmam a xemmnng a 511mg snks Pruiiiewewrasmk Pmmewewufapeak Thenumber F wk in i n WM W m r This can be g 1 othe eeus DEMto be sinks quot r r rarce seeond DEM not H h H quotH mow hi hr uh Fr m errors when creating the DEM This agam is most noheeabie on integer datam at areas surface can be determined The tools assume that Water can ow in from many eeus but out through only one eeu as canals or streets sinee the resolution ofthe eievahon surface wouldneedto be very high to identify them 40 Deriving surface muff characteristics using the Sample Extensinn n y rk oneto Stveam Netwmk A5 Featuve Intevactwe vaemes 415 olata Flow aeross a surface wlll always be m the steepest downslope drreetrorr ohee the networks u h as watershed boundanes and stream networks from a DEM Watershed Flnw Lellglh Outzme afsleps m denvs Surface shamstsnsussmm a DEM No matt r m H dlr n w H r elevataorr moolel orlfyou are modellng karstgeology there maybe some eell loeataorrs that are lower lfthrsrstheease travel out You therr determlne the ow dlrecnon on ths depresslonless elevatlon model yrr or some other hydrologl pomt oflnterest 1n the sample errterrsrorr you ear speclfy yourpour omts or you ear use the stream network as the pourpomts 1n the later ease to ereate the stream 515 frorn ee11 to eeu but also how rnueh water ows through a ee11or how many eeus owrnto u anot er ee stream passmg through rt sample ertensron 50 Flaw directinn the dre uon d To e aeeess the da1og hck Flow Drreeuon from the Hydrology dropdown menu is Flnw Directian twuntuee E F Evesledmp 1 Famenawatedge montage E can r A t t d an optrona1 L maxrrnurn ehange m elevatron from eaeh eeu along the dreeuon of ow to the path length t M V 44 eeus atthe edge ofthe surface gndwru ow outward from the surface gnd W A ormaxlmum drop from eaeh eeu Thrs rs ea1eu1ated as maxlmum drop 7 change dn 2 value dlscance The dutance rs deterrnrned between eeu eenters Therefore rf the een srze rs 1 the dAStance L L cellsxsl A 1414216the deseentto all aohaeent eeus rs the sarne the nerghborhoodrs enlarged square root of2 Kthe untu the steepest deseent rs found andhas an T n A eeu u r urr th smks shouldbe lled Referto the seeuon creaung a depressronlessDEM forrnformatron on how to ll smks 50 Creating a dzpressinnless DEM 51 Idangfying xinkx ADEMfree r wk The presenee ofsmks rnay resu1trn an erroneous owramprectxon gnd In some eases there may areato know what features may truly be smks on the surface ofthe Earth and whreh are data errors is Idemily inks menuquot 3 1 unonnuet at m d t vww th Fm hmt Idenufy Smks to deterrnrne the Frll hrnrt refer to Frndng smk depth39 later m thrs doeurnent 62 FiLEng sinkx p m m dt rts pour pornt the mlmmum elevataon along rts watershed boundary Promcwew at asink belnreand anarnemgmea nned sink ofsmks rteratwe proeess When a smka lled the boundanes othe lled area may ereate new smks DEM 1 Deterrnrne ow drreeaon usmg Flow Drreeaon 3 Fm eon uhng area above eaeh smk usmg Watershed 4 Fmd depth ofsmks Ifwrthrn an aeeeptable hrnrt proeeed Spatra1 Ana1ystZona1Fru funetron 6 Repeat from Step 1 untrl there are no more smks foundm Step 2 or there are no more smks t r1 L remove all smks Thrs rs beeause as areas are lled new smks are ereated m therrborders wk dropdown n The dra1og reqmres an rnput surfaee afxll hrnrt and an outputraster The resultfrom Fru Smks rs a depressronless DEM 37 Fill sinks npmsuvlace E thmu 1mm unpnrsser W E 53 Finding rink dzpt presentm the data or deetde whether some of the smks are legtumate morphological features A raster smks m the raster Then use the pour pomts U m m n h watershed of eaeh smk mug e mu mime eueuemut mm the sthkiateas bemg the output from the Watershed dulog Then create aha t the Raster Calculator Thts corresponds to the elevatmh at whteh ow wouldleave the basm after mhhg to the hm mug e znnaliu sinkialeas elemuuut Fm u Raster Calculator snlkidzplh e snlkgnax e smug 70 Flaw Accumulatinn w m dulog E Flnw Acumulaliun meethmeuet a We ghhaslev W a uuhu a un eeneet 915 stream ehanhels Thrs rs ddscussedm a1ater section utled Stream networks Cells wrth a ow Tu u h m eohtrhuous rasterrepresehahg average ramfall duhhg agrveh storm evapotrahsprratroh or loss to groundwater Thxs could also be vrewed as the amount ofrath that fell on the surface upslope from eaeh 21 80 Watershed delineatjnn thm wt uh trh A or wmhmw r rpty Watersheds eah be dehheated from aDEM y eomputrhg the ow drreehor and usmg rt m the Watershed dratog Th Watershed dratog aeeessed by ehekrhg the Watershed oh the Hydrology menu uses a raster manually rhterpretrhg eohtours theh edgematehrhg all the preees Watershed Dream a SDEEW mum Dam pmms by rhteshotd r shapeme Amherst I MDMWMEW a thmum numhev or eeus rm 5 hastquot FWD mom a emt The rhput to the Watershed dratog defrhrhg how the watersheds wrube dehheated rs erther by a mo from ow accumulation Thar e ore a ow accumulation rastermustbe speci ed as well as the mlmmum number of eeus that constitute a stream Shapefxle dulog which is accessed from the Watershed dulog AMA an Dmms rm shaDeMe Svemlv the Paw Paw h and mammals teenmet va ue 2 x mammals eutphstepeme El UK Can22 e e L A lt The process 15 desenbedm the Ihteraehve Tools39 section P atershedtool 90 Stream netwnrk 91 Delinea ng xtnzm nemrk Flow BY N t rk Feature dwlog m the sample extehsmh a stream network eah be dehheated 1m h k n w mun m F m h Vd Lhamlmmum number speci ed Andthe name of output stream feature datasetmustbe xdenu ed Accumu ahanvaslev memmm E menm Mae er I22 rm a shearquot 5m enpnenne mem E1 ewe T w m N n rst Within araster and seeond vectonzes the rasterto create afeature dataset oflmes 92 Vecmr39 ng stream network n e stream networks or any other raster representing a raster unear network for which duecnonahty 15 known In the output snapeme all arcs will pomt downstream eells usmg other vectonzauon methods 1215 E wmwomm NE39LGRD Nance howadianentcelb ml the samevalua can waste DENIM sheet 32 gm ants STREAMLINE nulpul u No ce howammmcen urmesamevslue W aremtmedIncremeasinglehne Possmre GR DLINE nuva Actual ampu mum depend upunlhe awnquot uae 100 Inmacu39ve Tnnls These tools are calledthe Watershed andthe Ramdmp 9 Watershedtool Ramdrop tool 1215 The interactive properties must be set to make these two tools active The direction and accumulation rasters and the snap option for the Watershed tool must be specified in the Properties dialog The Properties dialog is accessed by clicking the Interactive properties on the Hydrology drop down menu me Enter properties for calculating watershed and rain drop interactively Flow direction Flow Direction l v HOW accumu39atloni Flow Accumulatiun l v I7 Snap on for watershed tool Cancel I 101 Raindrop tool The Raindrop tool will trace how a water drop will travel through a landscape To use the Raindrop tool click the icon and then move the cursor onto the ArcMap display window and click on the desired A line will appear defining the route the rain drop will take It is desirable to display the elevation raster on which to place the rain drop The following image shows two different drops being placed on the elevation raster You can place as many drops on the surface you desire e gar Mew insert geiecrmn lads mm eip in nal 7 e x i n Wilmer5 1 WWW learnwswot In N w WMAW earl grew I 1 mm agrar rmmrsrv iMuinverrati39 H maraer MPH 1913 3 D FiawAcmm Value High aznssannnnnn Irza a FiliedSmks Value High 03m 333m Law Mussssas a eievahan Value High 03m 333m 39 Law 638 MOOSE Display in r c H Ml l xawra39kqu W39EW dlmzlnzul v vivv1ir ommmmlr 17179555215 225nm Mere i 1416 102 Watershed tool The Watershed tool will identify the contributing watershed to a specified point known as a pour point To use the tool click on the Watershed tool and then click in ArcMap display to identify the pour You can optionally set the snap option on the Interactive properties dialog W en checked the selected pour point will be snapped to the cell of highest ow accumulation within a neighborhood The neighborhood that the tool uses is 10 times the cell size The image below displays the result of a watershed created using the watershed tool The watershed is displayed in red Multiple watersheds can be delineated for multiple pour points When selecting locations interactively it can be helpful to draw the owaccumulation raster in the background to ensure selection of major stream segments Otherwise it is possible to select a cell adjacent to the stream channel which could result in a much smaller than expected watershed la le gull Vlew lnsevl seleellun Inn s mam Help la 55H eeaxln alellllsslss LllAlamlk lam muman k ongil J Sp all alAnalelV l LayellelTalan 1 ye seaelalellealeealyelv Mulll Vall alt39 Hydlnlagv39 H97 a la 5 Layer El Walelshedl VALLlE llazn El D FlawAccum Value ngh aznssa nunnnn 28 a FllledSlnlc Value ngh oasl 333m Law Mussssas a elevallan Value ngh oasl 333m I Law 638 MOOSE may 3W juleulnav k lialuv Avg Alal 110 References For a more detailed discussion of material presented in this chapter refer to the following publications Spatial Analyst Functional Reference ArcGIS Desktop Help ESRI Jenson S K and J O Domingue 1988 Extracting Topographic Structure from Digital Elevation Data for Geographic Information System Analysis Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing Vol 54 No 11 November 1988 pp 15931600 1516 Mark D M 1988 Network Models in Geomorphology Modelling in Geomorphological Systems John Wiley Shreve R L 1966 Statistical Law of Stream Number Journal of Geology Vol 74 pp 1737 Strahler A N 1957 Quantitative Analysis of Watershed Geomorphology Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Vol 8 Number 6 pp 913920 Tarboton D G R L Bras 1 RodriguezIturbe 1991 On the Extraction of Channel Networks from Digital Elevation Data Hydrological Processes Vol 5 pp 81100 1616


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