Theatre History II Week 6 Notes
Theatre History II Week 6 Notes THEA 24200
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jared Fink on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to THEA 24200 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Chrystyna Dail in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see History of Theatre II in Theatre at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Jared Fink 2/29/2016 History of Theatre II EMERGENCE OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL THEATRE IN THE U.S. HOW DID COMMUNITY & REGIONAL THEATRE EMERGE IN THE U.S.? Break up of the Syndicate Demand for more artistic productions Demand for U.S. playwrights Marxist and Communitarian ideals o 1930s a lot of community theatre groups being established Theories and artists emerging out of the Art Theatres and Social Protest theatres of Europe LITTLE THEATRE MOVEMENT (1911) Directly inspired by European Art Theatres Agit-Prop Theatre (Guerilla Theatre) Theatre Guild, Group Theatre, Aesthetic and social goals Characteristics: o Small house o Resident company o Experimentation o Subscription sales o Non-professional WASHINGTON SQUARE PLAYERS (1914 – 1918) MacDougal Street Liberal Club in Greenwich Village near Washington Square 299 seat theatre on East 57 Street “A meeting place for those interested in new ideas” – salon Run by committee o Important: pretty much the first time write/director weren’t in control o Non-profit model o Women involved! Actively producing female playwrights Dissolved due to financial troubles, the success of the Provincetown Players, and WWI PROVINCETOWN PLAYERS (1915 – 1929) Jared Fink 2/29/2016 History of Theatre II Founded by George Cram Cook, Susan Glaspell, Robert Edmond Jones, & Eugene O’Neil Wharf Theatre in Provincetown, MA 1923 – Split into two companies: Provincetown Players & Experimental Theatre, Inc. Dissolved due to the stock market crash THE THEATRE GUILD (1918 – 1942) Continuation of the WSP (Washington Square Players) Guiding Principles: 1. Governed by Board of Managers 2. Professional 3. Produce long plays 4. 500–600 seating capacity 5. Subscription-based 6. No Board member-authored plays Theresa Helburn o Most important producer of the 20 thcentury Produces Rogers and Hammerstein musicals o Most important person out of the Theatre Guild Experimental European works 1930: 80,000 subscribers Dissolved due to the Great Depression and competition from other regional theatres THE GROUP THEATRE (1931 – 1940) Evolved out of the Theatre Guild Founding Directors: Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford, and Lee Strasberg o Clurman, Artistic Director Lived and created communally — quite Leftist Combination of Stanislavsky & Vakhtangov acting methods Clifford Odets became their most popular playwright o Waiting for Lefty & Awake and Sing! Dissolved due to financial, emotional, and Hollywood pressures TRIFLES BY SUSAN GLASPELL SUSAN GLASPELL (1876 – 1948) Considered one of the first modernist U.S. playwright Jared Fink 2/29/2016 History of Theatre II o In addition to Eugene O’Neil Grew up in the Midwest Davenport, Iowa Interested in the agrarian lifestyle and its effect on people Went to Drake University, studied journalism o Spent her career as a journalist for a few years before moving into fiction and playwriting o Starts writing short stories and then novels (one in 1909 and another 1911) Married George Cram Cook in 1913 and moved to Greenwich Village o Cook is the driving force behind moving to NYC, to join the liberal bohemian lifestyle Highly influenced by the style of writing of the Abbey Theatre Co-founded the Provincetown Players o Wrote 11 plays for them between 1915 – 1922 Cook dies in 1924, and Glaspell immediately leaves NYC and returns to Cape Cod Won the Pulitzer Prize for Alison’s House (1930) Directed the Midwest Play Bureau of the Federal Theatre Project (1936 – 1938) TRIFLES 1916 – based on an actual murder case in Iowa that Glaspell covered for a newspaper between 1900 – 1901 First performed by the Provincetown Players at the Wharf Theatre th (August 8 1916) o Susan Glaspell played Mrs. Hale and George Cram Cook played Lewis Hale Major characters: o Minnie Wright (never seen) o John Wright (never seen) o Mrs. Peters o Mrs. Hale o George Henderson, attorney o Henry Peters, sheriff o Lewis Hale, a farmer SYMBOLISM AND TECHNIQUES Symbolic Elements (so-called “trifles”) Bird — bird used to sing Jared Fink 2/29/2016 History of Theatre II Quilt — woman’s clue that she did it through knotting (kind of stitch) Singing Telephone line EXAM REVIEW: Theoretical foundation for naturalism in the theatre: Emile Zola Founder of British Aestheticism (Art for art’s sake): Walter Pater Considered first modern director: Georg II Duke of SaxeMeiningen 19 century movement described as : Realism Which actor warned against “prostituting your goddess” and is said to have had the most influence on Stanislavsky? : Schepkin Who is often considered Russia’s first professional playwright: Alexander Ostrovsky Artist who said “mastery of form is more important than content of message: Aestheticisim Andre Antoine is credited with ushering in the Independent Theatre Movement. Name of his theatre: Theatre Libre Which member of the Meiningen Players was responsible for proposing and adapting all of the texts they performed: Ellen Franz Which early 20 century U.S. professional theatre adopted a subscription based ticketing model, governed by a director reporting to a board: Theatre Guild Theatrical movement that was overdramatic, episodic, crime scene: Melodrama Which playwright wrote realistic, domestic, folk lore-based: Lady Augusta Gregory Theatre director 1887 moved sets for first production across Paris in handcart: Andre Antoine Jared Fink 2/29/2016 History of Theatre II 19 century creator who developed the theory of “total theatre,” master artist who controlled all aspects of the production: Wagner While in the Kitchen in Miss Julie, the title character demands that John dance with her. Who reveals the secret that Frank and Vivie are siblings in Miss Warren’s Profession? Sir George Crofts Cherry Orchard, sound heard twice: breaking of a string In Riders to the Sea, how does Bartley die? Falls of his horse into the ocean, then crashed against the rocks.
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