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Public Communication

by: Lew Mraz

Public Communication COMM 104

Lew Mraz
GPA 3.85

Colleen Malachowski

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Colleen Malachowski
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lew Mraz on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 104 at West Virginia University taught by Colleen Malachowski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/202672/comm-104-west-virginia-university in Communication Studies at West Virginia University.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Comm 104 Final Ch 11 Characteristics of Good Style 0 Clarity in the audience ability to follow speaker 0 Accuracy in the speaker source chooses words that are appropriate and explain what speaker means 0 Appropriate language based on receiver audience and topic some may not be appropriate for other 0 Economy concise and to the point is best long message is not always better 0 Vividness make message memorable o Provisionalism clear opinion without offending others Oral vs Written Style oral has 0 Fewer words and sentences 0 More self reference words I me us 0 More repetition of words and syllables o More contradictions o More contractions o More colloguial and nonstandard words Style Devices 0 Antithesis juxtaposition of contrary or contrasting idea s o Personification representation of nonliving beings or objects as speaking or having human qualities 0 Anaphora repletion of the same word or phrase o Anastrophe repetition at the beginning of one clause of the same word or phrase that concluded the proceeding clause 0 Antistrophe repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive phrases or clauses o Rhyme ends of clauses have the same or like sounds o Parisosis the use of clauses that are parallel in grammatical structure 0 lsocolon use of 2 or more sequent phrases containing equal number of syllables quotI came I saw I conquered o Metaphor language applied to one things is applied to another because similarity seems to justify the transference o Antiphrasis use of words to express a meaning different from and particularly contrary to the literal meaning Ch 12 Modes of Delivery 0 Manuscript preparing a speech then reading it 0 When you need to be exact use manuscript 0 Gives nervous or inexperienced speakers security 0 Reduces eye contact and limits gestures o Memorization memorizes speech word for word 0 Can focus on NV s no notes are used so there is less of a barrier with audience 0 Doesn t sound real or conversational requires practice 0 Extemporaneous best type delivers message using a brief outline or notes 0 Speaker seems as if they are talking to audience eye contact etc o Requires preparation Impromptu giving a speech without any preparation 0 Natural and conversational sincere and real 0 High level of uncertainty Vocal Presentation Ch 14 Rate people process message faster than they can speak nervous speakers talk to fast Volume how high or low you talk Pitch highness or lowness of voice Pause effective pauses are at the END of a thoughtsentence not in the middle Enunciation made up of pronunciationproduction of sounds and articulation process of creating the sounds of words poor enunciation decreases credibility Vocal matching people adjust how they are talking depending on who they are talking to convergence change to style of receiver talk fast in north to match them or divergenceaccentuate difference in comm Style better to converge then diverge Fallacies deceptive or misleading argument Faulty Generalizations when there are too few instances or unrepresentative Post Hoc Generalizations something else caused actions to state A causes B because B happened after A Analogies involve saying one thing is like another 2 things must be similar Metaphors involve omitting the word like compare what is new to what we already know Common Fallacies Slippery Slope someone argues that a given behavior or idea is not bad itself but if we accept that ideabehavior we will be heading towards disaster if we don t go to class today then we wont next class then we ll never go Appeal to Authority people tend to listen to people of power higher status and celebs 9 out of 10 doctors say Appeal to Tradition we cant change because this is the way we have always done it family tradition Posture of 39U39 egocent ism and 39 disagrees with me is wrong Attack the Person attack person instead of argument name calling etc Create a False Dilemma when dilemma doesn t exist but the person making the argument wants you to believe the dilemma exists Create Misgivings person says something that isn t true then later quotapologizesquot but it is too late because the damage is done usually happens in court Straw Man misrepresenting an opponents views I guess you want to make all classes easy and ruin the reputation of this university Insist loudly on a minor point when people focus on a minor point and disregard the major points argument about malnutrition of children we should spend public health money on giving out vitamins to every child Oversimplify the issue making a superficial judgment I don t care what your stats tell you about prisoner abuse The issue is whether we are being tough on them or not Rewrite history put own spin on events after the fact what actually happened with Vietnam and how we view it today I am right and you or anyone that Ch 15 E 0 Red Herring bringing a new topic into the argument why should we worry about violence on tv when thousands are killed in traffic accidents yearly Double Standards ok for us to do a certain behavior but not for someone we disagree with to that same behavior thical Perspectives Duty focuses on individuals obligations to others not situational Rights focuses on individuals everyone has basic rights not situational Utility base on outcome of an action Virtue considered middle ground between duty and rights based on benefits of others or self not situational Relationship comm based perspective good comm leads to successful relationships situational Whistleblowing not anonymous we know the source of information bringing justice to those who wronged the company FROM PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON ECAMPUS POWERPOINT Fallacy Practice know examples of the different fallacies 1 I failed my test this evening because I saw a black cat earlier today FAULTY GENERALIZATION 2 Bill and Jill are arguing about cleaning out their closets Jill llwe should clean out the closets They are getting a bit messyquot Bill llWhy we just went through those closets last year Do we have to clean them out every dayquot Jill quotI never said anything about cleaning them out every day You just want to keep all your junk forever which is ridiculousquot STRAW MAN 3 Sure you can have a glass of wine But once you have one youll be drinking and drinking and eventually youll not be able to stopshots of Jack Daniels the whole nine yards SLIPPERY SLOPE 4 Grad school requirements quotI think there is great merit in making the requirements stricter for the graduate students recommend that you support it too After all we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affectedquot RED HERRING 5 Look you are going to have to make up your mind Either you decide that you can afford this stereo or you decide you are going to do without music for awhile FALSE DILEMMA 6 This theory about a potential cure for cancer has been introduced by a doctor who is a known lesbian feminist don t see why we should extend an invitation for her to speak at the World Conference on Cancer A I39I39ACK THE PERSON 7 Im not a doctor but I play one on the hit series llBimbos and Studmuffins in the ORquot You can take it from me that when you need a fast acting effective and safe pain killer there is nothing better than MorphiDope 2000 That is my considered medical opinion APPEAL TO AUTHORITY Stylistic Devices matching section 1 llOnce again the heart of America is heavy The spirit of America weeps for a tragedy that denies the very meaning of our landquot PERSONIFICATION 6 llThe helmsman steered the ship moved on yet never a breeze up blewquot ANASTROPHE llVeni vidi viciquot ISOCOLON llFrom Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continentquot METAPHOR llWe are people in a quandary about the present We are a people in search of our future We are a people in search ofa national community ANAPHORA llThat s one small step for man one giant leap for mankind ANTITHESIS Modes of Delivery know basics 1 The favored method of speech delivery in this culture sounds conversational and personal TRUE What is it EXTEMPORANEOUS Vocal Presentation True or False 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Talking too slowly can dull the audience TRUE Speakers cannot be too lour in an auditorium FALSE Nonword pauses really have little effect on speaker effectiveness FALSE Monotone is fine for a speaker FALSE Articulation is the process of choosing the words to say FALSE Effective speakers use pauses for effect TRUE Poor enunciation decreases credibility and effectiveness TRUE Convergence is speaking from the center of the audience s space FALSE Presentation Factors True or False 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Microphones create distance between the speaker and the audience TRUE Speakers should use dominant gaze to increase effectiveness FALSE Effective speakers tunein to audience attitudes by observing their facial expressions TRUE Gestures help the speaker to be viewed more favorable TRUE Looking at the wall just over the eyes of the audience is just as effective as looking them right in the eyes FALSE Whether a speaker is nonverbally immediate is determined by the speaker FALSE Speakers do just as well when they don t face the audience directly FALSE ts okay for a speaker to look at the board or screen for long periods of time while delivering a speech FALSE Ethics Philosophers 1 2 3 4 5 Relationship BuberBakhtinGilligan situational Utility BenthamMill situational Duty Kant not situational Rights HobbesLocke not situational Virtue SocratesAristotleHumeBuddha not situational Ethics Meaning WPF Pquot Relationship Communication based perspective Utility action that leads to positive outcomes is ethical Duty obligation to others actions judged by intent Rights focuses on individual Virtue everyone has potential and should be allowed to develop it Delivery 1 When delivering a speech pitch is considered the higheness or lowness of a voice 2 When a speaker attempts to accentuate the differences in communicator style the speaker is exercising DIVERGENCE 3 Pronunciation is the production of the sounds of a word TRUE Articulation is the process of creating sounds Style Characteristics 1 What style characteristics is the following excerpt missing a The efficacy of hydrochloric acid is indisputable but the corrosive effect is incompatible with metallic permanence CLARITY 2 What style characteristics are violated here a Any discrimination against crippled people is completely unacceptable APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE b In a speech about America s criminal justice system a student referred several times to llcriminal persecution ACCURACY Sitting Bull was one of the most important and significant Native American leaders He was born in the year 1931 near Grand River in an area that is now part of the state of South Dakota ECONOMY Squot


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