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This 188 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Braun MD on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101 at West Virginia University taught by James Kite in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/202703/geol-101-west-virginia-university in Geology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Strike amp Dip A Inclined plane Hayizanial plane Line oi intersectinn 30 angle of dip an me inallnea plane are parrallel Strike amp Dip Symbols 4s Strike amp Dip Symbols DiP Di recti on on me inallnea plane are parrallel A39 Inclined Strike amp Dlp 9393 Symbols Horizontal plane N Llne cl intersectinn 30 Dip 3 3quot9398 Anglo in owl Degrees Force vs Response Stress vs Strain Rock Behavior Varies with Temperature Low Temperature Pressure Brittle Rocks F LJM n Hih Temperature Pressure Stress Force Rm Annws Ductile Strain 1Resrlnnsei anes a c Mmsm55 A Tensmnaisness a messmm F06 Compression Compression ls Compressed During 1964 Earthquake Alask Types of Folds Anticline Syncline Monocline Eroa eca or Ereached Folds Anticline Syncline Monocline Erosion Surrm amed Strike amp Dip P 5 Symbols Horizontal plane Line at intersectinn 30 Dip 30 angle Angle in of dlp on the incllned piane are perrallel L1 xuumm e hue m a nucxme owes 0 on surlace The Woods whammy House Axial Plane Parts of a Fold Axial Planes NonPlunging vs Plunging Folds Horizontal Axes Dipping Axes Ell Plunging Fold nge line ol plungan anlicline Youngesl lovmalmn l lorrnallan Axial planes Breached Eroded Folds amp z gt Age of Rocks Superposition Youngest o n l r l Where are older rocks exposed at the surface Younger Rocks Vounger Rocks Where are Older Rocks Voynger Rocks member Superppsition MD Geological Survey Phoko wwwmgsmdgovlesiclfeaturesl giflsideljpg Asymmetrical Anticline Symrmltrical Synclirue Asymmetrical Anticline Asymmetrical Syncliine ngms mQf F m1ing Sym metrical Asym metrical Overtu rnecl Recu mbant Thrust Fault UpSicleDown Overturned Limb Recumbant Limb i Thrustr Faulied Fold Thrust Fault Earthquakes amp Faults Force Applied Response to Force Hun21in w Pmunem mm v sum quot Plane of Weakness Along Which Movement Has Occurred JJ 39 Break Without Significant Movement u u hfm Check Out Fig 1521 in Plumme Qt Btmk10 h Ed a Wvinwx w r 7mile Nnmulwl c Oman um w A n4 m rab n Dea ih Val ey CA Rever Fault Com pression Revenge Fang Thracequot Fam t LowAngle lt30 Reverse Fault 39 May Have Great Displacement Th rust Fault Eastern Pennsylvania Rig h uLa emn Fau Map View Before R ghtuLat mu Faun L Map View After c Moved at Least Once in Last 10000 years OR a Twice or More in Last 250000 years W 3 New Madrid Quakes mm mmww 18111312 Mercalli Focus Point of Faulting Epicenter Point on Surface Above Focus What Causes Damage Na Opening af Earth amp Gabbling up Cities Little Damage Fram Fault Offset Mast Damage Caused by Seis ic Wav Including Tsunamis amp Landslides Elastic Rebound theory a Developed after1906 SF Quake Earthquakes amp Faults l At Great Depths Rock Does Not Fully Snap Back 39 39i Duclile I l t5 train Earthquakes amp Faults Elastic Rehnuml sun Mm mu Emhqunkos 8 Fnults Elastic Rehnuml HVla County 1905 Offset Fence Shows Strike Slip Motion Right or Left Lateral USGS Photo by GK Gilbert http usgsgovln sleqlists USA19 60418pcs2html Zahlreiche Beben im Katasuophengeblet siidasiens 39 thnag Hm mu m mm H 39 mumw o lncalculahle losses on Sumatra Mmlslry af c als con rmed the death toll on mdanesxa s Sumatra Is and rose 2490 la 32490 Wednesday Magnnude of aftershock lnlunl earthquake 50754 055755 6064 V a a Smmv Pun meu neicusgsgovlne eq sisUSA 1964 03 28 p S 1html This side rose 5 m 16 ft Dipslip motion Earthquake Damage Landslides Lmzlinn Cenje leq tsIJSA lml Earthquake Damag Tsunami Seis Sea Wave quotAKA Tidal Wave A quot a neicu ambwnelslmlmmu 9 2353 Logging Truck Wrapped Around Tree by Tsunami Jw nels mllss llsn 195 na 23 Inns 1 qu San Francisco City Hall hm neicusgsgnvne39seqistsIISA 19m m 13 pk Zhlm USGS WVa 39 Seismic Risk Map 90 AWN COLUMBU WM an ww 39 i it CHARLESTON Mu haan Largest Earthquake in West Virginia 1969 November 20I Magnitude 45 Historic Earthquakes Southern West Virginia 19691120 0100093 UTC Local 1119 Magnitude 453 Intensity VI Largest Earthquake in West Virginia 39 39 39 ounty irginia at Glen Lyn and Rich Creek and at three towns in sout ern West Virginia At Glen Lyn a few bricks were 50 9 m E 3 a 5 a r o a r o m 2 1 1 Q m m 5 2 a u 2 9 a o 7 m a a a E a r a dows were ro en cornice reportedly was s a en from one building in Henry County at Collinsville Vir inia Windows also were broken in southern Mercer Count West Vir inia at erona Oakvale and Elgood Felt overall or Earts of nine tates Georgia Kentucky Maryland North Carolina Ohio South arolina Tennessee Virginia and West Vir Inia Abridged from Seismicity ofthe United States 15681989 Revised by Carl W Stover an erry 0 man S eo ogical Survey Professional aper 1527 United States Government Printing Of ce Washington 1993 At Some Point T P A Jm UN Because Rock Is Not Elast A Tum mmmmw mummy mm 5m Roll of Fluids as Lubricants Water uclear Wastes in Colorado Quiz7 Due in a son9Apri httpwwwggowvuedulkild2009GE 0L101 uiz7Slruclures df What veiops in Rock Under Comp 5 3 9 Brittle Rocks Reverse Faults Ductile Rocks Folds Compression of Ducti Rocks Folds What Develops 51 Rock Under Tension Brittle Rocks Normal Faults 6m Wait V U L S m Rm E Umm m m Ductile Rocks Boudinage Boudinage Mam a Rmk uc i g Boudinage 7 SlatyCIeagvage in Rocks First Step in etamorphic Foliation Slaw Cleavage in Rooks Sandstone Joints amp Shale Slaty Cleavage lnterpem on of SWusmres Simple Case Horizontal Rocks Law of Original Horizontality Folded Rocks gt Deformation Compression Modern Topography Almost Always ls Related to Differential Erosion Aeolian Geomorphology Wind Important Agent Where There Is Little Vegetation Deserts Coastal Areas Disturbed Lands etc Mars Venus etc f Why Is There Wind 0 Differences in Air Pressure Why Are There Differences in Air Pressure 0 Differences in Air Temperature iHot Air Rises Because It Is Lighter 0 Differences in Moisture Content 7Which Is Heavier Moist or Dry Air om o f Which Is Heavier 39 Which Is Heavier EXCUSeme amigo What Are the Principle Molecular Components of Air Oxygen and Nitrogen So What Varmint Worse Yet This May Get Scientific Which Is Heavier Si Amigo NZ and 02 The Molecular Weight of N2 14 14 or28 The Molecular Weight You WW of02 16 16 or 32 f1 0 This May Get Scientific AND Ugly So What Which Is Heavier The Molecular Weight of H20 Is 1 1 16 orOnly 18 Less Than That of Git to Your Point Partner f x lquot 0 Clearly Our Hero Hoppy Has Established Mental Superiority and Taken the Upper Hand in This Debate Which Is Heavier Accordingly Dry Air ls Heavier Because It Has A Smaller Fraction of H20 Water Vapor Hoppy Takes On a Superior Air as He Finishes off His Opponent in the Coop d Grass Pressure Gradients Drive Wind A symmkumnnmlplwdenm windlpuedlnmdindinnl munmmmmx smvmsummmem Lamsnmd um Malmod wlnd Effect De ecm Flow Direction D Isclionul m9 Eanh39s rovanan gt mm mum an a Canon ellecl W WW my gumquot mm 503sz 1 Uniks are meters X 10 Upper Air Flow Why Deserts Rain Shadows Global Circulation Patterns Gas Laws PV nRT P E Pressure T Temperature P amp T are on opposite sides of equation so they change in unison Ram fem expansmn and cuollng Regmu a yam shadnw Dry av wquot r Evapolahon o a nom om compression t and wavmm Orographic Effects Global Circulation Hadley39s Model 39 ColdAir r Sinks Simple Convection Cell in Each Hemisphere 3 Convention Cells in Each Hemisphere Add 3oriois Effect Better Model 3 Convection Cells in Each Hemisphere all lt Predict World s Desserts MIDDLE EASTERN DESSERT Map Source US CIA Images Sources for Desserts of the World r an 7 hmwwwdcmr 39gmuktum g Wczmg393ngnl mm 7 hmMwwu MK Dumplin39 Ewww uisldmhm umg ifsNHFW EEWHD m mackl unsl cm 7 1 39 39 rnslw cahqu Muunm7 um am autumn Man hmmmn meug hnslshre unududlusgh Dunuls 7 mMmnsmgummzms m m wil ts mkilelmnl Antarctica Desert Why Didn t USAWait N 200310 See if UN Could Disarm Iraq m Climatic Considerations Winter Model Westerlie E asherlies Ivan I 3 VI GMT V Bahraml l Manamah 5 Saudl Nabl Qatar llJoha mm Dhabi Riyadh I x 39 UAE Oman Dust Storm raq March 2003 Dust in DeepSea Sediments Aeolian Sediment Sources Kite Stream Antargtic Pglar Desert WindBlown Silt Loess Over Dry River Bed New Zealand Loess on Outwash Terrace New Zealand Last Ice Age 20000 Years Old d n a s f t o m n m o 6 r v a a n P o n w w n e m D T d m Saltati an Antarctica Ventifacts amp Desert Pavement Ventifact on De ation Surface AbvNgd Unmmm mmmwwma up u ku a c Aeolian Sediments Antarctica entifact Hoodoo Convergence 039 quotaw Dlmgonm Mk iralmu DWII quotSI deposllod to DDS dmlllo to leg 039 bu h lee o boulder Vegetated Stable Jockeys Ridge Kitty Hawk NC 7 Unvegetaied Unstable CrossBedding in Dune Wind DirectiOn gt auxum mm I Vengvh Sand Dune Victoria Valley Antarctica Monster Sand Dune Variable Wind Direction Saudi Arabia GEOL 101i Lecture 8 Introduction to Geological History Chapter 8 Add images 14 c lab 19 1 Cent smoke stacks ABomb Geoiogic Time Scale Relative ating Logic 8 Absoiute Radiometric ating General Rules for Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks Law of Original Horizontality Law of Superposition Law of CrossCutting Relationships The Meaning of Unconformities Concept of Facies Environments of Formation Correlation Tools Original Horizontality o in orizontal vs Vertical Beds Horizontal Bedding US Rt 9 Powell Mtn WV JS Kite Photo General Rules for Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks 0 Law of Original Horizontality 0 Law of Superposition 0 Law of CrossCutting Relationships 0 The Meaning of Unconformities 0 Concept of Facies Environments of Formation Superposition Stratified Sediments or Rocks unger Rocks Added to Top of a Sequence 8 Oldest Rocks at the Bottom of Sequence Horizontal Bedding US Rt 19 Powell Mtn WV JS Kite P hoto Superposition Oldest Rocks are at the Bottom unger Rocks are at the top Oldest Breached Eroded Folds amp Age of x gt Rocks Superposition Youngest on Top General Rules for Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks Law of Original Horizontality Law of Superposition Law of CrossCutting Relationships The Meaning of Unconformities Concept of Facies Environments of Formation CrossCutting Relationships 0 Younger intrusions or Faults Eur Across Glider Rooks CrossCutting Relationships Plutons quot cma my Explain the geological history represented by an outcrop of basalt that is intruded by a dike of rhyolite porphyry The 510 cm of rock that was basalt along the dike is now hornfels Which rock was there first Which was there second What caused the hornfels General Rules for Interpreting Sedimentary Rooks Law of Original Horizontality Law of Superposition Law of CrossCutting Relationships The Meaning of Unoonformities Concept of Facies 39 of Formation Unconformi ty ied Erosion Surface U conformity Ouray Colorado 2 rife Uncompahgrg for a Ion 15 billion years old Vince Matthews Colorado 38 source for text information General Rules for Interpreting Sedimentary Rooks Law of Original Horizontality Law of Superposition Law of CrossCutting Relationships The Meaning of Unconformities Concept of Facies Environments of Formation Immature Sediments Mature Sedimen v immune m am yam Tools to Reconstruct Relative Ages in Earth History Correlation Correlatio Marker Beds Volcanic Ash ridium Layer Boide Impact Mus Fans mama m Correlation with Fossils Strata Layers Stratigraphy Study of Layered Rocks Stratigraphic Units Groups Formations Members Formation Smallest Mappable Stratigraphic Unit 0 vs Outcrop Morgantown S lratigraphy Monongahela Group Conemaugh Group Allegheny Group Pottsville Group of Local Stratigrapl39ny Monongahela Group Waynesburg Formation Uniontown Formation Pittsburgh Formation Pittsburgh Coal Conemaugh Group Clarksburg Shale Morgantown Sandstone Locai Stratigraphy Pottsville Group v Connequenessing Formation Upper Connequenessing Sandstone Crops Out a Coopers Rock Abgo ute Dating EG Radiometric Dating Tabie 83 p 195 Plummer etal10quot ed Expect Questions How Do we Know Tha A How Do We Know That Carbon14 Dating Radiocarbon Dating Carbon Isotopes Cnmmnn Stable Llncnmmnn Stable Cosmic Rays Zap a Nitrogen14 Proton into a Neutron to Form C14 WW j mm J 1 1 Hum Bela Camure C14 Dating C14 mixed thru Atmosphere Plants take in 314 Animals Eat Plants other Animals Eat Animals etc All living things include C14 C14 Dating Dead T ings Do Not Take in New 214 or 212 or 313 C14 Decays w Time 212 313 Does Not C14 Dating 0 In 5730 years 1 HalfLife Half of C14 willl Decay In next 5730 years Half of what was left will Decay 3I4ths will decay in 11460 yr 7I8ths will decay in 17190 yr etc CM Dating lt01 of 814 is Left After 57000 yr 0 Most Labs poop out at gt40000 to gt50000 yr CM Dates Years etore Present yr BP Present AD 1950 o i Measurement Error 0 examplle 22500 i 450 yr BP What Can CM ting e Used For Dating eao Things 30000 years Bristlecone Pine TreeRing Calibration of C14 Dating Dendrochronology Another Absolute Dating Method Carbon 14 Basic Assumptions 1 Predeiablle ecay Rafts 2 Cons an GM Praducticn Rate 3 Alli Living Things have Sams Pcmians sf 014 012 amp 613 Obvious Probiems wl 214 Dating No Gaod for Most Minerals o Useless 0n Really 0d S uf i Finc Another Meihm Prefolems wI CM airing Basic Assumption 3 All Living Things have Same of C14 C12 amp C13 Bottom Waters Antarctic Ocean Diluted by Glacial Meltwaters Problems wI C M Dating Basic Assumption 2 C14 not Constant in Atmosphere Sun s Cosmic Ray Output not Constant More C14 in Past 10000 yr BP 11500 Calendar yr Man s impact Industrial Revolution Fossil Fuels diluted CM o Atmospheric Nuclear Testing increased CM Problems w C14 Dating 0 Biggest Problem Stupid Geologist 2nd iggest Problem Contamination of Samples Young Carbon 0lol Carbon Geologic Cross Section Hawaii Summlt 0 Mann Kealazos m Poslgl c quotc yam Fualglacln n er cone and lava quotom 45w c yam Morl am we KIAvyeam mm 1 ammo1500130 KIAr am riodmo naHsomn years nausmnmon a Kmyurs Alums ml E Highlights of Earth History and Absolute Geologic Time 13 BV BV billion years Universe forms 455 460 BV Earth farms Rest of Solar System too Molten Magma Surface thane Ammonia Hydrogen Atmosphere High UV Radiatl n Amino Acids etc erHFlinln w Geologic History 44 BY Oldest Mineral Zircon XI 38 41 BY Oldest Known Rocks Chemical Fossils 35 BY Algae Stromatolites 18 20 Oxygen quotCrisisquot 15 17 Sex Geologic Time 600650 MY MY million years First Complex Animals Hallucigenia sparsa Anomalocaris canadensis Big Changes 551 MY First HardShelled quotCri1 Trilobites fossils common 500 MY a phylum of higher animals exist including chordates vertebrates 551245 MY 0 Paleozoic 0ld Animals Era 245 65 MY Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles amp j H x H M JI Allosaurus fragilis a large Jurassic tiheropod one step rom capturing a Dryosaurus altus wwwdinosaursinaltcomlalosaurusl IMAGOOOQJPG 0 Age of Mamma s Cenczoic Era a EFDC s mullen yaquot DMohppul Fllomppul n quot399quotquotquotquotquot39 Nnolllpplllnn quotmmquot mmtppu 253 mm Kllbplllppul The Geologic Time Scale See p 195 in Plummer et al 9th edition Dates to Know 65 MY 245 MY 551 MY 4546 BY Question of Time If you plotted all of eologic ime on a of the Earth 25000 ml or40000 km what dis ance would represent 1 year l39il Question of Time lfyou plotted all of geologic time on atime line as long as the circumference of the Earth 25000 mi or 40000 km what distance would represent 1 year What distance would represent 75 years What distance would represent1 semester 4 months 033 year What distance would represent this lecture The Whole Earth Time Line Circumference of the Earth is 25000 mi 40000 km What distance would represent 1 year 39igure this out in small groups Easiest if we use metric units Divide Distance by of Years 4600000000 yr The Whole Earth Time Line 40000 km 4600000000 yr distance represented by 1 year 40000000 m 4600000000 yr 4000000000 cm 4600000000 yr 087 cm yr 034 inch lyear The Whole Earth Time Line 087 cm yr 034 inch lyear X 75 yr 65 cm Lifetime 257 inches X 033 yr 029 cm Semester 18 inch Whole Earth Time Line 40000000000000 microns I 4600000000 yr X 365 dayyr X 24 hrlday 099 micron I hour This Lecture would be just over 1 micron long on the Whole Earth Time Line The paper you are writing on is about 100 microns thick Under the Boardwalk Coastal Geomorphology 0 What to look for while you39re on the beach during spring break What Causes Changes in Sea Level 0 Answer Varies with Time Scale LongTerm Changes in Sea Level Shape and Volume of Ocean Basins Varies with SeaFloor Spreading Rates Slow Spreading Deeper Ocean Basins Fast Spreading Shallower Ocean Basins amp Seas Spill on to Continents Volume of Glacier Ice 225 ft Higher if All Glaciers Melt 400 ft Lower at Pleistocene Maximum Ice Volume Planktonic Foram 018 as Proxy 200 600 00 400 1000s of Years Ago mm quotmm m E J q n a In no mm mm Valleys Cheaspeake Level S Estuaries Drowned River Delaware Bay Pamlico Sound Albemarle Sounds Eroded During Glacial Low Sea Drowned During Interglacial High SeaLevel Stands Bay Chesa peake Bay Bathymetry Last Century Ocean Warming amp 150 ExpanSIon GIaCIaI Melting 145D Mun 1400 H50 1350 1mm 1m 52 2 E g 1250 r 1250 E 12m 1m nammlssmg 1150 gt 1150 1 IUD H431 1947 K957 I967 197 I957 99 VPHK Short er Changes in Level I I A Seismic Sea Waves Tsunami Tldes Why Gravity of the Moon and Sun Acting on Ocean Surface 24 Hr 50 Min392 Highs 2 Laws Tides Why 3376 mum Spring Tide Highest High Tide amp Lowest Low Tide Neap Tide Less Tlde Range 0m m r 15mm quotguild 55mm 1 Venn M gm Why is there a high tide 8 n the v earth 39 up 333 me 1quotK f m ManiMil moon 5 umlumwnm g Maw Thin Bola Tides Can Be Enhanced or Reduced by the Shape and Size of a Basin Gulf of Maine Bay of Fundy Mediterranean Sea The Med Puny Tides BAY OF FUNDY HEMISPHERIC SHOREBIRD RESERVES Pztncnduc mm quotmumquot mm aw 0F FUNDV What is Deadliest Day in U 5 History San Francisco Quake 1906 500 Dead Hurricane Katrina 2005 gt 1420 Dead Johnstown Flood of 1889 2209 Dead Pearl Harbor Dec 7 1941 2471 Dead o 11 September 2001 2986 Dead November 1918 Flu 3000 Eve Day Antietam 17 Sept 1862 3650 Dead 23000 casualties NPS 4000 may have died later Issac s Storm 1900 8000 Dead in Galveston Texas Alone From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia AntietamSharpsburg 17 Sep 1862 Casualties in 3 categories 1 dead 2 wounded and 3 missing or captured Approximate Numbers Union Confederate Total Killed 2100 1550 3650 Wounded 9550 7750 17300 MissingCaptured 750 1020 1770 Total 12400 10320 22720 These are the approximate numbers for September 17th 1862 0 one knows the actual number of men who would later die of theirwounds orthe number of missih who had been killed If you take a conservative estimate of 2 d 39n of their wounds and 30 of the missin killed he approximate number of soldiers that died as a resul of this battle are 7640 o 9 F 339 Hm o C 3 D m D 0 Storm Surge quotWavequot created by law atmaspheric pressure sucking acean water inta center af starm The 1 900 quotGalvestonquot H urrican e Galveston Hurricane 1900 Storm Surge Map 39 9 e h 34 35 quot uvnquot 39 oo p z 15 a M 0 a0 h 0 M t 4 I39 Ma a g Tipped House Galveston 1900 Galveston Texas 1900 Tota Destruct on at Ga veston Texas 1900 EN A 3 a fx v f 392qu r 11 w r 1 Lucas Terrace Apartments BEFORE Galveston Hurricane Lucas Terrace Apartm AFrER HI Wind Tides Pamlico amp Albemarle sounds NC Win Creates Most Ocean Waves Wave Height is Controlled by 1 Wind Velocit 2 Fetch Distance Water Surface is Subjected to Wind Wind Waves i 2 0 Wind Waves 0 vanm Wm MMS39I u Breaking Wave in Shallow Water Beach Terms swash Surf Breaker hmquot um ang Wave ErosionDeposition WashOver Refraction Longshore Current Londshore Drift w ude ATLANTK ANNUAL SHOREUNE CHANGE OCEAN Seam M Beach Erosion in the USA Hurricane North Carolina Beach before Hurricane Fran 1996 See Changes from Last Slide WashOver Deposits Hurricane Fran Damage from WashOver Erosion r Stopped Here Hquot 13 March 2003 w Wave Refraction 9m mm mm mm me an mom was male am 0 Muslim Wash uwmm sham an amp my Longshore Current amp Longshore Drift Longghore Qurrent ampLong hore Qrift 34mm 5 7377quot mm a M Ma 3 3 W m quotva 37 37 Coastal Structures ures Groins 39 N Coastal Struct Ocea City l 390 mm Plummeret Dean m uses Airleln 1 edquotp393quot frnm errmmmnm mm 12 Coastal Structures Ne 39 s p Presque Isle Lake Erie PA Stopped Here on 13 March 2006 39Jw 39 Secondary E D plEs rm Califnmia Primary Shoreline Northern California Valley Headland Erosion Wave Energy Concentrated on Headlands Dispersed in Hays WaveC ut narr Mmml Imam hy Landforms mun unsung rmus and sum Ac Mums emua w m V IveC111 Beach Califomia Oregon Coast Fhutu by is KKE Hi hEnergy Rocky Shoreline Headland Maine Eroding Volcanoes with Fringing Reefs also Seastack Marine Terrace 39 Old WaveCut Bench Volcanoes 11 Te e on my web lwwwgeuwvued kiteteac39ninghtm ng Magma Chamberquot Lava Lamp Em Gaseous Few Landforms Explosive Visco Magma FM 39 quot4 w Explosive Eruption Basaltic Fissure Eruption Hawaii 1383 gs dim m 39 39 39r L141 Columnar Jointing Yellowstone NP Lava Flow JS Kite Photo 2008 Dry Falls Wa Basaltic Shield Volcano Mauna Kea Hawaii Shield Volcano Mauna Loa Hawaii Mauna Loa Central Vent Mauna Kea in Distance Kupaianaha S Ield 1986 Pu u O o Lava Tube 1992 Pu u o Royal Gardens Aa Flow 1983 Rhyolitic Cinder Cones Lava Domes Tavur39vur Volcano New Guinea Cinder Cone Pyroclastics Viscous Rhyolitic Magma May Occur in Late Eruption Phases of Intermediate Magma Chamber Post1980 Lava Dome 1 Mt St Helens Intermediate Andesitic Magma Composition Varies Viscous to Fluid nder Composite C Soufriere Hills Volcano Montserrat Englm39s urine Emmi pyrodasu c39 ug LEVI dam and surge on June 25 1997 quotSFS mm m quotFlam Amerlfas Most Parfacf Vulcann 7 Mt St Helens April 1980 Bulge Llpman Null 27 man Mt St Helens Pyroclas rics 1980 SGS usGs mm by m Tnumka May 15 1982 Blas l39 Zone of M1 5139 Helens MT Rainier amp Tacom USGS uses mm by Lyn mm August 2n Isa1 Popoca l epe l l Mexico Dec 2000 Krakatoa 1883 Mt Mazama Crater Lake Crater Lake Caldera of Mt Mazama Aniakchak Caldera Alaska Erosion Volcanic Neck Erosion Shiprock New Mexico Grinnml soriace nyerad manorm m Magma Chamber Model n39llwww Iavawnr d 39 rfm 2000 Haggerty Enterprises Inc Chicago Illinois Igneous Intrusion May Not Connect to Volcanos Large Pluton Cool Very Slow CoarseGrained Rx Small Plutons Cool Rapidly Fine Grained Rx Igneous Plutons Plutons I Dike Across Country Rock Layering I Sill Parallel Country Rock Layering Laccolith Igneous Blister Pipe or Neck Feeder Tube Igneous Plutons Volcano Cooled leph m 3 Lava ow Long Valley m Batholith amp Dikes I alle Cald ra GEOLOGY 101 Under the Boardwalk Coastal Geomorphology 0 What to look for while you39re on the beach during spring break JS Kite WVU What Causes Changes in Sea Level 0 Answer Varies with Time Scale LongTerm Changes in Sea Level Shape and Volume of Ocean Basins Varies with SeaFloor Spreading Rates Slow Spreading Deeper Ocean Basins Fast Spreading Shallower Ocean Basins amp Seas Spill on to Continents Volume of Glacier Ice 225 ft Higher if All Glaciers Melt 400 ft Lower at Pleistocene Maximum Ice Volume Planktonic Foram 018 as Proxy 200 600 00 400 1000s of Years Ago mm quotmm m E J q n a In no mm mm Valleys Cheaspeake Level S Estuaries Drowned River Delaware Bay Pamlico Sound Albemarle Sounds Eroded During Glacial Low Sea Drowned During Interglacial High SeaLevel Stands Bay Chesa peake Bay Bathymetry Last Century Ocean Warming amp 150 ExpanSIon GIaCIaI Melting 145D Mun 1400 H50 1350 1mm 1m 52 2 E g 1250 r 1250 E 12m 1m nammlssmg 1150 gt 1150 1 IUD H431 1947 K957 I967 197 I957 99 VPHK Short er Changes in Level Seismic Sea Waves Tsunami Boxing Day Tsunami Animation WWW Coiumbia eduMasipaneisonnewmediadeViiiesZUUAJndonesiaJsunami gii Tsunami Animation Sites Indonesia 2004 Ammtiun Natiunai institute ui Aiaska Simuiaiion Mtg nctr Qmei noaa govTitovshow Tides Why Gravity of the Moon and Sun Acting on Ocean Surface 24 Hr 50 Min 2 Highs 2 Lows Tides Why 765 warm Spring Tide Highest High Tide amp Lowest Low Tide Neap Tide Less Tide Range xEmmndn slammm 1 7 Whyls therea hightide G nthe ml me by quotnodlug ma e arth V 74mm opposite m mm th f Mammal mum 7 Mud apsa mo 0 n rumm if 55mm 1 I u m mum m mmmm mmm moon Hmnmmpomm warm1mm w a I Think a Tm Bolus httpwww igluttoyscombolabolaiargendnalojpg Tides Can Be Enhanced or Reduced by the Shape and Size of a Basin Gulf of Maine Bay of Fundy Mediterranean Sea The Med Puny Tides umm NunAnn mm mm mum mm BAY OF FUNDY HEMISPHERIC SHOREBIRD RESERVES Bay of Fundy Mongo Tides any 0F FUNDV Gulf of MaineBay of Fundy Tide Model Copyright 0 2005 SMAST UMASSD s View this on line at httpfvcomsmastumassded uresearch proiectslGBTidal simulationgb tide currgif slmulationlqb tlde currqf What is Deadliest Day in U 5 History San Francisco Quake 1906 500 Dead Hurricane Katrina 2005 1836 Dead Johnstown Flood of 1889 2209 Dead Pearl Harbor Dec 7 1941 2471 Dead o 11 September 2001 2986 Dead 1 November 1918 Flu 3000 Evegy Day Antietam 17 Sept 1862 3650 Dead 23000 casualties NPS 4000 may have died later Issac s Storm 1900 8000 Dead in Galveston Texas Alone From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia AntietamSharpsburg 17 Sep National Park Service Data Appremale Numbers Union Casuallles m 3 calegulles 1 dead 2 Wuunded and 3 mlsslng m eaplmed de mg and am enne mlsslng kllledthe appruxlmate b ruf suldlersthatdled as a result ennls battle are 7m 1862 Confederate Total Killed 2100 1550 Wounded 9550 7750 17300 MissingCaptured 750 1020 1770 Total 12400 10320 22720 These are me appruxlmate numbersfurSeptember th lEBZ Nu ene knuwsthe actual number er men when Weuld laterdle er thelrvvuurlds erlne numberufmlsslng Wne had been kllled lf yEIu take a eensewalwe estlmate erzuna erlne Weun d dy ennelr Weunds rlum e Storm Surge quotWavequot created by law atmaspheric 9quot Ocean water inta center af starm mar draws water into a largewave storm surge a 39 33 Z s toqu 51 2 utnnn 4 35 w 4154 iii 2 m Galveston 1900 Tipped House Galveston 1900 9 m A e B o U H n J U 0 e U a L 6 0 0 S 1 o J m S n J 6 e W e d The 1900 Hurricane Debris at Galveston1900 Debris at Galveston1900 Galveston Texas 1900 Total Destruction at Galveston Texas 1900 Lucas Terrace Apartments BEFORE Galveston Hurricane Lucas Terrace AFTER Hl Wind Tides Pamlico amp Albemarle sounds NC Wind Creates Most Ocean Waves Wave Height is Controlled by 1 Wind Velocity 2 Fetch Distance Water Surface is Subjected to Wind Wind Waves Negligible motion r t 2 Waves Movement of Motion 0 Wind Waves 0 mm m swash rowu uw M Breaking Wave in Shallow Water Beach Terms Swash Surf Breakers mm m 1 sun mm 3mm mu r quot v quot Flunglng amm Old Berm Berm Wave ErosionDeposition WashOver Refraction Longshore Current Londshore Drift PAC F C CEAN r CHANGE ANNUAL suanqu seqmummy I v WWW MWmmmm awam a mu m MWmwwmwmm m U wwwmm s mm quotquotT V39LFH Wgwm mth 1 quotMW V GULFOFMEX CO quotquot Beach Erosion in the USA W Hurricane vr Fran 1996 North Carolina Beach before Hurricane Fran 1996 See Changes from Last Slide WashOver Deposits 239 North Carolina Beach after Hurricane Fran 1996 Now Relocated in Fou Different Site r Stopped Here 10 March 2009 Wave Refraction swl mm mm much mm H mm gnm male mm m mmcmo Hummus auntMina mm u dam ann39o Wave Refraction Longshore Current amp Longshore Drift Longghore Qurrent ampLong hore Qrift m quotLamquot mm Coastal Structures Coastal Structures Groins Ocean City NJ 0 cm W Plummeretal2005 Dean uses Air Phnln 1 quot 9 mm anasemmnm quotMW m Coastal Structures New Jersey Jetties Plummer et al 2005 10m ed p 347 AmANTIb acEAN V MI L39ES39 1 KerMErsnsu Prim ary V Secondar 13 m1 Examp 12 mm Caninmiap Secondary S oreline Northern California 1dy rary eline narle 1 NC Ined roke Valley Headland Erusinn Wave Energy Concentrated on Headlands Dispersed in Hays WaveC ut ABC munI mwm by Landforms mu wasting V mann Ind llldu 39 ACD Ml l ll node1 by sun WaveCut Shoreline California Oregon Coast N thtubyJ we HighEnergy Rocky Shoreline Headland Hunter39s Brook Beach Acadia National Park Maine A mbolo in California Eroding Volcanoes with Fringing Reefs Marine Terraces Coastal Landforms Glacier Denali National Park Horn the Matterhorn Swiss Alps 200 Years Ago Striated amp Polished Pavement Erratic Bouldars in Northern Gammafoland Rock Types Whose Nearest cuecrops Are in Nbrvyay 39 PA 0H and Sweden Erratic Boulders In NY Are from outcrops in Dana a Explanations for Erratics Striations Grooves etc Big Debate eariy1BOOs Noah39s Floo 7 Ice Berg Rafting 7 Drift Any Ideas New Theory Developed in Early 1800s Louis Agassiz la shy scientisi vocal opponent Agassiz I ll disprove theory in the field Instead he was convinced Biggest Advocate of the 39Theory of Glaciationquot quotTheory Of Glaciationquot Agassiz39s Claim to Fame Carl Sagan of His Day quotThousands and Thousandsquot Years Ago Feet of Ice etc Job at Harvard In 1848 North America Was Glaciated too Byr1ilslgol 9 MI Mega agn FOUR Glaciations Wisconsin last Illinoian Kansan Don t write this down Nebraskan rst Don t write till do i 391 in the Pleistocene and Earlier Several quotLittle Ice Agesquot in 10000 yr since Pleistocene 39 Many others in geologic history Oxen Isotoes in Ice Cores Record Global Ice Volume for 120000 years End of Wisconsin Glaciation SWISS lake sedlmanls Greenland ICE 5 memo an as is gt36 44 32 o v I lnlerglzcizl Hnlncene End End 2 a moon ii Younger Dryas F g Dnsel 0 5 1000 a a Glacial Ple39slncene Coids11 gtWavme Colder lt gtWarmal What is a Glacier o Mass of Ice iDerived from Snow v Lasts from Year to Year aMoves Due to Its Own Weight Snow Xlizes in Air Snnw Converts to Fim n ime mum 57am Bottom of Glacier How Can a Film of Water Form at the Bottom of a Glacier Geothermal Heat All Glaciers CreeQ Like Silly Polar Glaciers Too Cold to Slide Temperature Summer Winter 12039 AIEquot 1D39 HS 1 It I v Polar Glaciers Too Cold to Slide They Creep Very Slowly Byrd Glacier Antarctica Glacier Terms Cirque Arete Valley Fjord or Fiord Piedmont Ice Cap Piedmont glacier Outwash Find These Arete Horn Cirque Valley Glacier edlal main AblatiorT a b quotan I lacie a Sediment depasixeu al glacier margin sediments Mcumlllbn m Equilibrium no In 1993 Mass Balance Nisqually Glacier Mt Rainier WA Anndun an m a REY muss BALANCE O Amnmul on g E mm gained at ImL m 1 I39m 5 quot Emmysinus 1 aquiumium linl 900 1 Equilibrium mm x T in 155 Ablz nu all 17ou I HEY MASS BALANCE walor ainwd at nm In Mass Balance Eeglnnlng a new Devan2e yur Mus unlnnc at and 0 yea 1am ahla out Emm sGlacier Extent AL 1759 V Accumulation Zone Ablation Zone What is a Glacier O Mass of Ice Derived from Snow vLasts from Year to Year AMoves Due to Its Own Weight Accumulation Zone Ablation Zone Same Glacier in the French Alps Late 20th Century Moraine Landform on Margins of Glacier Lateral Moraine Medial Moraine End Moraine Looped Moraines Va39l39najokull Iceland Largest Glacier 39 E In urope Fiords or Fjords ll Laurenlide and mher Ice Sheets u q u l x A remmuumun m m muvenl de mam nnumam m mm It mummy a gm 5mm Wu m E mm I so sta 0y mm m m M n Hamming Inn dun Io Fame due 0 ice luau Oulward ow In a anhennsphue Ramm llaw in limlnuspiwr LongTerm Changes in Sea Level Pleistocene Ice Age 400500 ft Lower Ice sheet Land submerga since IceAge Climate Chilly Climate Ihum A 39 usuu semiu ooe Principle men Wm mwalululc anon mmquot P mxlm nml lulavllm m I l wlluu comma ml 39 mmnmna Great Lakes Product of Late Cenozoic Glaclauon WI A er Hansen 1995 Ohio Geological Survey Geofacts No 10 Lake Monongahela Map hit vANwdc uslto 0 e0 ub a eolma dfsv32n1 df Uplands gt3000 Full Glacial Pleistocene Lowlands lt3000 Migration of Species Aeolian Geomorphology Wind Important Agent Where There Is Little Vegetation Deserts Coastal Areas Disturbed Lands etc Mars Venus etc f Why Is There Wind 0 Differences in Air Pressure Why Are There Differences in Air Pressure 0 Differences in Air Temperature iHot Air Rises Because It Is Lighter 0 Differences in Moisture Content 7Which Is Heavier Moist or Dry Air om o f Which Is Heavier 39 Which Is Heavier EXCUSeme amigo What Are the Principle Molecular Components of Air Oxygen and Nitrogen So What Varmint Worse Yet This May Get Scientific Which Is Heavier Si Amigo NZ and 02 The Molecular Weight of N2 14 14 or28 The Molecular Weight You Aamp of02 16 16 or 32 f1 So What 0 This May Get Scientific AND Ugly Which Is Heavier The Molecular Weight of H20 Is 1 1 16 orOnly 18 Less Than That of Git to Y r Point Partner f x lquot 0 Clearly Our Hero Hoppy Has Established Mental Superiority and Taken the Upper Hand in This Debate Which Is Heavier Accordingly Dry Air ls Heavier Because It Has A Smaller Fraction of H20 Water Vapor Hoppy Takes On a Superior Air as He Finishes off His Opponent in the Coop d Grass Pressure Gradients Drive Wind A symmkumnnmlplwdenm wwnalmxnmmmmm Genliunmumvu hnx smvmsummmem Mme um Malmod wlnd E ecl D e ecm Flow Direction memor ul m9 Eanh39s rovanan gt mm dueclmn Lw vresswa mm m Canons ellecl 904w 3quot Uniks are meters X 10 Upper Air Flow Why Deserts Rain Shadows Global Circulation Patterns Gas Laws PV nRT P E Pressure T Temperature P amp T are on opposite sides of equation so they change in unison Ram fem expansmn and cuollng Regmu a yam shadnw Dry av wquot r Evapolahon o a nom om compression t and wavmm Orographic Effects Global Circulation Hadley39s Model 39 ColdAir r Sinks Simple Convection Cell in Each Hemisphere 3 Convention Cells in Each Hemisphere Add 3oriois Effect Better Model 3 Convection Cells in Each Hemisphere Predict World s Desserts MIDDLE EASTERN DESSERT Map Source US CIA Images Sources for Desserts 0fthe World Parfait r Baklava 7 11quotwwwcariskilchencomimages94HFBaklaVajn g Apple Dumplin s 7 mq wwwcariskilch encomimages94HF n 20A 19 20Dumn lings n zowimnnzoCaramelnn 20Cinnamon n20aucejng Black Forest Cake 7 mq wwwcariskimhencomimages94PfaelzerBro 20Black n 20Foresl n 20Cakejng Moon Pie 7 hllnwwwmoonniexomsin enrod levellasn Gingerbread Man nun cocoracem aorggrumsshrekguotesomersnhn Donuts 7 Imn mm H Mm 03 01 wil ts archivahtml Summer Model TEST 2 CURVE 3 points to score now 24 Ma Antarctica Desert Ham Ham expansm and cooling Region 1 vain shadnw 39 D air 96quot x W Evapoiaiion 0 mm compression and wavmin Orographic Effects Why Didn t USANWait lNr 2003 to See if U Could Disaim Iraq Climatic Considerations 21m Iraq quot5 I Baghdad quotaquot 1 quot7 lKuwait City Kuwa39 I 1 E quoth39 mlJuManamah SeLIdIArabla Qatar39nnha Mm quotham Riyadhl 39 7 UA E i 39 Oman Dust Storm raq March 2003 5 mm m mm Aeolian Sediment Sources Kite Stream Antargti c Pole Desert WindBlown Silt Loess Over Dry River Bed New Zealand Loess on Outwash Terrace New Zealand Last Ice Age 20000 Years Old Desert Pavement Wind Transportation of Sand Saltation Antarctica39 r Ventifact on De ation Surface Aeolian Sediments Nagm ma nmund Cum wnuz m on woman e um mm Jockeys Ridge Kitty Hawk NC f quot Unveget t d Unstable mp Mumunsure mp gnvmmWamrwsHumpEEmWnnhcavnwxnaMNLMH mexam Vegetated Stable Dune Fiend Vicioria Va iey Antarctica Glacier CrossBedding in Dune Wind Direction gt Rolaliva wind strength Sand nccumulmions lhen avalanches down an 551er Dune Victoria Valley Aniarctica Lee SlipFace of Dune Victoria Valley Monster Sand Dune Variable Wind Direction Saudi Arabia
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