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by: Jessica Braun MD

Geomorphology GEOL 321

Jessica Braun MD
GPA 3.69

James Kite

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About this Document

James Kite
Class Notes
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Braun MD on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 321 at West Virginia University taught by James Kite in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/202704/geol-321-west-virginia-university in Geology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Lecture 5b 6 amp 7a Soils I ll amp Spring 2007 WVU GEOL 321 J S Kite Soil Assemblage of natural bodies on the Earth s surface natural or artificial capable of supporting plant life outdoors Pedon Area on Earth s surface w single type of soil Also soil mapping unit NSFREU program quotA FieldBased Study f Landscape Evolution in Western Colorad College is recruiting undergraduate Geology students summer Mesa State 0 2007 Provide undergraduate students sophomore or junior standing in Fall 2007 preferred students who WILL NOT graduate by Spring 2008 with opportunity to gain research experienc 8 weeks May 21July 13 training eld work amp data compilation Students will present results of their research at 2007 eeting in Denver No course prerequisites but would like students to have I least Physical and Historica Geology Each student will receive a stipend 2400 fort 8 wk period housing a meal allowance 1000 amp roundtrip travel to amp from Grand Junctio Also a 600 travel allowance to attend the GSA meeting in Denver CO Oct 2831 2007 Soil Development Is a Function of 5 Factors Factors of Soil Development 1 Climate Temperature amp Moisture Affect Eh amp F o Fe Iron Depletions Gray Reduced Iron WaterLogged Fe lron Concentrations Red Mottles of Oxidized Iron Redoximorphic features Factors of Soil Development 2 Organis Bacteria Fungi Decompose organic material into humus Bioturbation by Trees Worms Crayfish Groundhogs Gophers Grizzly Bears Leaves Conniferous vs Deciduous Forests Roots Grasslands Factors of Soil Development 3 Relief Slope Steep Slopes Well Drained Erosion Low Slopes Poorly Drained Deposition Aspect Direction slope faces affects temperature amp moisture Factors of Soil Development 4 Parent Material Material from which soil develops Types of Parent Material Resic l 39duum Bedrock weathers in situ on low relief amp little erosion Parent Material cont Colluvial Transported by Gravity Alluvial Material Transported by Streams Glacial Transported by Glaciers Eolian Transported by Wind Factors of Soil Development 5 Time Needed to Form Soils Depends on Other Factors Climates Form Soil Faster Than Cold Biological amp Geochemical Reactions Act 2X Faster for Every 10 C Increase Water a must in Pedochemical Reactions Translocation Parent Material Affects Time to Form Soil Soil Properties Through Time Logarithmic E a E a 2 a gt a D 395 in n E In a a I o 5 Increasing Time Soil Characteristics 1 Color Typically Formed by three substances 3 Carbonate Munsell soil color chart Soil Characteristics com 2 Texture USDA size of soil particles in matrix Sand 20 to 005 mm Silt 005 to 0002 mm Clay less than 0002 mm Excludes particles gt2 mm Loam Significant percentage of all three 2 sand 2 silt 1 clay Soil Characteristics Textural Triangle Texture determined by two methods 1 Particle Size Analysis Laboratory method 2 By Feel Field method Takes lots of practice High clay content will cause soil to form ribbon when rolled Soil Texture Triangle Soil Characteristics cont mm m WWW 3 Soil Structure PEDS aggregates of particles w i hi Types of Structure Blocky well developed P39a mar 31 Prismatic C mnar Granularhighorganios Q I Wm M mmmm Soil Horizon Soil Profile Described from the surface down Solum True soil A 8am E a B horizons Soil amp Ground Water Distribution Eastern USA I and Soil Moisture Belt W Unsaturated Vadose Aeration Zone CapillaryFringe Water Table Saturated Phreatio Zone Soil amp Ground Water Distribution Western USA Soil Moisture Belt Unsaturated Vadose Aeration Zone Capillary Fringe Water Table Saturated Phreatic Zone cm subsoil uni Weather 7 a Parent Material lugLn aedmk Uoil Hm Ql quotl3 Cont New leaf litter In forest soils 0 Organic Layer Partly decomposed organic matter A Top Soil Mix of inorganic amp organic material Eluvial horizon Most fertile soil horizon il E Eluvial Horizon Organics amp minerals even more elluviated light color horizon B Subsoil llluvial horizon High clay content Maximum soil development Soil Horizons mt C Weathered Parent Material or Unweathered Transported Material Has NOT undergone soil formation R Bedrock Unweathered Bedrock Diagnostic Horizons EPIPEDONS Mollic dark gt 1 GM in upper 7quot gt50 base saturation Ochric ligh 51 OM Umbric dark lt5D base saturation Histic peaty surface layer Plaen39 gt20 of manure applied over long time Diagnostic Horizons ar or spodic horizon 0 h clay 11 clay low CEC Petrocalc Concent Al ght colored E horizon ration of carbonates 0t er Common Soil quotHorizonsquot brittle layer wit h hulk densi soil mineralogy wl re Ict bedrock structure h Fraian Saro I e Top View oftruncated soil Canaan Valley Etx horizon Subdivisions of Horizons 1 not written Change in Parent Material Change in Parent Material lower case notations to horizons Ap on C oAb oBt oBC C p disturbed plowed A w incipient weak B b buried A t argillic clay buildup Catena Sequence of soils of about the same age derived from similar parent material and occurring under similar climate conditions but having different characteristics due to variation in relief and in drainage SSSA Internet Glossary of Soil Science Terms httpMwwsoilsorglsssaglossl Cafena Alberta WWW sums rrua bena asuacatenaa rm Soil and Soil Development Soil Handout Soil Taxonomy 6 Levels of Classi cation Order Suborder Great Group Subgroup Family Series Soil Taxon 3 Tucker County Mine Soil Loamyskeletal mixed acid frigid l39j39 Ud Entisol ent as in recent Soil Order 139 Common typical udorthent Subgroup frigid Cold climate acid pH less than 40 mixed mixed mineralogy of materials in the soil skeletal greater than 35 rock fragments in soil Loamy textural classification LOAM ORDER Entisol ent no horizons Inceptisol ept incipient horizons Cambic horizon Alfisol alf argillic horizon high BS gt35 Ultisol ult argillic horizon low BS lt35 Oxisol ox oxic horizon Mollisol oll mollic epidedon Spodosol od spodic horizon Vertisol ert shrinkswell soils Aridisol id dry gt50 of year Histosol ist gt30 organic matter Andisols and tephras Gelisols el permafrost Suborder Formative Elements Alb Aqu Arg Ferr etc White Albino Wet Argillic Horizon Iron Examples of Suborders 2 Formative Elements Albolls Aquolls Rendolls Xerolls Borolls Albic Horizon Wet Aqueous Rendzina Lots 0 M Hi pH Xerio Dry Season Boreal Cool MonMarion County Soil Survey See P 157 West Virginia state Soil 1997 Mo hela Silt Loam Fineloamy mixed semiactive mesic Typic Fragiudults SourceofimageStextforz tatlabiasta photogallstatesoilstvsoihtm Iongahela soils occur on gt100000 es in 45 counties in West rginia se very deep ned soils are on alluvial or glacial terraces after NRcs wI JSK M ed r 21 I TVPE LOCATION 27 mi E of Beverly 100 ft N of church on N boundary of 4H Camp Randolp Co WV39 OFFICE Morgantown WV rg c horizon 12 to 22 inches Bt horIzon Fragipan 22 to 52 inches th h izon Source ofimage and text for3 slides www ahiastateedulsoilsl osdldathMONONGAHELAhtmI p a o 7 inches dark grayish brown 10m M2 sin loarn m oderate ne granular riable nrany s s acld39 abrupt smooth boundary 6 to 10 39nches thickl EA7 to 12 inches yellowish brown 10m 5m sin loarn e subangu ar bloc y le com m o l h nam cnmmnn n hr n ml elnw39s w 11mm 5 H by a 5v 5 jmlmlvs cnarsep maliv structure pan J In weak cnarse plaly lirnr law as Is very slrnnnly aclll clear Irregular mumlarylln1 39 chasll39 kl We 51L I hution if SSH on al 9 mw mum 4 w Entisols Ent For Recent Very Little Development New Surficial Deposits Inceptisols lncept for incetion Cambic Horizon Alfisols Alf for Aluminum Al and Iron Fe Argillic horizon high gt35 base saturation Welldeveloped 50quot Common West Virginia 50quot Alfisol V sconsin Ultisol Oxisols oxi for oxides Mollisol Great Plains nm Lightcolored E horizon amp Mostly loamy to sandy soils Common in acidic soils of coniferous forests organic acids aid translocation 39 at high elevation in WV Spodosol Soil Orders Vertisols Vert for invert Contain smectite Shrinkswell properties causes Turnover Slickensides Teepeequot Structures Texas Gulf Coast l Cm Aridisols Dryland Soils Highly alkaline high pH commonly saline Typical in SW US 2008 Find Better aridisol Pic 22 Aridisol Histosols 1 Hist means fiber 1 Dark organic soils 1 May be muck or peat mAnaerobic Negative Eh 1 Highly acidic Histosol Carrying Place Bog Maine JS Kite Photo 23 Andisols Soils in Tephras Gelisols Soils Under Permafrost Andisol Aquic Vitn39xerands ington Wash l39vttpllwwwstatlabiastate edulsoilslphotogall statesoilslwasoilhtm Gelisol httpwwwstatabiastateedul soilslphotogalorderssoior Proposed Soil Order Anthrosols Proposed soil order for artificially disturbed material 25


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