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by: Jessica Braun MD

Mineralogy GEOL 284

Jessica Braun MD
GPA 3.69

Helen Lang

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Helen Lang
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This 142 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Braun MD on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 284 at West Virginia University taught by Helen Lang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/202706/geol-284-west-virginia-university in Geology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Dr Helen Lang Del t of Geoloh amp Geovral hr West Virginia University FALL 2008 GEOLOGY 284 MINERALOGY Crystallization of Minerals Minerals must be crystalline part of the de nition Crystalline having an ordered internal structure Internal order may or may not lead to perfect external crystal shape Shapes of crystals euhedral perfect external shape at faces controlled u internal structure subhedral anhedral irre39ular no crv stal faces Visible Amorphous noncrystalline lacks ordered internal structure Where and how do crystals grow Minerals grow gradually from liquids like magmas and aqueous solutions From magmas in igneous rocks From water between grains in sediments and sedimentary rocks or in evaporating saline basins By gradual replacement of other minerals in metamorphic rocks Schematic View of halite NaCl growing from a saturated salt solution The normal shape of Halite is a cube external shape re ects internal structure Halite NaCl mat develop hopper crystals edges grow taster because they are exposed to more solution than faces HOPPER r RYS I AL HALITE Snow akes form by Sublimation water vapor crystallizes directly to solid Smu uac V I NT 1 1 R S M AST Ii R 1 EC 1amp8 139 mm 1 21ng H 5IH l4 Photos from Smithsonian Maazine Fast growth produces ner gram Slze and may produce dendrites Size of Crystals is controlled by Temperature at hi T atoms are very mobile and crystals can grow rapidly Time Cooling rate combines temp and time Abundance of constituent elements Presence or absence of a ux a substance that speeds up crystallization reaction or melting magma or water vapor can act as a uX Pegmatites have the largest crystals Pegmatites are extremely coarsegrained igneous rocks Some sinvle cr stals are u to 50 feet lonv They form from the last liquid in a granite pluton rich in water and other volatiles which act as 11 composed mainly of quartz feldspar and micas rich in excluded elements like B Be Li U Sn may contain wellformed unusual minerals like tourmaline beryl spodumene and topaz Tourmaline amp Quartz from pegmatite Black Hills pegmatites Mistakes or Defects in Crystals Crystalline substances have an ordered internal structure Real crystals have some mistakes or defects in their internal structures Rapidly formed crystals have the mos defects Some defects can be annealed out by heating the substance to a temperature below its melting point and holding it there for a while Types of Defects in Crystals Schottky defect V i Frenkel defect missing lon misplaced ion Edge dislocation Impurity defect in extra la er Screw dislocation offset layer Multlple detects point defects line defects Imitation Crystal HRTEM high resolution trans Structure Wlth mission electron microscope image defects of crocidolite bad asbestos with multiple subgrains and defects I j LillaMug 39 c mm more than 1 million x magnification Twinning When two or more crystals of the same mineral share common atoms typically along planes Twinned crystals must be symmetrically related Simple twins only 2 members or parts Complex twins more than 2 members or parts Contact twins share only one plane of atoms Penetration twins members share a volume Polysynthetic twins compleX twins with parallel planes of shared atoms Cyclic twins compleX twins with nonparallel planes of shared atoms Exam lcs of Twinninv a a fluorite b spinel c cassiterite d staurolite e orthoclase f gypsum g plagioclase h spinal note rccntrant angles which are characteristic of twins Contact lwms Gypsum swallowtail twin uorite staurolite More twins 111 MW spine 8 E E c6 5 U calcite twin se twins Best seen thru microscope between perpendicular polaroid filters a uorite b spinel c cassiterite d staurolite IllII e orthoclase f gypsum g plagioclase h spinel 39339338 3333 39aaaaag 3 33 Dr Helen Lang Del t of Geoloh amp Geovral hr West Virginia University FALL 2008 GEOLOGY 284 MINERALOGY Igneous Rocks and their Minerals Perkins Chapter 5 What are IGNEOUS rocks Rocks that are formed by solidi cation of a MAGMA Magma is a naturally occurring molten melted liquid rock material see glossary in textbook Some General Tor w about Igneous Rocks intrusive plutonio magma usually phaneritio extrusive volcanic lava usually aphanitio or porphyritio Most Magmas are si icate magmas containing 40 to 75 wt SiOZ Feisie silicic Ur mane magmas are high in SiO2 and A1203 and low in MgO and FeO intermediate magmas are between Felsic and Ma c magmas Ma e magmas contain less than 50 wt SiO2 and higher MgO FeO and Fe2O3 Uitmma e magmas are even more SiO2 poor and MgOFeO rich Granite Gabbro felsic ma c 7208 5078 037 113 1386 1568 086 226 1U 391 006 018 UOJAI UoJJ 133 1085 Sample Chemical Analyses JoVU bro I 546 056 053 048 018 018 Magmas contain Volatiles Elements or compounds that prefer to be in gaseous form Mostly H20 and CO2 in magmas Also S Cl and F Contribute to formation of hydrous minerals like Biotite KFeMg3AlSi3OIOOH2 May separate and form bubbles that are preserved as ves101es Mount St Helens 2004 T f WE zuscs Escape ofgases from the magma causes explos1ve eruptions like this October 1 2004 eruption of Mount St Helens Mavmas ma39 cr39 stallize in staves with Crystals separating from the remaining Liquid Minerals generally more dense than liquid fall to bottom of magma chamber Called partial or crystallization The last liquid to crystallize may contain V l8 lll 8 and incompatible elements K9 Rh lLi9 Bea 89 and REES Pegmatites form from these residual liquids large crystals because H20 acts as a ux Bowen s Reaction Series ldealized model for crystallizatiou w magmas Shows order in which minerals crystallize from a typical ma c or basaiuc magma Left side is called Discontinuous Side Ma c minerals change abruptly Right side is called Continuous Side Plagioclase changes composition gradually Bowen s Reaction Series high T O 5 E 3 1 G a O 4 A l 011V1ne Ca plagioclase 9 36 orthopyroxene 0 NaCa plagloclase Na plagioclase clinopyroxene g a a a3 amphibole Hb cg 3 a 9 biotite alkali feldspar 3001ng residual muscov1te phases quartz Most of the Minerals in Igneous Rocks are Silicate Minerals Felsic high in SiO2 and alkalis Silicate Minerals Quartz and Feldspars framework silicates Ma c hth in M and Fe Silicate Minerals Pyroxenes Amphiboles and Micas chain and sheet silicates We ll start with Felsic Minerals framework silicates Quartz SiO2 Alkali Feldspars KNaAlSi308 Plagioclase Feldspars CaNaAlSi408 Righthand side of Bowen s Reaction Series Important in all igneous rocks Especially in Granites Quartz an Feldspars m mu m m Quartz and Feldspar are Corners shared 4tetrahedr0n SiO formula SiOZO or 1419804091402 Si iAlO ratio 12 Example Luartz Kfeldspar F0rrnula SiO2 KAISi308 SiO2 like many other compounds comes in several different structures 0 Called Polymorphs many forms Minerals with the same formula but different StI39UCtUI39CS stable form of SiO2 at most conditions found on Earth High Temperature low P forms occur in hot volcanic rocks Very high Pressure forms occur in meteorite impacts and eep subduction SiO2 PT Phase Diagram stishovite coesite e m o as a L 3 I I m L cm depth kilometers high quartz Iow quartz cristobalite tridymite I I I I I I I I I I 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 temperature 0C Each Polymorph has a completely dltterent 3D framew0 f SiO4 tetrahedra ridymite Structure LOW and High Quartz Structures Same name Same framewurh Change from one to the other is displacive High Quartz and Tridymite Structures Tridymite Jn ieremt 7 w v I 42 Muf er mt ummewm Change from one to the other is rewmtruet ve View Crystal Structure Movies httpsocratesberkeleyeduepsZWiscge036O lowg Quartz Cristobalite Tridymite Coesite SiO2 PT Phase Diagram stishovite G430 coesite C m 2 3 2 3 I I 9 a depth kilometers high quartz low quartz G23965 G26 I I cristobalite tridymite G233 I I l 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 temperature 0C Higher Density Minerals are Stable at Higher Pressure Coesite has been found in Crustal Rocks v formerly known only from impact craters has been found in rocks that were once at the surface rst found in 1984 This means that in continentcontinent collision zones like the Himalayas and Alps rocks somehow get from the surface down to gtlOOkm 60mi and back fast enough to preserve coesite Quartz Properties 11 I 9 U AIUJ Generally Clear and glassy may have a variety of colors Clear smoky brown rose it s alloohromatio Conohoidal fracture no Cleavage Habit hexagonal 6sided prisms or massive 01 tioal low relief and low birefrinvenoe t W m e m A Rutilated Quartz Quartz Crystals Quartz and Feldspars in Granite Quartz in Granite Thin Section From Atlas of Rocks amp Minerals in Thin Section Feldspars Also framework silicates 0 Most abundant minerals in the Earth s crust Also common in igneous rocks 0 Almost all igneous rocks have feldspars not true for quartz How do we get framework silicates With formulas different from SiOZ When all SiO4439 tetrahedra share all corners with other tetrahedra formula is 81090 no need for other cations If Al3 substitutes fOr 814 in some tetrahedra there is a net negative charge on the frameWUI39l 39ClllU UUICI39 UdLlUllS alt llCCUCU to balance charge 0 Thatas how we get Felcdlsparsi Feldspars If Al3 substitutes for 14 or the 514 1n the framework Formula Changes from Si408O to AlSi308139 Alkali Feldspars Ki NaAlSi308 Orthoelase KAlSi308 and Albite NaAlSi308 If Al3 substitutes for 12 of the Si4 in the IrameworK Formula Changes from Si408O to A12s12082 Anorthite Ca2A12i208 Feldspars all have similar 3D Frameworks that contain linked i View Crystal Structure Movies Kfeldspar Sanidine Naplagioelase Albite rst frame shows Feldspar structure best Ca plagioelase Anorthite Three Feldspar Endmembers o Albite Ab NaAlSi308 Anorthite An CaAl28i208 Orthoolase Or KAISi308 Relationships shown on Triangular Ternary Diagram one endmember at each corner The Feldspar Ternary CaAlZSi208 Anorthite Or Albite Orthoclase NaAlSisos alkali feldspars KAlSisos Suppose we have a Feldspar With the Emma 305N325K70A11058i29508 T0 plot that feldspar on a triangular diagram we need of each of the three feldspar end members Easiest way is to calculate the mole of Ca Na and K CaCaNaK100 05100100 5 An NaCaJmanx 1W 45100100 25 Ab KCaNaK 100 70100100 70 Or HOW do Triangular Diagrams Work CaAlZSiZO Rm 503 SPIDan Cam An A 2 39 SMng WERE Count up from the ma fe dgparg opposite side Plot a F eldspar 5 CaAIZSiZO8 25 NaAlSi3O8 70 KAISi308 8 100 CaAIZSiZOg 5 CaAIZSizos t N aA151308 NaAlSi3O8 KAISi308 0 0161141231208 The Feldspar Ternary CaAlZSiZOs Anorthite solid solutions No feldspars Miscibility ap UFthOClaSC NaAlSisos 173 mg 3 9W KAlSisos Alkali Feldspar esp Orthoclase Properties H6 G256 Generally turbid cloudy color white pink or eshcolored 2 Perfect to good perpendicular cleavages Habit stubby prisms simple twins common Optical low relief and low birefringence Commonly Perthitic micro and macro Typical Orthoclase alkali feldspar O u U1 0 w Du S 9 Carlsbad T Wln Alkali Feldspars have Perthites Thin section 1 J S 6 u 4m 1 e D1 6 V a h S r a g p S V m F W a m A What causes Perthites Caused by unrnixing exsolution or separation of Na diarneterrvl 1A and K diameter16A as the feldspar cools At low temperatures there is a miscibility gap between NaAlSi308 and KAISi308 Miscibility gap in Alkali Fsp causes Perthites 10000 g m Hm r1 0 0 sq 3 C3 sq 0 Q E F albite alkali feldspars orthoclase NaAlSi308 KAISi308 Why Alkali Feldspars have perthites Remember Al3 substitutes for 14 of Si4 in framework AlSi308139 Al3 is locked tightly in the feldspar framework and can t move K 146A and Na 108A with the same charge can trade places freely in the structure and still balance Al3 charge Allows unmiXing or exsolution separation of Na and K in solid feldspar Aquot K S w l w Microcline a polymorph 0f KAISi3O8 different from orthoclase is sometimes bluish green Microcline has plaid twinning The Feldspar Ternary CaAlZSi208 Anorthite N0 feldspars Miscibility Gap Albite Urthoclase NaAlSisos alkali feldspars KAlSisos Plagioclase Properties Luster pearly Vitreoustranslucent Color White to gray One perfect one good Cleavage Optical low relief and low birefringence Polysynthetio albite twinning usually present Not Perthitio Commonly zoned Plagioclase hand specimen note polysynthetic twinning Plagioclase Feldspars have polysynthetic lamellar Albite Twins V r lt 39 x 39 t grom 39 39 9quot1 quot quot AVA 39 A I V S 2 42 gt Z 7 3 V 3 an a E o a Q V a S 6 395 A a 4 m 2 gtlt 399 v 395 a I a g a O 43 a 9 9 2 J 4 Plagioclase Feldspars are commonly 39quot v T q 93 as Qq i 2a gv O A m CD a 54 CD 2 3 E c6 1 0 CL quotC CD m m 0 54 0 447 A a nu mlcroscope Zoning in Plagioclase Especially in volcanic rocks conditions may change around a growing plagioclase causing changes in plagioclase composition variable Na and Ca This is zoning Review Feldspars CaAlZSi208 Anorthite N0 feldspars Miscibility Gap Albite Urthoclase Ab NaAlSi308 alkali feldspars KAlSisos 01 Plagioclase Feldspars have perthites Why In some parts of the plagioclase A13 substitutes for Elfiiiquot or tne 514Iormu1a Alzsi208239 or other divalent cation 71 i 7 HquotC w7 LULWAWWV iid39ljiili 53 quot7 7 In some parts of the plagioclase structure A13 substitutes for 14 of the Si formula AlSi308139 or other monovalent cation Why do Plagioclase Feldspars NOT have perthites Al3 is looked tightly in feldspar framework Therefore Al3 can t move Na and Ca2 can t move without Al3 That would destroy the Charge balance Therefore exsolution or Perthites oan t happen in Plagioolase F eldspar And alkali feldspars except miorooline don t have albite twins Review Feldspars CaAlZSi208 Anorthite N0 feldspars Miscibility Gap Albite Urthoclase Ab NaAlSi308 alkali feldspars KAlSisos 01 Bowen s Reaction Series highT Ohvme Ca plagioclase 360 orthopyroxene q 39N 6 clinopyroxene NaCa plagioclase E a 5 0 amphibole Hb 5 a 339 g biotite Na plagioclase 9 alkali feldspar 000mg residual muscov1te phases quartz low T pressure kbar SiO2 PT Phase Diagram 20 low quartz stishovite coesite tridymite high quartz melt cristobal ite L250 200 150 100 50 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 temperature DC I l 1800 2000 2200 depth kilometers Low Quartz High 5 Quartz and Tridymite 2 Structures 5 55 E 5 a O H m How do Triangular Diagrams Work CaAlzsizos 100 CaAleizos Box 53 Shows CaO A1203 102 we ll use Plot a Feldspar feldspars 5 CaAleizog 25 NaAlSi3Og Count up om the 70 K AlSi308 opposite side 100 Ab E 2S 29 100 NaAlbl308 Q KAISi308 NaAlSi308 0 CaAleleS quot 01 KAlSi308 CaAlZSiZO8 Anorthite N0 feldspars Miscibility Gap Albite Urthoclase Ab NaAlSi308 alkali feldspars KAlSisos 0r Miscibility gap in Alkali Fsp causes Perthites 10000 One Homogeneous X Alkali Feldspar 8000 2 B a g d 3 a Q CL a 6000 lt 391 wob39eldspars 3 g a M 400 X Perthite X albite orthoclase NaAIs13o8 KAISi308 Dr Helen Lang Del t of Geoloh amp Geovral hr West Virginia University FALL 2008 GEOLOGY 284 MINERALOGY Metamorphisrn 0f Mafic Rocks basalts and gabbros produces a lot of different Minerals Different ingredients than pelitie rocks Less Si Al K rnore Fe Mg Ca Speci c minCICuD U1 slUupS of minerals ale stable at different Temperatures and Pressures Minerals of Metamorphosed Ma c Rocks Plagioclase CaNaAlSi408 like in igneous rocks Amphiboles doublechain silicates What properties do a quotminnowes ave ii common TremoliteuActinolite C32MgaFe5Si8022OH2 light to dark green colorless in thin section flornhlende coml leX formula related to tremolite dark green to black green or brown in thin section Glaucophane blue sodic am hibole NaZMg3A12Si8022OH2 Actimlit A m WW 5 els xmsbzz KU O lt 1 blue amphibole R r 1 r f 17quot More Minerals of Metamorphosed Ma c Rocks Pyroxenes similar to those in igneous rocks Clinopyroxene diopside CaMgFeSizO6 light to dark green moderate birerrmgence inclined extinction in microscope Orthopyroxene enstatite MgFeZSiZO6 or MgFe SiO3 tan to brown low birefringence parallel extinction in microscope 4 a W J A I LA k 1 J U L quotFwy cnrxwrcm x v W Fa cv J UL Jz 117 lt WUJM More Minerals of Metamorphosed Malic Rocks Epidote paired tetrahedra and isolated tetrahedra in a silicate Ca2AlFe3AleSiO4Si207OH pistachio green color is characteristic Chlorite dark green sheet silicate biotitelike Mg9F69A16Si9A14O10OH8 Garnet red similar to that in metapelitic rocks CaFeMgMn3Alei3O12 View Epidote Structure Movie 0 0 gtrs z w v 111 m I 7 f Milky llyMtg73 Different combinations of these minerals occur at different metamorphic conditions In 1920 Pentii Eskola a geology professor at the University of Helsinki Finland introduced the idea of w o l litletamorphic group minerals of rocks that eXperienced similar ranges of pressure and temperature during metamorphism are named for minerals in metamorphosed or metabasalts Metamorphic Faoies in P and T Minerals in Metabasalt at moderate pressure 0 Low T Greenschist albite actinolite epidote chlorite Medium T Epidote Amphibolite albite hornblende epidote High T Amphibolite plagioclase hornblende garnet Pressure kbar r o D 0 Temperature C Metamorphic Facies in P and T Minerals in Metabasalt At high T and P Granulite clino pyroxene ortho pyroxene plagioclase Blueschist albite blue amphibole lawsonite paired tetrahedral sil L U 0 x Q L 3 U U Q a D beloglte brlghtgreen Na rich pyroxene garnet Temperature C Metamorphic Facies in P and T 20 5 Pressure kbar a Temperature C Qo eJmeJedwsi Dr Helen Lang Del t of Geoloh amp Geovral hr West Virginia University FALL 2008 GEOLOGY 284 MINERALOGY Remember Bowen s Reaction Series hiT O 5 E 3 1 G a O 4 l 011Vlne Ca plagioclase 9 36 orthOK yroxene 0 NaCa plagloclase Na plagioclase clinopyroxene g a a QC amphibole Hb 9 a 9 biotite as alkali feldspar 3001ng residual musc0V1te phases quartz Ma c Minerals in Igneous Rocks Olivine Amphiboles isolated tetrahedral sil doublechain silicates o Pyroxenes H0rnblen1e single chain silicates Micas Enstatite sheet silicates orthopyroxene Bi0tite Augite Muscovite OK cl1n0pyr0xene not ma a We ll start With Olivine Olivine occurs in high temperature ma c hi Mg low Si igneous rocks 0 Commonly the rst mineral to crystallize from a basa Olivine also makes up most of the Earth s Mantle metamorphic rock We ll start With Olivine Formula Mg FeZSiO4 An Isolated Tetrahedral Silicate 0 complete solid solution With two end members MgZSiO4 Forsterite F o and FeZSiO4 Fad alite Fa Olivine Structure Relatively simple Isolated SiO 39 tetrahedra Divalent cations Mgl Fe share tetrahedral oxygens balance charge and link tetrahedra Olivine Structure Movie Olivine Properties Vitreous luster Olivegreen color No ood cleava es H65 G32 Optical high relief moderately high birefringence W 3 Lr Awme Xezmhths 4 Olivine Peri dot n O U C e s m h t m e m w O Bowen s Reaction Series hiT O 5 E 3 1 G a O 4 l 011Vlne Ca plagioclase 9 36 orthOK yroxene 0 NaCa plagloclase Na plagioclase clinopyroxene g a a QC amphibole Hb 9 a 9 biotite as alkali feldspar 3001ng residual muscov1te phases quartz Pyroxenes Common in ma c and intermediate igneous rocks Commonly crystallize from basaltic magma after olivine Bowen s reaction series Pyroxenes are Single Chain Silicates General Formula C612Mg2Fe2ZSiZO6 Two kinds Orthopyroxenes MgFe2Si206 have perpendicular axes Enstatite Clinopyroxenes CaMgFeSizO6 have inclined axes Augite and Diopside Pyroxenes are Single Chain Silicates Bigger cations Ca2 if present 7 in octahedral Smaller cations MgH and coordination Fe 7 in octahedral coordination Q 393 Strips 0r I7yen39 39n in the pyroxene structure are tightly held together at 9OO go between Ibeams Where bonds are weaker Movie Pyroxene Ibeam Orthopyroxene movie note no net tilt Diopside movie note tilt quotg f M IVYw t M v 7 Ava v m y w u l I E LAp quot R L 1134 my 7 Ak y k lt V r 1 k 7 L a 4 Ax 3 7 394 7 N g 7 m r M r Mg 7 1 213 j u 7 x f y 39 v fmk k 0 ef m61gtmymxjt2ltlt ms Diopside Hedenbergite caMgSi2O6 Ensmtite Ferrosilite Mgzsi206 M28506 Stubby Prisms Vitreous luster translucent Two perfect prismatic cleavages at approximately 900 t0 eachcther 1 K quotNPWJ my tall9 J C 7 v f7 9 Orthopyroxene Properties Enstatite orthopyroxene L 010r gray bronze brown C010rless to tan in thin section High relief LOW birefringence Parallel extinction Clinopyroxene Properties Diopside Color light green Colorless in thin section Moderate birefringence inclined extinction Augite Dark green to black Tan light brown or green in thin section Moderate birefringence inclined extinction Augme Bowen s Reaction Series hiT O 5 E 3 1 G a O 4 l 011Vlne Ca plagioclase 9 36 orthOK yroxene 0 NaCa plagloclase Na plagioclase clinopyroxene g a a QC amphibole Hb 9 a 9 biotite as alkali feldspar 3001ng residual muscov1te phases quartz Hornblende Hb is the main amphibole in igneous rocks 0 crystallizes after olivine and pyroxenes from ma c magmas and at lower temperature 0 is most common in intermediate composition igneous rocks Amphiboles General Formula NaKO1CaNaFeMg2MgFeAl5SiAl8022OH2 large medium small tetrahedral cations Simple Amphibole Tremolite Ca2MgSSi8022OH2 Double Chain Silicates Inosilicates 0 note Si80221239 in formula 0 they re hydrous OHbearing Minerals Medium 4 39 cations Ca 511am cations Lame cations I3 FeaMg NaK or empty Amphibole Structure View Tremolite Movie Igneous Amphiboles Big Hornblende Crystals called Phenocrysts Digression to talk about Asbestos The term asbestiform deserlbes a mineral habit characterized by long thin strong exible bers equivalent to hairs or whiskers Uses of asbestos Asbestos Minerals amphibolles Table 1 Asbestos Minerals Mineral A nam Min g39 ral Groug pprox Formula Riebeckite Crocidolite blue clinoamphibole Na2Fe32F32Mg3Si3022OH2 Grunerite Amosite brown clinoamphibole F622F92Mg5Si3022OH2 Anthophyllite orthoamphibole Mg7Si30220H2 Actinolite clinoamphibole Ca2MgFe25Si8022OH2 Tremolite clinoamphibole Ca2Mg5Si3022OH2 Serpentine Chrysotile whixe trioctahedral Mgasi205OH4 V to sheet silicate V sheet silicate Amphiboles are chain silicates and are inherently and predictably elongate or brous It s not surprising that most asbestos minerals arc amphiboles


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