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Date Created: 09/12/15
GEOLGEOG 321 Geomorphology Soil Order Names and Their Formative Elements Complied by Eric Davis 1998 Revisions by Steve Kite 2001 2007 Order Formative Element Derivation Mnemonicon I Entisol ent 7 nonsense syllable recent Inceptisol ept L inceptum beginning inception L Alfisol alf nonsense syllable pedalfer I Spodosol od 7 Gr spades wood ashes podzol odd Alfisol all 7 nonsense syllable pedalfer Ultisol ult L ultimus last ultimate Oxisol OX 7 Fr oxide oxide oxide Gelisols el 7 L geare freeze gelifluction L Mollisol o L malls soft molnfy I Aridisol id 7 L aridus dry arid Histosol ist V Gr histos tissue histology Vertisol ert L verto turn invert Andisol and Sp Andes andesite For images and summaries on the 12orders go to httn39lsoils lisda quot 39 39 quot quot orders Simplified Key to Soil Orders If soil has Order rmuch oversimplified from 2006 keys 1 Soils with permafrost within 1 to 2 m of the surface Gelisols 2 Other soils with high organic content Histosols 3 Other soils with a spodic horizon Spodosols 4 Other soils that have andic soil properties in 60 or more of the soil thickness Andisols 5 Other soils with an oxic horizon within 15 m Oxisols 6 Other soils with more than 30 clay slickensides and cracks when dry at 1850 cm Vertisols 7 Other soils with a calcic gypsic petrocalcic petrogypsic natric or salic horizon or a duripan Aridisols 8 Other soils that have an argillic horizon but a base saturation lt35 at 075 to 20 m Ultisols 9 Other soils that have a mollic epipedon Mollisols 10 Other soils that have an argillic or natric horizon or well developed fragipan Alfisols 11 Other soils that have an Cambic horizon Inceptisols 12 Other soils Entisols For details Ch 4 in Natural Resources Conservation Service 2006 Keys to Soil Taxonomy 10th Edition 331 p URL hffn39isoils usda quot 39 39 quot 39 quot39 quot quot kevskevs ndf Suborder Names Formative Elements and Meaning Partly updated to 1998 Soil Taxonomy Revisions Formative Element Derivation Mnemonicon Meaning or Connotation alb L albus white albino Presence of albic horizon and Modified from Ando Ando Andolike Andes Mtns JSK aqu L aqua water aquarium Characteristics assoc with water ar L arare to plow arable Mixed horizons arg Mod from argillic L argila white clay argillite An argillic horizon bor Gr boreas northern boreal Cool cry Gr Kryos cold crystal Permafrsot or cryoturbation JSK ferr L ferrum iron ferric Presence of iron fibr L fibra fiber fibrous Least decoposed stage fluv L fluvus river fluvial Floodplains fol L folia leaf fo age Mass of leaves hem Gr hemi half hemisphere Intermediate decomposition hist Gr histos tissue histology Organic Soil hum L humus earth humus Presence of humus lept Gr leptos thin leptometer Thin horizon ochr Gr base of ochros pale ocher Presence of Ochric epipedon orth Gr orthos true orthophonic The common ones plagg Mod from Ger Plaggen sod Presence or a plaggen horizon psamm Gr psammos sand psammite Sand texture rend Mod from Rendzina rendzina Rendzina like sapr Gr sapros rotten saprophyte Most decomposed stage torr L torridus hot and dry torrid Usually dry trop Mod from Gr tropikos of the solstice tropical Continually warm turb disturbed Cryoturbation by permafrost ud L udus humid udometer Of humid climates umbr L base of umbra shade umbrella Presence of umbric epipedon ust L base of ustus burnt combustion Dry clim usually hot in summer vitr L vitrum glass vitrify Hard Layer JSK xer Gr xerox dry xerophyte Annual dry season Great Group Names Formative Elements and Meaning Partly updated to 1998 Soil Taxonomy Revisions Formative Element Derivation Mnemonicon Meaning or Connotation acr Modified from Gr Akros at the end acrolith Extreme weathering agr L ager field agriculture An agric horizon alb L albus white albino An albic horizon and Modified fromAna39o Ana39o Andolike arg Mod from argillic L argilla white clay argillite An argillic horizon bor Gr boreas northern boreal Cool calc L calcis lime calcium A calcic horizon camb L cambiare to exchange change A cambic horizon chrom Gr chroma color chroma High chroma cry Gr Kryos cold crystal Cold dur L durus hard durable A duripan dystr dy Mod from Gr dys ill dystrophic infertile dystrophic Low base saturation eutr eu Mod from Gr eu good eutrophile fertile eutrophic High base saturation ferr L ferrum iron ferric Presence of iron uv L uvus river uvial Floodplain frag Mod from L fragillus brittle fragile Presence of a fragipan fragloss Compound of ag and gloss See the formative elements of frag and gloss gibbs Mod from gibbsite gibbsite Presence of gibbsite gloss Gr glossa tongue glossary Tongued gyps L gypsum gypsum gypsum Gypsic horizon hal Gr hals salt halophyte Salty hapl Gr haplous simple haploid Minimum horizon hum L humus earth humus Presence of humus hydr Gr hydro water hydrophobia Presence of water hyp Gr hyphoh moss hypnum Presence of hypnum moss luv lu Gr louo to wash ablution Illuvial med L meda middle medium Temperate climates nadur Compound of hatr and dur See the formative elements of natr and dur natr Mod from hatrium sodium Presence of natric horizon ochr Gr base of ochros pale ocher Presence of Ochric epipedon pale Gr paleos old paleosol Old development pell Gr pellos dusky Low chroma plac Gr base of plax at stone Presence of a thin pan plagg Mod from Ger Plaggen sod Presence or a plaggen horizon plinth Gr plinthos brick Presence of plinthite psamm Gr psammos sand psammite Sand texture quartz Ger quarz quartz quartz High quartz content rend Mod from Rendzina rendzina Rendzinalike rhod Gr base of rhodon rose rhododendron Dark red colors sal L base of sal salt saline Presence of salic horizon sider Gr sideros iron siderite Presence of free iron oxides sombr Fr sombre dark somber A dark horizon sphagno Gr sphagnos bog sphagnum moss Presence of sphagnum moss sulf L sulfur sulfur sulfur Presence of sulfites torr L torridus hot and dry torrid Usually dry trop Mod from Gr tropikos of the solstice tropical Continually warm ud L udus humid udometer Of humid climates umbr L base of umbra shade umbrella Presence of umbric epipedon ust L base of ustus burnt combustion Dry clim usually hot in summer verm L base of vermes worm vermiform Wormy or mixed by animals vitr L vitrum glass vitreous Presence of glass xer Gr xerox dry xerophyte Annual dry season Extragrade Formative Elements Partly updated to 1998 Soil Taxonomy Revisions Formative Element Derivation Connotation Abruptic L abruptum torn off Abrupt textural change Aeric Gr aerios air Aeration Anthropic Gr anthropos man Anthropic epipedon Arenic L arena sand Arenic surface horizon Cumulic L cumulus heap Thickened epipedon Epiaquic Gr epi over and aquic Surface wetness Glossic Gr glossa tongue Tongued horizon boundaries Grossarenic L grossus thick and arena sand Grossarenic surface horizon Hydric Gr hydor water Presence of water Leptic Gr leptos thin Thin soil Limnic Gr limn stone Limnic materials present Lithic Gr lithos stone Shallow lithic contact present Pachic Gr pachys thick A thick epipedon Paralithic Gr para beside and lithic Shallow paralithic contact present Pergelic L per throughout gelare freeze Permanently frozen Petrocalcic Gr petra rock and calcic Petrocalcic horizon present Petroferric Gr petra rock and liferrum iron Petroferric contact present Plinthic Gr plinthos brick Plinthite present Ruptic L ruptum broken Intermittent horizon Superic L superare to overtop Plinthite at surface Terric L term earth Mineral substratum Thapto Gr thapto buried A buried soil Abbreviated Soil Family Mineralogy Classes pre1998 revision of Taxonomy Class Definition Determinate Size Fraction mm 1 Used if applicable in any textural family Carbonatic gt40 carbonate whole soil lt20 Ferritic gt40 reducable Fe203 whole soil lt2 Gibbsitic gt40 gibbsite plus bohemite whole soil lt2 Oxidic ext Fe203 gibbsite claygtor 02 lt40 whole soil lt2 any other mineral lt90 quartz in 0022 Serpentinitic gt40 serpentine minerals whole soil lt2 Gypsic Carbonatic with gt35 gypsum whole soil lt20 Glauconitic gt40 glauconite whole soil lt2 2 Used only in sandy or loamy textural families Micaceous gt40 mica 002 20 Siliceous gt90 silica minerals 002 2 Mixed None of the above group 1 or 2 families 002 2 3 Used only in clayey textured families Halloysitic gt50 halloysite lt0002 Kaolinitic gt50 11 clays and lt10 expanding 21 clays lt0002 Montmorillonitic gt50 montmorillonite lt0002 Illitic gt50 mica illite lt0002 Vermiculitic gt50 vermiculite lt0002 Chloritic gt50 chlorite lt0002 Mixed None of the above mineralogical families For Info on State Soils see quot quotwin 11 allervstate soils
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