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Sociology Notes 2

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by: Emily Neff

Sociology Notes 2 0170-100-004

Emily Neff

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Different types of legitimate societal orders, the rise of modern capitalism.
Introduction to Sociology
Professor Primeggia
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Neff on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 0170-100-004 at Adelphi University taught by Professor Primeggia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Adelphi University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Basic Characteristics of Modern Capitalism:  ­industry moves into the primary position  ­business use profit to create more profit  ­modern capitalism is middle class capitalism  ­involves savers, workers, and investors  Roman Catholics could not understand working for profit because, to them, labor was used as a punishment and repayment for sins.  The 95 Thesis’ was a criticism of the Church. Martin Luther wanted the Church to return to its  original purity. The Church was becoming too far removed from the people, he felt, by allowing  practitioners to pay their way into Heaven. If you were a wealthy man, your first born male child  inherits everything and your other sons get bought positions into the military and Church. The  Church excommunicated Martin Luther for the 95 Thesis, and when he left him and a group of  his followers started their own religion called Lutheranism.  When Martin Luther translated the Bible from Greek to German, he mistranslated the word  “ponos”, which originally means pain or burden, to mean calling or duty. This is why in  Lutheranism work is not considered a punishment; it is considered your godly duty. Because  labor is your calling from God, the work that you’re born into is acceptable and you should not  strive to be anything else. At the heart of Calvinistic religion is the belief of predestination. Calvin believed that a sign you  were predestined for Heaven was if you were inclined to do hard, successful work. The more  money you make, therefore, the more you’re proving that you’re going to Heaven.    Political Institutions­ Thomas Hobbs and M. Weber  Why is human society ordered and not a jungle, given our human nature of self interest? It is in  our self interest to cooperate with others.  In today’s society, people give up some of their own freedom to be protected by policing  agencies, ie higher powers. The leviathan groups are the only ones that can use violence to  protect the rest of the population.  What Makes A Society Legitimate?  ­if people put up with it ­if other countries view our society as legitimate  Throughout history there have been three types of legitimate political systems:  ­legal rational   ­traditional   ­charismatic   Legal Rational: Authority is given to the position, not the person in the position. In this legitimate  system, also, there are general applicable rules that are supposed to cover all cases. Therefore  if you don’t fit naturally into the system, you are forced to fit.  Traditional Order: there is no separation between the person and the position. People believe in  the system as legitimate because it’s always existed.    Charismatic: led by a charismatic leader who is believed to be extraordinary. This charismatic  leader needs a group that believes in him or her. Charisma is a value free term; the leader can  be a sinner or a saint.  


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