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Islamic History, Week Four of Notes

by: Ari Notetaker

Islamic History, Week Four of Notes HIST131010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > History > HIST131010 > Islamic History Week Four of Notes
Ari Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover the fourth week of lectures.
Rudolph Matthew
Class Notes
Islamic Near East, middle east, islamic history
25 ?





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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ari Notetaker on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST131010 at University of Delaware taught by Rudolph Matthew in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see ISLAMIC NEAR EAST:1500-PRESENT in History at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
02/29-03/04/2016 Islamic Near East: 1500- Present Week 4 - Egypt prior to WWI Ahmad Urabi (1840/41-1911) • - led revolt in Egypt against Khedive Ismail (see previous notes). - “Egypt for the Egyptians”- British push Egyptians to force Ismail out so they can bombard Alexandria (1882) and set up a mandate. - Lord Cromer (1841-1917): colonialist who asserted power in India. 1857 uprise (The Great Indian Mutiny/Sepoy) in India by Hindus and Muslims caused fear that something similar would happen in Egypt. • Did not establish education in Egypt because it was thought that education was the problem in India’s case. • Built dams to harness water power of the Nile. • Muhammad Ahmad (1833-85) turned against the British and was seen as a big target. - Charles George Gordon (1833-1885): general sent to put Ahmad down, but was destroyed by Egyptian forces. • Dinshaway: British go pigeon shooting, accidentally kill a villager, villagers uprise, British put down fiercely and hang villagers involved, Egyptian intellectuals become very upset. • Mustafa Kamil (1874-1908) raised banner of nationalism. - Founded the National Party in Egypt, founded a magazine. - Joined by Luffi al-Sayyd (1873-1963) who founds another political party. - Bulgaria • 1876- Bulgarian Christians killed in massacres by Ottomans and West Europe wants to save the christians. • Russians demand autonomy for Bulgarians and push military forces close to Istanbul. 1 02/29-03/04/2016 • The British rescue the Ottomans again by stopping the Russians from crossing through Istanbul. - Results in Treaty of San Stefano • Basis for independence of Bulgaria (Ottomans lose) • Parts of Greece and Romania claimed by Bulgarians • Ottomans lose basically all claim in South Eastern Europe that had been conquered in the past Ottoman Empire is disarray causes European powers to see opportunities for • land grabbing • British claim Cyprus as reward, which is crucial in order to access the Suez Canal (British military bases are still present today). • Last two decades of the 1800s - Abdulhamid: plays the role of caliph, establishes Islam as the national religion, builds railway connecting Istanbul to Asia, all the way to Mecca. • Railway meant for easy mobilization of army, but presented for religious hajj • Created the Hamidiyah forces- enlists Kurds and moves them East to harass Armenians, Serbs, and Christians • Engaged in campaigns to convert sectarian and heretical elements of Islam • Becomes very paranoid and hounds out intellectuals, forcing them to leave because they spread western ideals. This influenced intellectuals to create secret organizations becoming the movement called Young Turks • Rule is toppled in 1909 by coup. • 1909 Counter coup topples prior coup, then is toppled again by Young Turks. - lasts 1909-WWI - Young Turks present themselves as reformists, but this antagonizes Arabs not ready to give up Ottoman ways. - Cemal Pasha (1872-1922): harsh ruler (public hangings, antagonist that alienates members of society needed for support and legitimacy, and crushes unrest swiftly and cruelly). 2 02/29-03/04/2016 - Austrians annex Bosnia, Italians invade Libya, Albania becomes an independent state. - 1st Bolcan War (?): Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro drive Ottomans out to Iderna. - Iran prior to WWI • Nader Shah (1736-47): Last of essential Asian warlords, he grabbed power through force, reestablished a new capital in Mashad (where the eighth imam died) from its previous location in Isfahan. - Known for wanting to establish an empire, sacking Deli, returning home where he became paranoid. He extorted the last remaining wealth of the people causing anger to rise and he was murdered in his tent, 1747. • Karim Khan: Refused to call himself Shah because he wanted to emphasize that he was a servant to his people. • Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925) - Agha Mohamad Khan (1794-97): Founder of Qajar Dynasty and known for being cruel and ruthless. • Moved the capital to Tehran. His successors were weak and could never control the clergy and establish legitimacy. - The high clergy became the protectors of the people which resulted in a struggle for power between the state and the clergy in the 19th century. - Fath Ali Shah Qajar (18?-1838): Lost territory to the Russians and Caucuses. - Sir John Malcom: 1st official British envoy to come to Iran for the purpose of forging an alliance with the Qajars. - Abbas Mirza (1789-1833): The crown prince under Fath Ali Shah. • The 1st to realize the things had changed when the Russians became a formidable military power and started expanding south. • Engaged in two wars with the Russians which resulted in a bloodbath of the Iranians. - Resulted in the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan (land grab for Russia) and 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchai (land grab for Russia of what is now Armenia). 3 02/29-03/04/2016 - Due to the defeats in both wars, he sent students to western schools. - Alexander Griboyedov (1795-1829): Sent by Russia to establish an embassy in Iran. • Murdered because there was a rumor that he kidnapped women. - The Russians threaten to invade again. - British geared toward keeping Russians tempered: “The Great Game” was the struggle for power over Asia. - Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (1848-96) • Assisted by Amir Kabir (1807-52) - Reform minded politician, assassinated at Fin in his bathtub. - Mirza Malkam Khan (1833-1908): 1st ambassador to Britain. • Writes law and wants the creation of a constitution. - Mozzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar (1896-1907): Influenced by Malkam Khan, reform- minded. Reform is expensive so he sold resources to western countries (fisheries, • newspapers, forests, tobacco production) - Results in the Tobacco Revolt: Reformists, merchants, and clergy upset about western influence and come together. • Shah is assassinated due to clergy’s rising anger and frustration. - Bast at British Embassy: 5000 people enter the British Embassy seeking bast (refuge). Goal was for ruler to establish a house of justice. • December 1906, the Shah signs a constitution on his deathbed for a parliament. - Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (1907-09): Ordered the bombing of the parliament and hated the idea of a representative government that he inherited from his father because he believed ruling should come from the line of God (the Shah). • Found supporters among the traditional clergy that were not enlightened and civil war breaks out (revolutionaries versus traditional religious group). 4 02/29-03/04/2016 - Howard Baskerville (1885-1909): American and W. Morgan Shuster (Late Treasurer-General of Persia), also American, sided with the Iranians and are still hailed as important figures in Iranian history. - Ahmad Shah Qajar (1909-25): last Shah - WWI • Ottomans side with Germans and Austrians • 1916: The British look for an ally in the Ottoman Empire. - Found two brothers, Faisal and Abdallah, she of Sharif of Mecca and protectors of the Holy site. - “Fight for us against Ottomans and we will give you independence” - British thought they could take advantage of the deal and not follow through with the creation of a new state. - Sykes-Picot Plan (1917)- North Western area under French control and South Eastern area under British control. Syria, Iraq, and Palestine became neutral buffers between the areas. - Mandate System: Certain parts of the world are put under “trusteeship” of various victorious European • powers. • French mandates established in MidEast: Syria, Lebanon. • British mandates established in MidEast: Palestine, Iraq, Transjordan. • Mandates both sanctify western colonialism while also circumscribing it. 5


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