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EBIO 1010: 2. 29. 16, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata

by: Claire Jacob

EBIO 1010: 2. 29. 16, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata EBIO 1010-02

Marketplace > Tulane University > Biological Sciences > EBIO 1010-02 > EBIO 1010 2 29 16 Annelida Arthropoda Echinodermata
Claire Jacob

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About this Document

These are lecture notes from this past week! (2. 29. 16)
Diversity of Life
Doosey, Michael
Class Notes
environmental biology, annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Phylum Annelida  Segmented worms    Annelids are characterized by segmentation or metarism  ● Bodies composed of serially repeated units  ● Allows for complexity and specialization→ more sophisticated nervous system  ● Provides a safety factor    Cleavage is spiral  ● Share a trochophore as larval form  ● Live in marine habitat    Setae  ● Tiny chitinous bristles  ○ Absent in leeches  ● Help it to move    2 groups  ● Polychaetes  ○ Primarily marine    Have circular and longitudinal muscles    True coelomate animals  ● Hydrostatic skeleton  ● Septum­ partitions that separate the segments    Class Polychaeta→ fan worms  ● Parapodia  ● Pincer­like jaws and eyes    Clade Clitella→ leeches and earthworms  ● Have a clitella  ○ Leeches only develop it during a reproductive time    Class Oligochaeta  ● Earthworms  ● Usually bear setae  ● Close to surface when it’s wet  ● Peristaltic movements  ● Generally scavengers  ● Food is stored in a thin­walled crop  ● Circulation and respiration: closed system  ● Hermaphroditic  ○ But usually cross­fertilized    Class Hirudinea  ● Leeches  ● Diversity→ most freshwater, carnivorous  ○ Hermaphrodites  ● Form and function  ○ No setae→ developed suckers for attachment and to “inchworm” along surfaces  ○ Have gut to hold large amounts of fluid  ● Nutrition:  ○ Not all are parasites, but most are fluid feeders      Phylum Arthropoda   Subkingdom Parazoa    >3x arthropod species than all other animal groups    Rich fossil history dating to late Cambrian segmented with joint appendages most diverse group  of animals    Arthropoda success explained by:  1. Segmentation   a. tagmata ­ segments that are fused  2. Exoskeleton  a. Made of chitin and protein (don’t confuse chitin and chiton­ animal in mollusca)  b. Must undergo ecdysis→ molting  3. Jointed appendages  a. May be modified into wings, mouthparts, or antennae  Cuticle→ touch, non­living outer layer    Problem: how can you get bigger if the skeleton is on the outside?   Molting, ecdysis    Open circulatory system    Sexes are separate and dimorphic    Arthropods do everything with legs (appendages)    Range from small to 3.5 meters long  Most arthropods are tiny  ● Hard exoskeleton­ can only grow when they shed it    Have nervous system and sensory organs→ Eyes!    See table 34.1 for taxonomy!    Subphylum chelicerata  ● First pair of appendages modified as chelicerae  ○ Used as fangs or pincers… NOT chewing parts  ● 6 pairs of appendages    Class Merostomata: horseshoe crabs  ● Modern horseshoe crabs aren’t very different from their early ancestors found in the  fossil record    Class Arachnida: spiders  ● Most are predaceous  ● Have spinning glands  ● Pedipalp: used for sperm transfer and sensory    Spiders:  ● All are predacious, mostly on insects  ● Feeding→ injected venom liquifies the insides  ● Have sensory setae    Subphylum Chilopoda: centipedes  ● Appx 3,000 species  ● Most are harmless to humans    Class Diplopodia: Millipedes 2 legs per segment  ● Most eat decayed plants  ● Cylindrical bodies    Subphylum Crustacea  ● Have 3 tagmata  ● Most appendages are biramous (2­branched)  ● 2 pairs of antennae  ● Head has pair of mandibles and 2 pairs of antennae  ● May have rostrum on anterior end  ● Most have common larva stage that’s different from its adult form    Class Malacostraca  ● Largest and most diverse class  ● More than 20,000 species    Isopods: rollie pollies  ● Only truly terrestrial crustaceans  ● Some isopods are highly modified as fish parasites    Decapods  ● 5 pairs walking legs and 3 pairs of maxillipeds  ● Crabs, shrimp, lobsters, crawfish      SubPhylum Hexapoda    Class insecta  ● By for largest animal group    Look at table 34.2    Distribution: no marine insects (none in the sea)  Have adaptive traits    Three body regions:  ● Head  ● Thorax  ● Abdomen    Insects have the same basic mouth structure    Internal anatomy  ● Flying insects have dilated trachaea→ supply air directly to tissues    Many insects undergo metamorphosis  ● Series of molts  ● Hemimetabolus vs. holometabulous   ○ Holo­ larval stage is worm­like (has pupa or chrysalis like moths and butterflies)  larva and adults are not competing for resources          It is so important to know the difference between Protostomes and Deuterostomes  Protostomes: first­mouth, spiral cleavage, determinate  Deuterostomes: second­mouth, radial cleavage, indeterminate        Phylum Echinodermata  ● Especially marine  ● Pentaradial symmetry→ bilateral as larvae  ● Deuterostome  ● Endoskeleton  ● Water vascular system→ aids in movement and feeding  ● Regeneration  ● Most use sexual reproduction  ○ Larval stage is free­living    5 classes: we’re gonna discuss 4 of them    1. Asteroida (sea stars and sea daisies), predatory, 5 or multiples of 5 arms  2. Echinoida (sea anemones and urchins, sand dollars)  3. Ophiurnoidea (brittle stars)  a. Largest class, arms are equal in diameter for their entire length  4. Holothuroida (sea cucumbers)    Distinguishing features:  ● Hollow, dorsal nerve cord  ● Pharyngeal pouches  ● Notochord  ● Postanal tails  All have these at some point in their lives    Other characteristics: segmented    Chordate characteristics in adults  ● Spinal cord and brain  ● Vertebral column  ● Eustachian tube  ● Coccyx bone (tailbone)    3 subphyla  1. Urochordata  2. Cephalochordata  3. Vertebrata    Urochordata: sea pineapples  ● Sessile and marine as adults  ● Covered with a cellulose  ● Tunicates and salps  ● Larvae is tadpole­like  ● Immobile filter feeders as adults→ pharyngeal slits move H2O with cilia    Cephalochordata  ● Common in shallow marine water  ● Hard to see because they are often partially buried  ● Do not have developed brain or sensory organs  ● Filter feed with pharyngeal slits  ● Segmented musculature  ○ Not derived from protostomes. This is a convergent trait    Subphylum Vertebrata  ● Chordates with a spinal column  ● Distinguished from non­vertebrates by:  ○ Vertebral column  ○ Head to protect sensory organs  ● Neural crest  ● Internal organs→ liver, kidneys, heart, and closed circulatory system  ● Endoskeleton    Cliff­note evolution of vertebrates  ● Vertebrates originally in oceans  ● Amphibians  ● Reptiles  ● Birds and animals    Fishes  ● Most diverse vertebrate group  ○ ½ of all vertebrates  ● 1. Vertebral column  ● 2. Jaws and paired appendages  ● 3. Internal gills  ● 4. Single­loop blood circulation  ● 5. Nutritional deficiencies→ most ingest amino acids    Table 35.1    Class Myxinil: hagfish  ● Glands beneath skin produce slime  ● Marine, deep sea, burrowing scavengers and predators    Class Cephalaspidomorphs→ Lamprey  ● Marine and freshwater move into freshwater to spawn  ● Do not have jaws or spinal cord    Evolution of Jaws  ● Hagfish and lamprey are jawless  ● Evolved from gill arches which support the gills  ● This is incredibly important because it helped move from filter feeding to prednation    Class Chondrichytes  ● Cartilage skeleton  ○ sharks , stingrays, etc.  ● Sharks (and boney fishes) have lateral line system for sensory  ● Eggs fertilize internally 


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