EBIO 1010: 2. 29. 16, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata
EBIO 1010: 2. 29. 16, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata EBIO 1010-02
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Phylum Annelida Segmented worms Annelids are characterized by segmentation or metarism ● Bodies composed of serially repeated units ● Allows for complexity and specialization→ more sophisticated nervous system ● Provides a safety factor Cleavage is spiral ● Share a trochophore as larval form ● Live in marine habitat Setae ● Tiny chitinous bristles ○ Absent in leeches ● Help it to move 2 groups ● Polychaetes ○ Primarily marine Have circular and longitudinal muscles True coelomate animals ● Hydrostatic skeleton ● Septum partitions that separate the segments Class Polychaeta→ fan worms ● Parapodia ● Pincerlike jaws and eyes Clade Clitella→ leeches and earthworms ● Have a clitella ○ Leeches only develop it during a reproductive time Class Oligochaeta ● Earthworms ● Usually bear setae ● Close to surface when it’s wet ● Peristaltic movements ● Generally scavengers ● Food is stored in a thinwalled crop ● Circulation and respiration: closed system ● Hermaphroditic ○ But usually crossfertilized Class Hirudinea ● Leeches ● Diversity→ most freshwater, carnivorous ○ Hermaphrodites ● Form and function ○ No setae→ developed suckers for attachment and to “inchworm” along surfaces ○ Have gut to hold large amounts of fluid ● Nutrition: ○ Not all are parasites, but most are fluid feeders Phylum Arthropoda Subkingdom Parazoa >3x arthropod species than all other animal groups Rich fossil history dating to late Cambrian segmented with joint appendages most diverse group of animals Arthropoda success explained by: 1. Segmentation a. tagmata segments that are fused 2. Exoskeleton a. Made of chitin and protein (don’t confuse chitin and chiton animal in mollusca) b. Must undergo ecdysis→ molting 3. Jointed appendages a. May be modified into wings, mouthparts, or antennae Cuticle→ touch, nonliving outer layer Problem: how can you get bigger if the skeleton is on the outside? Molting, ecdysis Open circulatory system Sexes are separate and dimorphic Arthropods do everything with legs (appendages) Range from small to 3.5 meters long Most arthropods are tiny ● Hard exoskeleton can only grow when they shed it Have nervous system and sensory organs→ Eyes! See table 34.1 for taxonomy! Subphylum chelicerata ● First pair of appendages modified as chelicerae ○ Used as fangs or pincers… NOT chewing parts ● 6 pairs of appendages Class Merostomata: horseshoe crabs ● Modern horseshoe crabs aren’t very different from their early ancestors found in the fossil record Class Arachnida: spiders ● Most are predaceous ● Have spinning glands ● Pedipalp: used for sperm transfer and sensory Spiders: ● All are predacious, mostly on insects ● Feeding→ injected venom liquifies the insides ● Have sensory setae Subphylum Chilopoda: centipedes ● Appx 3,000 species ● Most are harmless to humans Class Diplopodia: Millipedes 2 legs per segment ● Most eat decayed plants ● Cylindrical bodies Subphylum Crustacea ● Have 3 tagmata ● Most appendages are biramous (2branched) ● 2 pairs of antennae ● Head has pair of mandibles and 2 pairs of antennae ● May have rostrum on anterior end ● Most have common larva stage that’s different from its adult form Class Malacostraca ● Largest and most diverse class ● More than 20,000 species Isopods: rollie pollies ● Only truly terrestrial crustaceans ● Some isopods are highly modified as fish parasites Decapods ● 5 pairs walking legs and 3 pairs of maxillipeds ● Crabs, shrimp, lobsters, crawfish SubPhylum Hexapoda Class insecta ● By for largest animal group Look at table 34.2 Distribution: no marine insects (none in the sea) Have adaptive traits Three body regions: ● Head ● Thorax ● Abdomen Insects have the same basic mouth structure Internal anatomy ● Flying insects have dilated trachaea→ supply air directly to tissues Many insects undergo metamorphosis ● Series of molts ● Hemimetabolus vs. holometabulous ○ Holo larval stage is wormlike (has pupa or chrysalis like moths and butterflies) larva and adults are not competing for resources It is so important to know the difference between Protostomes and Deuterostomes Protostomes: firstmouth, spiral cleavage, determinate Deuterostomes: secondmouth, radial cleavage, indeterminate Phylum Echinodermata ● Especially marine ● Pentaradial symmetry→ bilateral as larvae ● Deuterostome ● Endoskeleton ● Water vascular system→ aids in movement and feeding ● Regeneration ● Most use sexual reproduction ○ Larval stage is freeliving 5 classes: we’re gonna discuss 4 of them 1. Asteroida (sea stars and sea daisies), predatory, 5 or multiples of 5 arms 2. Echinoida (sea anemones and urchins, sand dollars) 3. Ophiurnoidea (brittle stars) a. Largest class, arms are equal in diameter for their entire length 4. Holothuroida (sea cucumbers) Distinguishing features: ● Hollow, dorsal nerve cord ● Pharyngeal pouches ● Notochord ● Postanal tails All have these at some point in their lives Other characteristics: segmented Chordate characteristics in adults ● Spinal cord and brain ● Vertebral column ● Eustachian tube ● Coccyx bone (tailbone) 3 subphyla 1. Urochordata 2. Cephalochordata 3. Vertebrata Urochordata: sea pineapples ● Sessile and marine as adults ● Covered with a cellulose ● Tunicates and salps ● Larvae is tadpolelike ● Immobile filter feeders as adults→ pharyngeal slits move H2O with cilia Cephalochordata ● Common in shallow marine water ● Hard to see because they are often partially buried ● Do not have developed brain or sensory organs ● Filter feed with pharyngeal slits ● Segmented musculature ○ Not derived from protostomes. This is a convergent trait Subphylum Vertebrata ● Chordates with a spinal column ● Distinguished from nonvertebrates by: ○ Vertebral column ○ Head to protect sensory organs ● Neural crest ● Internal organs→ liver, kidneys, heart, and closed circulatory system ● Endoskeleton Cliffnote evolution of vertebrates ● Vertebrates originally in oceans ● Amphibians ● Reptiles ● Birds and animals Fishes ● Most diverse vertebrate group ○ ½ of all vertebrates ● 1. Vertebral column ● 2. Jaws and paired appendages ● 3. Internal gills ● 4. Singleloop blood circulation ● 5. Nutritional deficiencies→ most ingest amino acids Table 35.1 Class Myxinil: hagfish ● Glands beneath skin produce slime ● Marine, deep sea, burrowing scavengers and predators Class Cephalaspidomorphs→ Lamprey ● Marine and freshwater move into freshwater to spawn ● Do not have jaws or spinal cord Evolution of Jaws ● Hagfish and lamprey are jawless ● Evolved from gill arches which support the gills ● This is incredibly important because it helped move from filter feeding to prednation Class Chondrichytes ● Cartilage skeleton ○ sharks , stingrays, etc. ● Sharks (and boney fishes) have lateral line system for sensory ● Eggs fertilize internally
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