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by: Jessica Braun MD

Paleontology GEOL 331

Jessica Braun MD
GPA 3.69

Thomas Kammer

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About this Document

Thomas Kammer
Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Braun MD on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 331 at West Virginia University taught by Thomas Kammer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/202718/geol-331-west-virginia-university in Geology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Mass Extinctions Geology 331 Paleontology DOCTOR FUN GLAmMmu uwuemm pm AND we Formmom A new wtzwmwgmr Vchwc ACan I39 W WE meizmu TRAP THL no 1 ELEA magsm AMouMT UP ME THA 3E HYDKATE e EVER V Ki ESEu T TVEEAT pr Mum gm unwelcome alarm 2 May 2006 u or versan newquot 5912nth 0mm mm n0rgDavedr1unhlm E 1 n 6 a a U mth m Arman an 0w an Wen IMI UrJmlml 13 mm39zm IIIw luu39zlm zlw39xlllx I39m21139 Iimxx m39lmlmrl L l Ul lm puxs lbc Iillmmliuilx zl iH i lwum39wi ginm llllzlli zw Wu lw u mmumm million y600 500 400 300 200 100 development of diversity of marine invertebrates and the 5 largest mass extinction events 5 1 2 3 I l 4 lquotmoderniaunaquot number of families How have physical changes on the earth r effected the evolutionary history of life during the tinenlal volcani39sTTi J l I nU lw 39 Phanerozmc warm submarine volcanism average global temperature sea leve 1y million y600 560 460 360 200 Types of Extinction Background Extinction when species go extinct through natural selection during gradual environmental change or competition between species Mass Extinction when large numbers of species go extinct together due to very unusual environmentally catastrophic conditions Usually unrelated to their normal adaptations to their environment Is this natural selection at work Victims Ordovician about 57 of marine genera spread over about 100 families from several different groups Devonian about 50 of marine genera including all stromatoporoids all shallow water corals most trilobites o emm LEam Lam ASAPHIDA MCanHjH P 5333553 Emma WW AGNOSTIDA Ecamrmm mum mmm Panama cnewnna Ca menma Landwery CORYNEXDCHIDA Cur z mame nnxamma um wan DOCTOR FUN zsAugzoos quot 7 391 V r orgDavedr1unhxm m Equot 5 9 52 1 5 E a a U an omn hu quotWWquot Another evening with the paleobiologists Phacopids Phacops rana Phacops weathering out of the outcrop 39 w quotinquot 750 quotC C U I quotC Mamelons Linting a Fitteer food fro e omatoporo Rugose Corals Victims Permian about 50 of families 84 of genera 95 of species All fusulinid forams Most bryozoans Most brachiopods All rugose and tabulate corals All remaining trilobites Nearly all crinoids Nearly all cephalopods 80 of amphibians and reptiles Present Day Pataeugene Cenozoic Cretaceuus Mesozoic Near extinction of crinoids at the end Pennsytvaman of the Permian Dewman Silunan Palaeozo c Ordavmlan Cambrian otununaw 1m v an nLtn m l m L3 V t4 J Re mun anadhe U Oxygen and 002 levels during the Phanerozoic based on geochemical proxies N O u a no N 0 ll U E E Q3 8 CD CL 7200 Time Ma PAL Present Atmospheric Level Berner 2007 R ratio Did higher oxygen levels during the Carboniferous allow the growth of giant insects How would a drop in oxygen effect life Causes of Permian Mass Ex nc on Hypoxia in atmosphere Anoxia in oceans Oxidation of coal and hydrocarbons by extensive erosion of sedimentary rocks CHZO 02 gt 002 H20 Release of methane hydrates from continental shelves CH4 202 gt 002 H20 Caused by a drop in sea level andor massive volcanic activity Phanerozoic Sea Levels nns lohcl Cuzve r 39v H 59quot 1 1 u l V W 39I N0 I l I WWW fvri hq39u w I H p F W 4 1 Curve 1oo PgKJTrPCDsoCm 0 50 100 150 200 250x300 350 400 450 500 542 Was there a mass dieoff at the end of the Permian What do the stable isotopes of carbon indicate 13 Date Ma 25 g3 gto4 2 e39 i 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 g g 3 2502 02 5 g 332504i 05 395 2507 i 03i L g a 5 32514 i 03 c 2 i 1239 e a a 22523 i 03 s c 9 D g E 39g 19 E a 2 2 PT section U E g 16 in China on 0 8m IE LL 5 15 2 4 U C 0 CD as 5 2 13 C 9 c 0 quot 0 ca 93 C C39 O 8 mg 2534 i 02 1 239 39 b 39 239 4 Dilution of 013 in biosphere carbon reservoir by rapid influx of C12 caused by methane release and mass dying at the end of the Permian Organisms concentrate C12 which is released when they die 5013 CmC12 sample 013012 standard X Because the background ratio of 013012 is approximately 199 an increase of 06 6o in the 012 reservoir or a decrease of 06 6o in the 013 reservoir will change 5 by 6 This is about a 13 increase in organic carbon to nonliving carbon of the biosphere hydrosphere and atmosphere Victims Triassic about 48 of marine genera All conodonts Many brachiopods Most cephalopods All synapsids but not their descendants the mammals Many archaic reptile groups Did the hypoxia in the Early Mesozoic favor the adaptive radiation of dinosaurs and birds because of their greater lung capacities Percentage 02 amp R 002 Time Ma Presentday altitude equivalent of partial pressure of oxygen at sea level during the Phanerozoic E i E 2 m 2 3 cr 0 a 390 3 t t m E a t 3 0 Time Ma Huey and Ward 2005 Science Victims Cretaceous about 50 of marine genera All rudist bivalves All ammonoids and belemnites Most forams and coccoliths Marine reptiles ichthyosaurs plesiosaurs mososaurs Pterosaurs Nonavian dinosaurs Many mammals D 5 O D O U 4 D L O Bivalves Mesozoic Ammonites Mesozoic Belemnites Cretaceous Forams I 0 mm Coccoliths are plates on a spheroidal algae Coccoliths surrounding a diatom On to the end Cretaceous event aka the KT extinction event Did pterosaurs really go extinct at the end of the Cretaceous During the Exodus Israelites within sight ofMoses39s brazen pterosaur scar39ng device pictured above were safe but many stragglers still perished from the persistent bites of the ser entine pterosaurs Artistic reconstruction by Peggy Miller Pterosaurs including the ancestors of pterodactyls middle le and hi middle right lived peacefully With Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden Artistic reconstruction by Peggy Miller ob39ectivem triesorlcrea terosaur


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