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POLS 302 Hershey Ch 1-8 Notes

by: Brittany Smith

POLS 302 Hershey Ch 1-8 Notes POLS 302

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Liberal Arts > POLS 302 > POLS 302 Hershey Ch 1 8 Notes
Brittany Smith
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover everything that will be on the midterm exam. These notes will help if you don't have the textbook.
Political Parties and Elections
Kyle Saunders
Class Notes
political science, American Political Parties
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Hershey Notes Ch. 1­3 Chapter 1  Three Parts of Parties o Party organization  Institutions with a life and a set of rules of their own, beyond that of their  candidates o Party in the electorate  Those citizens who express an attachment to the party o Party in government  Composed of the men and women who run for and hold public office on  the party’s label  What Parties Do o Elect Candidates o Educate (or Propagandize) Citizens o Govern  Effects of Party Activity  How Parties differ from other Political Groups o Parties have a huge role in structuring elections o Full time commitment to political activity o The mobilize large numbers o The last for a long time o They serve as political symbols of loyalty  History of American Parties o The Federalist Party  1788­1816 o The Democratic­Republican (Jeffersonian) Party  1800­1832 o The Democratic Party  1832­Present o The Whig Party  1834­1856 o The Republican Party  1854­Present  What Parties Stand For o Polarization  Greater agreement on policy stands within each party and sharper policy  difference between the Democrats and Republicans  Parties Are Shaped by their Environment o Political culture  The set of political values and expectations held by its people o Voting and elections o Laws governing parties Chapter 2  The National Party System  Measuring State Part Competition o The Ranney Index (3 indicators)  The percentage of the popular vote for the parties candidates  The percentage of seats held by the parties in each house  The length of time plus the percentage of the time that the parties held  both the governorship and a majority in the state legislature  Limited Competitiveness o Incumbency o Homogeneity  People have become more mobile and are more inclined to move to areas  where like­minded people live   Causes of Two Party Systems o Institutional Forces  Duverger’s law  It argues that plurality elections in single­member districts (with no runoff elections) tend to produce two party systems  Single­member district o One candidate is elected to each office  Plurality Election o The candidate with the largest number of votes wins, even  if not a majority  Electoral College  Primaries  (OPPOSITE SIDE) Proportional Representation  Each party prepares a slate of candidates for these positions, and  the number of party candidates who win is proportional to the  overall percentage of the vote won by the party slate  Exceptions to the Two Party System o Nonpartisan elections o One­party monopoly o Minor parties o Independent Candidates Chapter 3  What is a “Strong” Party o Party organizational strength  Larger budgets  More full­time, paid staff members  Levels of Party Organization o Types of committees   Precinct, ward, and/or township committees  City party committee  County party committee state legislative and/or congressional district  committee  State central committee o Local Party Committees  The county is the main unit   Counties are divided into smaller sections called precincts o State Central Committees  Party Machines o The party machine was a disciplined organization that controlled the nominations  to elective office o The development of machines  Patronage  Those awarded on the basis of party loyaly rather than other  qualifications  Preferments  Other favors a governing party can grant to party supporters such  as contracts or preferred treatment in enforcing laws o How machines held on to power  Force  Intimidation  Informal government  Transformation of State and Local Party Organizations o Parties have be decentralized the national party organizations share power with  the local and state parties Hershey Notes Ch. 7 & 8 Chapter 7  Coalition o The social, economic, or other groups most inclined to favor a party’s candidates  at a particular time  Party Realignment o Great and enduring changes in the parties’ coalitions  The American Party Systems o Party Systems  Different electoral eras o The First Party System  1801 to 1828 o The Second Party System  1829 to 1860 o The Third Party System  1861 to 1896 o The Fourth Party System  1897 to 1932 o The Fifth Party System  1932 to 1968 o The Sixth Party System  The Social Basis of Party Coalitions o Regional Divisions o Age o Race o Religion and Religiosity  o Ethnicity o Gender  The Central Role of Issues in the Group­Party Linkage o Clearer differences between the Two Parties Coalitions on Issues o Definition of maintaining elections  The presidential candidate of the majority party normally won o Deviating elections  Those in which short­term forces such as candidate characteristics or  issues are powerful enough to cause the defeat of the majority party’s  candidate o Characterizing Changes  Party Realignment  A significant and enduring change in the patterns of group support  for the parties, usually (but not always) leading to a new majority  party.   Problems with realignment Chapter 8  Rules affecting access to voting rights o The secret ballot o Citizenship o Residence o Registration  The Special Case of Voting Rights for Black Americans o Legislative redistricting o Gerrymandering  Drawing district lines to maximize one’s own party’s strength and  disadvantage the other party o Majority­minority districts  Efforts to liberalize voting rules o Election Day Registration o Motor Voter Laws  Required the states to let citizens register to vote at driver’s license  bureaus, by mail, and through agencies that give out federal benefits o Early and No­excuse Absentee Voting  Voting ID Controversy o Voter ID laws o Proof of Citizenship o Voter Intimidation  Social Group Differences in Turnout o Education o Youth o Gender and Race o Social Connectedness o Political Attitudes  External political efficacy  Trust in government  Citizen duty  The Impact of Current Campaign o The excitement of the Election o Close competition


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