POLS 302 Hershey Ch 1-8 Notes
POLS 302 Hershey Ch 1-8 Notes POLS 302
Popular in Political Parties and Elections
Popular in Liberal Arts
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Hershey Notes Ch. 13 Chapter 1 Three Parts of Parties o Party organization Institutions with a life and a set of rules of their own, beyond that of their candidates o Party in the electorate Those citizens who express an attachment to the party o Party in government Composed of the men and women who run for and hold public office on the party’s label What Parties Do o Elect Candidates o Educate (or Propagandize) Citizens o Govern Effects of Party Activity How Parties differ from other Political Groups o Parties have a huge role in structuring elections o Full time commitment to political activity o The mobilize large numbers o The last for a long time o They serve as political symbols of loyalty History of American Parties o The Federalist Party 17881816 o The DemocraticRepublican (Jeffersonian) Party 18001832 o The Democratic Party 1832Present o The Whig Party 18341856 o The Republican Party 1854Present What Parties Stand For o Polarization Greater agreement on policy stands within each party and sharper policy difference between the Democrats and Republicans Parties Are Shaped by their Environment o Political culture The set of political values and expectations held by its people o Voting and elections o Laws governing parties Chapter 2 The National Party System Measuring State Part Competition o The Ranney Index (3 indicators) The percentage of the popular vote for the parties candidates The percentage of seats held by the parties in each house The length of time plus the percentage of the time that the parties held both the governorship and a majority in the state legislature Limited Competitiveness o Incumbency o Homogeneity People have become more mobile and are more inclined to move to areas where likeminded people live Causes of Two Party Systems o Institutional Forces Duverger’s law It argues that plurality elections in singlemember districts (with no runoff elections) tend to produce two party systems Singlemember district o One candidate is elected to each office Plurality Election o The candidate with the largest number of votes wins, even if not a majority Electoral College Primaries (OPPOSITE SIDE) Proportional Representation Each party prepares a slate of candidates for these positions, and the number of party candidates who win is proportional to the overall percentage of the vote won by the party slate Exceptions to the Two Party System o Nonpartisan elections o Oneparty monopoly o Minor parties o Independent Candidates Chapter 3 What is a “Strong” Party o Party organizational strength Larger budgets More fulltime, paid staff members Levels of Party Organization o Types of committees Precinct, ward, and/or township committees City party committee County party committee state legislative and/or congressional district committee State central committee o Local Party Committees The county is the main unit Counties are divided into smaller sections called precincts o State Central Committees Party Machines o The party machine was a disciplined organization that controlled the nominations to elective office o The development of machines Patronage Those awarded on the basis of party loyaly rather than other qualifications Preferments Other favors a governing party can grant to party supporters such as contracts or preferred treatment in enforcing laws o How machines held on to power Force Intimidation Informal government Transformation of State and Local Party Organizations o Parties have be decentralized the national party organizations share power with the local and state parties Hershey Notes Ch. 7 & 8 Chapter 7 Coalition o The social, economic, or other groups most inclined to favor a party’s candidates at a particular time Party Realignment o Great and enduring changes in the parties’ coalitions The American Party Systems o Party Systems Different electoral eras o The First Party System 1801 to 1828 o The Second Party System 1829 to 1860 o The Third Party System 1861 to 1896 o The Fourth Party System 1897 to 1932 o The Fifth Party System 1932 to 1968 o The Sixth Party System The Social Basis of Party Coalitions o Regional Divisions o Age o Race o Religion and Religiosity o Ethnicity o Gender The Central Role of Issues in the GroupParty Linkage o Clearer differences between the Two Parties Coalitions on Issues o Definition of maintaining elections The presidential candidate of the majority party normally won o Deviating elections Those in which shortterm forces such as candidate characteristics or issues are powerful enough to cause the defeat of the majority party’s candidate o Characterizing Changes Party Realignment A significant and enduring change in the patterns of group support for the parties, usually (but not always) leading to a new majority party. Problems with realignment Chapter 8 Rules affecting access to voting rights o The secret ballot o Citizenship o Residence o Registration The Special Case of Voting Rights for Black Americans o Legislative redistricting o Gerrymandering Drawing district lines to maximize one’s own party’s strength and disadvantage the other party o Majorityminority districts Efforts to liberalize voting rules o Election Day Registration o Motor Voter Laws Required the states to let citizens register to vote at driver’s license bureaus, by mail, and through agencies that give out federal benefits o Early and Noexcuse Absentee Voting Voting ID Controversy o Voter ID laws o Proof of Citizenship o Voter Intimidation Social Group Differences in Turnout o Education o Youth o Gender and Race o Social Connectedness o Political Attitudes External political efficacy Trust in government Citizen duty The Impact of Current Campaign o The excitement of the Election o Close competition
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