POLS 302 Sides Ch 1-3, 6, 11-12 Notes
POLS 302 Sides Ch 1-3, 6, 11-12 Notes POLS 302
Popular in Political Parties and Elections
Popular in Liberal Arts
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Sides Notes Chapter 1 Campaign o An organized effort to persuade and mobilize voters to support or oppose a party or candidate Elections o The selection of persons to hold public office by means of a vote Four aspects of campaigns and elections o The rules that govern elections o The broader reality – economic, political, and historical – that parties and candidates confront as they decide whether to run or how to campaign Incumbent The candidate in an election who already occupies the office o The strategic choices that varies actors make o The choices of citizens, who will ultimately decide the outcome Ways to evaluate campaigns o Free choice o Political equality o Deliberation o Free Speech Chapter 2 Who can run for office? What are qualifications for o Senate 30 years old citizen for 9 years “inhabitant” of the state o House Representative 25 years old citizen for 7 years inhabitant of the state o President 35 years old U.S. resident for 14 years Native born citizen of the U.S. o Independent candidates Those unaffiliated with a party o Term limits Limits on the number of terms politicians can serve in a particular elected office When are elections held? o Senate? Every six years o House? Every two years o President? Every four years o Primary election Election in which voters select the candidate that will run for the party in the general election o Permanent campaign The notion that candidates never stop campaigning because of the constant need to raise money for the next election cycle Benefits Improve quality of deliberation More informed citizens with longer campaigns Disadvantages Hurts the ideal of free choice by dissuading some good candidates from running Detracts from good governance Where to Run o Singlemember districts Geographic units that elect only one person to represent the entire unit o Atlarge elections Geographic units that elect multiple members as their representatives o Reapportionment Process of determining the number of representatives allotted to each state after the decennial census count o Redistricting Drawing new district lines after the decennial census count o Malapportionment Any significant differences in the number of citizens across districts o “one person, one vote” the principle that each person’s vote should have equal weight in determining representation; first articulated in Reynolds v. Sims (1964) o Voting Rights Act Forbade states from intentionally diluting the voting power of minorities o Communities of interest Redistricting principle that districts should attempt to keep together citizens in areas that share a political history or set of interests o Gerrymandering The deliberate manipulation of district boundaries for some political purpose o Majorityminority districts Districts in which racial or ethnic minorities form a majority of the population Who Can Vote? o Poll taxes Fees that one had to pay in order to vote and that were also used to disenfranchise black voters in the South o Literacy tests Another way by which southern blacks were disenfranchised o Closed primary Only citizens registered with the party can vote in that party’s primary o Semiclosed primary Both unaffiliated voters and those registered as members of the party can vote in that party’s primary o Open primary All voters can vote in either party’s primary o Blanket primary There is a single ballot with the candidates for each party listed, and citizens can mix and match, voting for a Democratic nominee for senator, a republican candidate for governor, and so on. o Sameday (or electionday) registration System in which eligible citizens may register to vote as late as Election Day itself Who Wins? o Plurality rule A way of determining who wins electinos in which the candidate with the most votes wins (even if they do not get a majority of the votes) o Proportional representation System in which seats are allocated based on the percentage of the vote won by each party o Duverger’s Law Singlemember, simple plurality election systems tend to produce two major political parties o Strategic voting Voting for a candidate who is not their first choice but has a better chance of winning Chapter 3 Four major eras of Political Campaigns o The First Campaign Era 17881824 Predemocratic campaigns Limited mass participation DemocraticRepublican Party dominance Era of predemocratic campaigns Time between the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1788 and the widespread expansion of elected public offices in the 1820s Federalist Party o The Second Campaign Era 18281892 Jacksonian/Civil War Campaigns Advent of mass participation Emergence of the Democratic Party (1828) and then the Republican Party (1860) Development of professional campaign managers Democratic Party Whig Party Republican Party Reconstruction Political machines Party organizations that mobilized lower status citizens to win office, and then used government to reward party workers and bestow services and benefits to their constituents o The Third Campaign Era 18961948 Progressive Era Campaigns Decline in party dominance, decline in participation Mobilization of immigrant groups and lower status citizens after New Deal Republican party dominance, followed by Democratic Party dominance after 1932 Advent of primaries, secret ballot Frontporch campaign Tactic whereby the candidate stays at home an allows his campaign team to arrange for select meetings with news media outlets Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party Australian ballot A method of voting by secret ballot, widelt adopted in the U.S. in the early part of the 1900s, that made it impossible for casual observers or party workers to determine for whom a citizen had cast a vote o The Fourth Campaign Era 1952present Candidate Campaigns Increased competitiveness Increase in money in campaigns Advent of computers, the Internet, and social networking Retail politics Facetoface communication between candidates and voters of political positions and arguments Survey research A research method involving the use of questionnaires and/or statistical surveys to gather data about people and their thoughts and behaviors Sides Notes Ch. 6, 11, & 12 Chapter 6 Organization of political parties o Political Parties Groups of people with the shared interest of electing public officials under a common label o Two major political parties Republicans Democrats o Partyintheelectorate Includes all citizens who identify with the party o Partyasorganization Comprises the institutions that administer party affairs o Partyingovernment Consists of elected leaders and appointed government officials who shape party policy goals Why do we have parties? o Aggregate and articulate interests o Parties organize coalitions o Parties coordinate elections and mobilize voters o Parties coordinate the legislative process o Parties facilitate collective political action Democratic and Republican Parties o Democratic Party Favors more government intervention in the economy than the Republican Party Largely made up of minority groups that vote for them by large margins o Republican Party Wins by smaller margins among larger groups Third Parties o Electoral College makes it hard for third parties to win elections o Plurality voting In the Electoral College whereby the candidate who wins the most votes in each state wins all of that state’s electoral votes Hurts the chances of national third parties or independent candidates at the presidential levels What Roles do Parties Play in Campaigns? o PartyintheElectorate It forms the volunteer base of each party Makes the partisan complexion Creates loyalty voting o PartyasOrganization Recruit candidates Raise money for campaigns Work to reelect incumbents Coordinated expenditures Money that political parties spend to help cover a candidates campaign costs in a federal election Mobilize voters o PartyinGovernment Candidates with a party label are tied to the party’s elected leaders Candidates associated with the political party in power, especially incumbents, are judged on the basis of almost anything that occurs during their party’s reign. Rules that affect the parties o Election laws Primary elections Specific dates set for these o Campaign finance laws Affect how the parties can raise and spend money Soft money Unlimited contributions Money raised outside the limits normally established by campaign finance laws Super PACs PACs that can collect unlimited amounts of donations as a consequence of a recent Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. FEC Required to disclose their donors Reality that affect parties o Party identification A citizens allegiance to one of the political parties, including party preference and level of commitment o Issue ownership The public trusts one party more than another to deal with certain problems Are Political Parties in Decline? o No o Invisible primary The period of time before the actual presidential primaries begin o Polarization The idea that the two parties are moving further apart from one another on an underlying ideological spectrum Chapter 11 Rules and Reality in Local Elections o Nonpartisan elections o Atlarge elections o Offcycle elections o Smallscale democracy Rules and Reality in State Elections o Term limits States limit the number of terms a governor can serve More turnover in state offices than national level offices o Legislative professionalism Professionalism A quality of legislatures that captures how much work legislators perform and status they receive. In a more professionalized legislature, serving as a legislator is a fulltime job with a substantial salary and staff support Citizen legislatures Legislatures that are not as professionalized o Characteristics of the Electorate Demographics create a huge effect on elections o State Party Organizational Strength Gives candidates with a stronger party are more likely to receive more help than those with a weak party organization o National Factors Economy Incumbency o Coattail Effects Lessvisible candidates will “ride the coattails” of a more visible popular candidate of the same party who is on the ballot and thereby do better at the polls Matters more in states with straightticket voting Professionalization of State and Local campaigns o Ballot initiatives Measures that affect laws or public policy and that are proposed by interested citizens and then voted on by citizens in elections o Referendum Measures that affect laws or public policy that allow citizens to vote on a statue already passed by state legislatures o Judicial elections Three types Partisan elections Nonpartisan elections Retention elections Paradox of State and Local Elections o Less voter turnout o However, more important issues that directly effect the electorate Chapter 12 Electoral Participation o The range of activites by which individuals attempt to affect the outcome of an election o Can be performed along, such as voting or making a donation o Different levels of information Participatory distortion o Occurs when a group of citizens with preferences and viewpoints that are unrepresentative of the general public has a greater impact on the political process than other citizens Participation Trends/Voting Trends o Steady voting in midterm elections o Getoutthevote (GOTV) efforts The efforts of candidates, parties, and interest groups to get citizens to vote o Worldwide U.S. ranks 31 out of the 76 countries that hold presidential elections between 2004 and 2014 th U.S. ranks 113 in midterm elections compared to the 114 countreis with parliamentary elections However, Americans have stronger connection to parties than other countries Why do People Participate in Campaigns and Elections? o Ability Depends on Education o The more educated, the more participation Income Free time o Motivation Individual motivation Generated by others Phone calls Political interest Having an ongoing interest in politics Political knowledge Partisan strength Selfinterest Material benefit o A person receives something tangible in exchange for participating Solidarity benefits o The intangible rewards that come from being part of a collective effort Purposive benefits o Consist of satisfaction for having advanced an issue or ideological position, or for having fulfilled a duty o Contextual Factors Two types Those related to campaign activities Those related to an individual’s social context Mobilization The range of activities that candidates, parties, activists, and interest groups engage in to encourage people to participate Social Contexts The people with whom an individual communicates and interacts as that person’s social context Most important is the family Others o School o Communities o Friends o Coworkers o Generational cohorts People who came of age politically at about the same time o Opportunity Voter Registration Motor Voter Act o A federal law requiring states to allow voters to register when they are applying for a drivers license and public assistance programs or to allow Election Day registration Voting Convenience voting o Methods by which registrants can vote without actually casting a ballot at a polling place on Election Day Absentee voting o Enables citizens to vote by mailin paper ballot prior to Election Day Vote by mail o County administrators automatically mail out ballots to registered voters approximately three weeks before an election Electoral Competitiveness Participating Online Means to donate online Pledge their time and efforts Sign up for alerts about further opportunity Group differences in electoral participation o The wealthy and the poor The wealthier have higher voter turnout o The old and the young The older population has a higher voter turnout The young are in a period of transition which limits their time to participate They also move a lot in which they have to reregister which increases the cost of voting o Whites and nonwhites o Men and Women
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