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POLS 302 Sides Ch 1-3, 6, 11-12 Notes

by: Brittany Smith

POLS 302 Sides Ch 1-3, 6, 11-12 Notes POLS 302

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Liberal Arts > POLS 302 > POLS 302 Sides Ch 1 3 6 11 12 Notes
Brittany Smith
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These notes cover everything in the Sides textbook that will be on the midterm exam. THESE NOTES WILL HELP DRASTICALLY IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE TEXTBOOK!
Political Parties and Elections
Kyle Saunders
Class Notes
political science, American Political Parties
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Smith on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Kyle Saunders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Political Parties and Elections in Liberal Arts at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
Sides Notes Chapter 1  Campaign o An organized effort to persuade and mobilize voters to support or oppose a party  or candidate  Elections o The selection of persons to hold public office by means of a vote  Four aspects of campaigns and elections o The rules that govern elections o The broader reality – economic, political, and historical – that parties and  candidates confront as they decide whether to run or how to campaign  Incumbent   The candidate in an election who already occupies the office o The strategic choices that varies actors make o The choices of citizens, who will ultimately decide the outcome  Ways to evaluate campaigns o Free choice o Political equality o Deliberation o Free Speech Chapter 2  Who can run for office?   What are qualifications for o Senate  30 years old  citizen for 9 years  “inhabitant” of the state  o House Representative  25 years old  citizen for 7 years  inhabitant of the state o President  35 years old  U.S. resident for 14 years  Native born citizen of the U.S. o Independent candidates  Those unaffiliated with a party o Term limits  Limits on the number of terms politicians can serve in a particular elected  office  When are elections held? o Senate?  Every six years o House?  Every two years o President?  Every four years o Primary election  Election in which voters select the candidate that will run for the party in  the general election o Permanent campaign  The notion that candidates never stop campaigning because of the constant need to raise money for the next election cycle  Benefits  Improve quality of deliberation  More informed citizens with longer campaigns  Disadvantages  Hurts the ideal of free choice by dissuading some good candidates  from running  Detracts from good governance  Where to Run o Single­member districts  Geographic units that elect only one person to represent the entire unit o At­large elections  Geographic units that elect multiple members as their representatives o Reapportionment  Process of determining the number of representatives allotted to each state after the decennial census count o Redistricting  Drawing new district lines after the decennial census count o Malapportionment  Any significant differences in the number of citizens across districts o “one person, one vote”  the principle that each person’s vote should have equal weight in  determining representation; first articulated in Reynolds v. Sims (1964) o Voting Rights Act  Forbade states from intentionally diluting the voting power of minorities o Communities of interest  Redistricting principle that districts should attempt to keep together  citizens in areas that share a political history or set of interests  o Gerrymandering  The deliberate manipulation of district boundaries for some political  purpose o Majority­minority districts  Districts in which racial or ethnic minorities form a majority of the  population  Who Can Vote? o Poll taxes  Fees that one had to pay in order to vote and that were also used to  disenfranchise black voters in the South o Literacy tests  Another way by which southern blacks were disenfranchised o Closed primary  Only citizens registered with the party can vote in that party’s primary o Semi­closed primary  Both unaffiliated voters and those registered as members of the party can  vote in that party’s primary o Open primary  All voters can vote in either party’s primary o Blanket primary  There is a single ballot with the candidates for each party listed, and  citizens can mix and match, voting for a Democratic nominee for senator,  a republican candidate for governor, and so on. o Same­day (or election­day) registration  System in which eligible citizens may register to vote as late as Election  Day itself  Who Wins? o Plurality rule  A way of determining who wins electinos in which the candidate with the  most votes wins (even if they do not get a majority of the votes) o Proportional representation  System in which seats are allocated based on the percentage of the vote  won by each party o Duverger’s Law  Single­member, simple plurality election systems tend to produce two  major political parties o Strategic voting  Voting for a candidate who is not their first choice but has a better chance  of winning Chapter 3  Four major eras of Political Campaigns o The First Campaign Era  1788­1824  Pre­democratic campaigns  Limited mass participation  Democratic­Republican Party dominance  Era of pre­democratic campaigns  Time between the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1788 and  the widespread expansion of elected public offices in the 1820s  Federalist Party o The Second Campaign Era  1828­1892  Jacksonian/Civil War Campaigns  Advent of mass participation  Emergence of the Democratic Party (1828) and then the Republican Party  (1860)  Development of professional campaign managers  Democratic Party  Whig Party  Republican Party  Reconstruction  Political machines  Party organizations that mobilized lower status citizens to win  office, and then used government to reward party workers and  bestow services and benefits to their constituents  o The Third Campaign Era  1896­1948  Progressive Era Campaigns  Decline in party dominance, decline in participation  Mobilization of immigrant groups and lower status citizens after New  Deal  Republican party dominance, followed by Democratic Party dominance  after 1932  Advent of primaries, secret ballot  Front­porch campaign   Tactic whereby the candidate stays at home an allows his  campaign team to arrange for select meetings with news media  outlets  Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party  Australian ballot  A method of voting by secret ballot, widelt adopted in the U.S. in  the early part of the 1900s, that made it impossible for casual  observers or party workers to determine for whom a citizen had  cast a vote o The Fourth Campaign Era  1952­present  Candidate Campaigns  Increased competitiveness  Increase in money in campaigns  Advent of computers, the Internet, and social networking  Retail politics  Face­to­face communication between candidates and voters of  political positions and arguments  Survey research  A research method involving the use of questionnaires and/or  statistical surveys to gather data about people and their thoughts  and behaviors Sides Notes Ch. 6, 11, & 12 Chapter 6  Organization of political parties o Political Parties  Groups of people with the shared interest of electing public officials under a common label o Two major political parties  Republicans  Democrats  o Party­in­the­electorate  Includes all citizens who identify with the party o Party­as­organization  Comprises the institutions that administer party affairs o Party­in­government  Consists of elected leaders and appointed government officials who shape  party policy goals  Why do we have parties? o Aggregate and articulate interests o Parties organize coalitions o Parties coordinate elections and mobilize voters o Parties coordinate the legislative process o Parties facilitate collective political action  Democratic and Republican Parties o Democratic Party  Favors more government intervention in the economy than the Republican Party  Largely made up of minority groups that vote for them by large margins o Republican Party  Wins by smaller margins among larger groups  Third Parties o Electoral College makes it hard for third parties to win elections o Plurality voting  In the Electoral College whereby the candidate who wins the most votes in each state wins all of that state’s electoral votes  Hurts the chances of national third parties or independent candidates at the presidential levels  What Roles do Parties Play in Campaigns? o Party­in­the­Electorate  It forms the volunteer base of each party  Makes the partisan complexion   Creates loyalty voting o Party­as­Organization  Recruit candidates  Raise money for campaigns  Work to reelect incumbents  Coordinated expenditures  Money that political parties spend to help cover a candidates  campaign costs in a federal election  Mobilize voters  o Party­in­Government   Candidates with a party label are tied to the party’s elected leaders  Candidates associated with the political party in power, especially  incumbents, are judged on the basis of almost anything that occurs during  their party’s reign.  Rules that affect the parties o Election laws  Primary elections  Specific dates set for these o Campaign finance laws  Affect how the parties can raise and spend money  Soft money  Unlimited contributions  Money raised outside the limits normally established by campaign  finance laws  Super PACs  PACs that can collect unlimited amounts of donations as a  consequence of a recent Supreme Court decision, Citizens United  v. FEC  Required to disclose their donors  Reality that affect parties o Party identification  A citizens allegiance to one of the political parties, including party  preference and level of commitment o Issue ownership  The public trusts one party more than another to deal with certain  problems  Are Political Parties in Decline? o No o Invisible primary  The period of time before the actual presidential primaries begin o Polarization  The idea that the two parties are moving further apart from one another on  an underlying ideological spectrum Chapter 11  Rules and Reality in Local Elections o Nonpartisan elections o At­large elections o Off­cycle elections o Small­scale democracy  Rules and Reality in State Elections o Term limits  States limit the number of terms a governor can serve  More turnover in state offices than national level offices o Legislative professionalism  Professionalism  A quality of legislatures that captures how much work legislators  perform and status they receive. In a more professionalized  legislature, serving as a legislator is a full­time job with a  substantial salary and staff support  Citizen legislatures  Legislatures that are not as professionalized o Characteristics of the Electorate  Demographics create a huge effect on elections o State Party Organizational Strength  Gives candidates with a stronger party are more likely to receive more  help than those with a weak party organization o National Factors  Economy  Incumbency  o Coattail Effects  Less­visible candidates will “ride the coattails” of a more visible popular  candidate of the same party who is on the ballot and thereby do better at  the polls  Matters more in states with straight­ticket voting  Professionalization of State and Local campaigns o Ballot initiatives  Measures that affect laws or public policy and that are proposed by  interested citizens and then voted on by citizens in elections o Referendum  Measures that affect laws or public policy that allow citizens to vote on a  statue already passed by state legislatures  o Judicial elections  Three types  Partisan elections  Nonpartisan elections  Retention elections  Paradox of State and Local Elections o Less voter turnout o However, more important issues that directly effect the electorate Chapter 12  Electoral Participation o The range of activites by which individuals attempt to affect the outcome of an  election o Can be performed along, such as voting or making a donation o Different levels of information  Participatory distortion o Occurs when a group of citizens with preferences and viewpoints that are  unrepresentative of the general public has a greater impact on the political process than other citizens  Participation Trends/Voting Trends o Steady voting in midterm elections o Get­out­the­vote (GOTV) efforts  The efforts of candidates, parties, and interest groups to get citizens to  vote o World­wide  U.S. ranks 31  out of the 76 countries that hold presidential elections  between 2004 and 2014 th  U.S. ranks 113  in midterm elections compared to the 114 countreis with  parliamentary elections  However, Americans have stronger connection to parties than other  countries  Why do People Participate in Campaigns and Elections? o Ability  Depends on   Education o The more educated, the more participation  Income  Free time o Motivation  Individual motivation  Generated by others   Phone calls  Political interest  Having an ongoing interest in politics  Political knowledge  Partisan strength  Self­interest  Material benefit o A person receives something tangible in exchange for  participating  Solidarity benefits o The intangible rewards that come from being part of a  collective effort  Purposive benefits o Consist of satisfaction for having advanced an issue or  ideological position, or for having fulfilled a duty o Contextual Factors  Two types  Those related to campaign activities   Those related to an individual’s social context  Mobilization  The range of activities that candidates, parties, activists, and  interest groups engage in to encourage people to participate  Social Contexts  The people with whom an individual communicates and interacts  as that person’s social context  Most important is the family  Others o School o Communities  o Friends o Coworkers o Generational cohorts  People who came of age politically at about the  same time o Opportunity  Voter Registration  Motor Voter Act o A federal law requiring states to allow voters to register  when they are applying for a drivers license and public  assistance programs or to allow Election Day registration  Voting  Convenience voting o Methods by which registrants can vote without actually  casting a ballot at a polling place on Election Day  Absentee voting o Enables citizens to vote by mail­in paper ballot prior to  Election Day  Vote by mail o County administrators automatically mail out ballots to  registered voters approximately three weeks before an  election  Electoral Competitiveness  Participating Online  Means to donate online  Pledge their time and efforts  Sign up for alerts about further opportunity   Group differences in electoral participation o The wealthy and the poor  The wealthier have higher voter turnout o The old and the young  The older population has a higher voter turnout  The young are in a period of transition which limits their time to  participate  They also move a lot in which they have to re­register which increases the  cost of voting o Whites and non­whites o Men and Women


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