Chapter 7: Learning
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 7: Learning Learning Learning – process of acquiring new information or behaviors through experience It was first believed by Aristotle, then John Locke and David Hume, that we learn by association Associative Learning – learning that certain events occur together o Events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning) Stimulus – any event that evokes a response o Respondent Behavior – an automatic response to some stimulus o Operant Behavior – consequences produced by the environment are associated with a response (B.F. Skinner) Cognitive Learning – acquiring mental information by observing others and events as well as through language Behaviorist View of Learning and Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning – learning in which one learns to link stimuli together and anticipate events that will occur from them o Ivan Pavlov (dog salivation experiment concerning neutral stimuli) led to John Watson’s behaviorism (the belief that mental life was less important than behavior) Neutral Stimulus – in classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits no response before the conditioning occurs Unconditioned Response – an unlearned, natural response to unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus – something that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response Conditioned Response – a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned Stimulus – triggers a conditioned response after association with an unconditioned stimulus Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition – the initial stage of learning or conditioning when one links a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins to trigger a conditioned response o The neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear before the unconditioned stimulus o Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive and helps humans survive and reproduce Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o HigherOrder Conditioning – the conditioned stimulus is paired with new neutral stimulus creating a second conditioned stimulus (also known as secondorder conditioning) Extinction – the diminishing of a conditioned response when an unconditioned response does not follow the conditioned stimuli o Spontaneous Recovery – occurs after extinction in which the extinguished conditioned response reappears Generalization – the tendency to elicit similar responses to similar stimuli of a conditioned response Discrimination – the learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal unconditioned stimulus, preventing generalization Pavlov’s Work and Influences Pavlov’s work illustrated o Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms (conditioning is related to biology) o Processes can be studied objectively (experimenters can isolate elements of behavior) o Specific applications have given insight on how to avoid or associate responses Pavlov’s ideas led Watson to believe that emotional behaviors are conditioned responses o Watson’s Little Albert Experiment 1920, participant was a little boy who was originally unafraid when showed a white rat At every sighting of the rat, experimenters would clang steel bars together making an unpleasant noise Little Albert acquired a fear of white fluffy objects Operant Conditioning and Skinner Operant Conditioning – a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if it is followed by a reinforce or the behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher o Learning adjusts behaviors to certain consequences while classical conditioning forms associations with stimuli Law of Effect – behaviors with favorable consequences are more likely and behaviors with unfavorable consequences are less likely (Edward Thorndike) o Puzzle Box Experiment – cats were rewarded if the solved the puzzle and escaped the box, eventually took less time to escape with repetition o Led to Skinner’s work and interest in operant conditioning Operant Chamber – a chamber or “Skinner Box” used in research containing components an animal can manipulate in order to obtain food or water as a reinforce Shaping – reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of the desired behavior Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Discrimination allows more specificity in what triggers a response Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement and the Types of Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement – increase behaviors with positive reinforcers, when presented after a response it strengthens a response o Adding something desirable Negative Reinforcement – increase behaviors by reducing negative stimuli, when removed after a response it strengthens the response o Ending something unpleasant Primary Reinforcers – innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcers (Secondary Reinforcer) – stimulus gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforce o Reinforcing successive approximations or rewarding behaviors close to desired behavior Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement Schedules – a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced o Continuous Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce every time Hard to maintain but behavior is acquired quickly o Partial/ Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce part of the time Slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction Fixed Ratio – reinforces after a specified number of responses Variable Ratio – reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed Interval – reinforces after a specific amount of time has elapsed Punishment Punishment – event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows o Positive – add unpleasant thing o Negative – take away a pleasant thing Drawbacks of punishment/physical punishment o Focuses on what not to do but does not give anything for desired behaviors o Suppressed, not forgotten, temporary state may affect/reinforce the parents’ punishing behavior o Teaches fear, severity of punishments is not as helpful as immediate and certain punishments o Teaches discrimination among situation, avoid where punishment occurs o Increases aggression by modelling to cope with problems Punishment works in natural and immediate consequences but does not when encountering delayed and distant threats Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Applications External influences shape behavior Operant conditioning can be applied o At school – adaptive learning, rewarding small improvements toward desired behavior o In sports – shaping approach, increase challenge after small reinforcements o At work – reinforcements influence productivity o At home – reinforce good behavior with children, reinforce oneself through goals, plans, monitoring, and reinforcing Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Basic Idea Organism associates events Associate behavior and results Response Involuntary and automatic Voluntary and operates on environment Acquisition Associate events, neutral Associate response with stimulus with unconditioned consequences (reinforcement stimulus becomes or punishment) conditioned stimulus Extinction Conditioned response Response decreases when decreases when conditioned reinforcement stops stimulus is repeatedly presented alone Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance of extinguished Reappearance of extinguished conditioned response response Generalization Tendency to respond to Responses to similar stimulus stimuli similar to conditioned are reinforced stimulus Discrimination Learned ability to distinguish Learns certain responses but conditioned stimulus and not others will be reinforced other stimuli that don’t signal Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Learning Biological Influences Psychological Influences Genetic predispositions Previous experiences Unconditioned responses Predictability of associations Adaptive responses Generalization Discrimination Learning SocioCultural Influences Culturally learned preferences Motivation affected by others’ presence An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology o John Garcia found it’s easier to learn associations to make sense for survival Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive Cognitive Processes in Conditioning Cognitive Map – mental representation of the layout of one’s environment o Rats gain a cognitive map after exploring a maze Latent Learning – is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it There is more to learning than associating a response with a consequence, there is also cognition o Classical – learning to predict, option to mentally break association o Operant – animals need immediate, humans understand delayed consequences Intrinsic Motivation – desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Sometimes reduced by external rewards and prevented by continuous reinforcement Extrinsic Motivation – desire to perform behaviors to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment o Use few rewards or lessen them over time Observational Learning Observational Learning – learning by observing others Modeling – observing and imitating specific behaviors o Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment – children imitated violence on toys after observing adults being violent o Vicarious Conditioning – experienced indirectly through others Mirror Neurons – frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain’s mirroring of another’s actions may enable imitation and empathy o Theory of Mind – we can grasp others’ states of mind Prosocial and Antisocial Modeling Prosocial Behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior that benefits others and is taught through modeling o OverImitate – copy adult behaviors with no function or reward (mainly common from 8 months onward) Children with autism are less likely to mirror Antisocial Behavior – actions harmful to individuals and society o May become more violent than the average child if violence is observed o Under stress we do what has been modeled to us o Media violence leads to increased aggression Violence viewing effect explained by imitation and desensitization toward pain in others (fosters indifference)
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