Traditional World Music Latin America Notes
Traditional World Music Latin America Notes MUSI 3583 503
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MUSI 3583 503
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Bradford MacGyver DDS
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 3583 503 at Oklahoma State University taught by Kunzel, Stephen N in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see World Traditional Music in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 03/05/16
Latin America The Many Voices of Latin America Concert Music An Overview Introduction Amazon Basin differs from the Andes “variety” and “contrast” 3 main ethnic groups o Indians (Amerindian) o Ibero-Europeans – conquered them in the 16 century o Africans – imported as slaves (Language) Portuguese = Brazil, Spanish = rest of Latin Amer, Vocabulary Vernacular - music that is not the product of highly specialized training but rather, arises as a spontaneous reflection of a culture, almost in the same way a native language is learned. Closely related terms are "popular," "folk," or "traditional." Concert music – performed in a concert setting Chamber music - music for small instrumental ensembles with one instrument per part Salon music - lighter or less profound works, often for solo piano History and Culture of Indigenous Peruvian Music Conquistadores o Assimilation o Disease o Oppression No word for “music” in several languages because it is so fundamental to culture Flutes made of bird bone bc are sacred (appear to fly from heaven to earth) Panpipe – row of three of four clay or bamboo pipes of different lengths (Andean Region) Gourds – hollowed out and made into rattles, could be used to summon spirits (rattle considered voice of spirit) How do we know about instruments? Missionaries kept diaries of info, including musical details in Lima, the capital of the viceroyalty of Peru, natives who owned these "pagan" objects could receive three hundred lashes 1 II. Indigenous Music: peru Plaza de Armas (Cuzco) o The Cuzco cathedral was built on the ruins of an Incan palace. Begun in 1560, it took over 100 years to be completed. Naturally a great deal of music was performed in cathedrals and churches. Missionaries used music to impose views Polyphony - Music composed for many parts or voices, each with its own melody, thus creating a rich texture of sound. Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco – Director of Music Lima (maestro de capilla) o a Spaniard who came to the New World in 1667 when his royal patron was named viceroy of Peru o composed the first opera ever performed in the New World La púrpura de la rosa (The Blood of the Rose), whose story is based on classical mythology, premiered in Lima in 1701 Opera is European invention Indigenous music and opera did not mix Upper class = European music because it was more refined Still, in 1875 the Italian immigrant composer Carlo Enrico Pasta wrote an opera called Atahualpa, after the vanquished Incan leader. José María Valle Riestra (1858-1925) o Trained in Europe th By early 20 century, composers began to challenge the powerful influence of European music and returned to indigenous style Daniel Alomía Robles (1871-1942), whose works incorporated Quechua melodies and rhythms Indigenous Music: Mexico th Indigenous musical tradition revived in 20 century Aztecs conquered by Hernan Cortes in early 16 century Group had to master music, if they messed up they could die By the late 1520s, the Spanish Franciscan priest Juan de Padilla (c.1500-c.1544) was teaching singing to natives around Mexico City. First music heard in what is now US was that of the Catholic lithurgy Protestant hymns simpler 2 Some wrote in the style of Italian opera while others imitated Spanish operetta, called zarzuela. Ancieta Ortega de Villar composed an opera, Guatimotzín, that makes use of indigenous music. Porfirio Díaz (1830-1915), the dictator who modernized much infrastructure but also grossly exploited workers, was overthrown in 1911. Curiously, the Sinfonía India was first performed not in Mexico but in New York, in 1936. Chávez's reputation in the U.S. was built on his ability to evoke the Aztec past, a "primitive" style that audiences found attractive. Another twentieth-century Mexican composer inspired by indigenous cultures was Silvestre Revueltas (1899-1940). Like Rivera, he combined a leftist political orientation with his artistic sensibilities. His Sensemayá for symphony orchestra is based on a poem by Nicolás Guillén (1902-1989), an Afro-Cuban revolutionary poet. The poem describes the killing of a tropical snake symbolizing imperial power. The poem's onomatopoetic words ("mayombe bombe") suggest the beating of a drum, an instrument of primary significance in African music. All of these sounds and meanings come to life in Revueltas's score Sounds of Africa Slaves most numerous in Surinam, sections of Venezuela and Coloumbia, some areas of Peru, Ecudor, Mexico and esp. Brazil (1888) S. Amer – slavery different; slaves kep some traditions bc they would be happier and would work harder o Still forced to covert to Catholisim o Use Catholic names as code words for original belief system o Syncretism – the blending of belief systems Characteristics of African Music Call and Response Leader = mail, chorus = female Variants possible Slaves brought percussion instruments to the Americas o Believe to summon spirits o Some areas ban women from drums, and in others, they play the drums 3 Dancing o Banned by some Protestant domination, Catholics do not ban however o Part of worship in the New World Capoeira – an elaborately choreographed martial art o Orgins unknown o Theory = laves had to kick when chained to defend themselves o Bacteria – a traditional capoeira ensamble includes the berimbau, an archery bow with a gourd resonator; tambourines; the reco-reco, or rasp; and an agogo, or gong-like bell variety of topics Europeans and Africans in Latin America Some Africans became fluent in European Musical Styles Inácio Parreiras Neves (1730-1791) o Lived in Brazil o 18 century o belonged to the brotherhood of freed slaves o composed choral music for various churches Manuel Dias de Oliveira (1764-1837) o 19 century o composed church music o “Miserere” features a long passage from a solo female unidentified instrument made clergy angry African influences also found their way back to Europe: the zarambeque, which was danced in Mexico by black slaves, contains elements of African music. Samba Originally refered to the choreography of certain circle danced from Angola and the Congo Dancers would invite eachother to dance by touching bellybuttons Gradually became urbanized o Samba schools created o Primarily black and mixed students o Trained to march in the Carnival (mardi gras) Bossa nova – 1950s 4 created by Vinicius de Moraes, Antonio Carlos Jobim, and João Gilberto music more complex and less percussive became quite popular in the US o Frank Sinatra, Stan Getz, and the African-American jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald, 5
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