Forest Pest Management
Forest Pest Management ENTO 470
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Pagac on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 470 at West Virginia University taught by Yong-Lak Park in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/202726/ento-470-west-virginia-university in Entomology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
NonChemical Pest Control Tactics em ent Definition physical control Mechanical contro use ot p ical and mechanical mems to reduce pest m ge Biological control Host pl ant Resistance use ot namral enemies to reduce pest dam age Legal Control Host plant resistance use ot resistant variety ot plant to protect trom pest dam age 12 March 2009 Legal control 1030 ASP quotquot3 quot9 Basic Idea of Pest Control Taclics Physical Control Weak links in pest life cycle 1 Hand picking of pesE 1 Find weak links in pest life cycle 1he mostprimitive way otpest control But still is used in home and agricLIlure Because it is easy sale and visibly euective 2 Ex oit the weak lirks Maybe linked to behavior Maybe linked to development 3 Break the weak lirks Meaning pest control Physical Control Physical Control 2 Physical removal of insect habitat 3 Physical trapping oitting or removing irsects and their habitat Tying a band of folded burlap around the trunk protected lrom insecs m ostly immamre migration to the top ol trees Tent caterpillar Physical Control Review Entomophagous Insect 4 Fire Predator Killing pesls in the eld Ki Erexs Burn off the stubble Consume gt1 re to reach maturi onmonly used in the 19505 and 1960s U W C Disadvantage angemus May kill natuml enemies May not kill all the pests Parasitoid Kill host Consume only 1 host to reach maturity Parasite Do m kill host Feed one or more host Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents Natural enemies Entomopathogenic microorganisms Predator Insectkilling microorganisms Parasitoid Bacteria Parasite Virus Entomopathogenic microorganisms Fungi Nematodes Predator is the best for biological control What is the worst for biological control Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents How microbes are used for pest control Bacteria Kill insects outright Genus Bacillusis most widely used Reduce reproductive capacity Bacillus papilliae Slow the growth and development of host insects Japanse beatquot lame Coleoptera Bacillus thuringiensis called Bt Caterpillar Lepidoptera Microbial insecticides Mosquim Ianae Diptera Sprayed like insecticides Beatles CD39BDPE39E m Various formulation or 5 Baits dusts granule and sprays M Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents NV Scanmng a mum Dead abbage Ionpev Those killed by BT may mm blackandor bezome shrivelled Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents Psrm39cphu MIDSUT minorant Virus Kills Lepidoptera Hymenoptera i tera p Best wellknown virus tor insect control NPV nuclear polyhed rosis virus Pal hum mm nub as man Puirrvphl Mmbmne Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents Fungi Attack insects through cu ticles Spores attach to the cuticle Spores germinate Hyphae penetrates the body wall Fungi oolonize the hemoooel Sometimes toxin is produced Biological Control Agents Biological Control Agents Fungi Insect parasilic nematodes The best wellknown fungi to control insects What are nematodes a iabassima m mu iui Wm i ii Biological Control Introduction Classical Biological Control Three practices of biological control 1 Introduction classical biological control 1 Introduction portation classical biological control Procedure 2 Augmentation Identifying natural enemi s e augmentative biological control In original location where pests are controlled Establishing natural enemies permanently 3 conservation Keeping pest density below ElL conservational biological control Introduction Classical Biological Control Augmentation Mass Rearing and Release Types of pests 2 Augmentation Exotic pests invasive species Augmentative biological control Native pests Mass rearing and release Purpose I procedure In mduc on works better for exotic Pass Increase numbers of existing natural enemies why Releasing additional natural memies Establishing natural enemies permanently eeping pest density below EL Augmentation Mass Rearing and Release Releases of biological control agents 1 Releasing a large number biological control age 2 Releasing additional natural enemies of a species that already established quot 1 quot quot39 Q n p Q Q Conservation Protecting Natural Enem s 3 Conservation conservational biological control Purpose Protect existing natural enemies Maintain ex ting natural enemies Conservation Protecting Natural Enemies Review Host Plant Resistance Methods of natural enemy conservation Providing refuge for natural enemies cautious use of estl es Using less toxic pesticides to natural enemies Reducing number ol pesticide applications Reducing dosage levels 1 Anlixenosis Expelling to prevent from Insect feeding and oviposition 2 An li biosis lm airs an insect metabolic rocesses ns ect growth amp development 3 Tole ra nce Plant survive even with insect attack Host Plant Resistance 1 Nonprefere 0e Plant varieties with antixenosis Trichom or n pu Mechanisms of Host Plant Resistance 2 Ann 39 S I n insect metabolic processes Associated with chemicals that plants make tabo es on e Dfplant melabulls Marar components Dfantlblosls Can be used as mxltant can be used as allelorhemirals Genetic Control Host Plant Resistance 3 Tolerance Desired effects ofgenetic manipulation of insects Plant survive even with insect attack educing insect populations pensation for insect feeding Lowering reproductive potential ation of insect salivary toxin 0W7 a c Detoxi c Genetically modifying insect genes Insects are used against members oftheir own species 4 D Sterilemale technique S Weld I a g n 9 i 8 m 5 c Insect density V Reduced population in next generation SterileMale Technique SIT Ste rileMale Technique SIT Ioniling radi tion Xrays make mulanti cls some cases they produce sterile males Gammarays make mutant insec With cobalt and cesium Chemoste ation Use of chemicals to sterilize insects Applied before the onset of meio 39 S39 39 39 with chemotherapy of cancer r Reducing reproductions ofcertaln c l Ste rileMale Technique SIT Requirements for success se of sterilization Mass rearing of target pests Sterile males should outnumber wild males The higher the percentage of sterile males the bett r chance of success Sterile males should compete well with wild males for matin llity is lower I any cases sterile males39via m 3 m i n geographic area Release of sterile males generation by generation rul lune scale 1 balsam wunlw anelum Ilenlnck wunlw anelum wv gypsy mnIlL beech scan lam casenezm mm W was 2 M 1m v Wm I y m 422009 Ash trees killed by emerald ash borer Management of Biological Invasions Action arantine inspection Containers go everywhere 422009 Three Universal Phases of 39 Biological Invasions Arrival 1 Establishment 1 Increased Global Trade International movement of raw wood ISPM 15 US 000 r g HT a i FAO International Plant Protection Convention IPPC 422009 Woongiing Insects in Furniture P011 Inspection v I u in ensssmtz New Zealand Population 4 million 100 of incoming baggage x rayed igt r 7 y 53quot BlOSEEURITV m iv quot4 LwIIIND 7 a i 39 39100 of Con iners are inspected MAF Inspectors for 39high risk39 containers accredited persons inspect 39low risk39 containers 15 o loaded containers are contaminated Management ofBiological Invasions Detection their popul39 t the point that they can no longer be detected Phage Action 39Goal to find new foinided populations before Quarantine inspection Pheromone traps are critical to General 811 eV for wood oring beetles anada New Zealand U SA gelfamilie Scolytidae Bllpr 39tidae c alnbcidae Siricidae Attn ctant apinene and ethanol bpinene and ethanol frontalin and ethanol 39 lienol igh 39 39 learpon ortn Wlere olid oodpack lgmate a1 p n 1 lifonlia by the light brm 11 a moth E Iiply39as Iosn imma Tmtllcidael M st Invasions Fe lt1 H v 422009 licau39on Derniilion Total elimination of a species 39 e l orcetl extinction led In etlllcing killing r lloltl 19 a litlle error can preVenl an e 9 n nn Tl litional biologl a control Detection and eradication of the light brown apple moth from Calif Introduction Extinction ocesses affecting lowdensit populations Stochastici 39Allee Effects 422009 Stablequ lhbm m I Larger group size or some degree of crowding may timulate reproduction and surviva 1933 Cooperation among Anim H Schumnn 1931 AnimnlAgw39egntiox A study 39 logy m39 ofChicngo Minimum Population Failure to find mates Cooperative feeding Predator satiation Inbreeding 16 re ab ed populatio 39 1639 L ent foundinit7 population nn39 effect 422009 lnterpolated gypsy moth trap counts p l 0th Detection Sun v Results 1993 Allee Effect N N1 Unstable Equiliblium I 1 Stable Equiliblium Minimum Population Eradication can on1 be achieved by kllllng 10000 of all individuals ue Eradication can be achieved in most cases llings some fraction of the population A combination of Allee nn39 1nd stoc 39 will cause most iso atev o ulations t ex e on once their populations have been 1 luced below some c1i 422009 containing S ellam 1951 modeled pread by combining exponential grovmh WI 1 I andom movement Adi on Exponential Grovnll Random Blovement r Quarantin erved values of spread x 39th C mpa n ofol those predicted l ing Skellam s 1951 model hhmemmmgmh m 422009 Two forms of lisper short distance continuous long li tance stochastic Population growth range radius jump distance Moth counts are colorcoded Distance from the population 1mm 11am Shar v A 1 andA M Liebhold 199s Modeler owingthe spread ofth 371 1 79 o A Lepidoptera Lymammdaemm abaxnerzone Ecol App 0 11 422009 sconsin pheromo ng leans 360 0 r of pheromone tr39 to locate and delmnt 1 ted colonles 1 km delimitation 2 km ba glid 1 treatment u mm m 0 m t1eatment DISRU39FT ELZS39W39 H39 torical Rate of G Moth Spread 39 39 t 11ginia 198072005 m1rnr nu w histon39cal average E E a 2 u l 1 u 2 n In 0 St itlfled disersalo er containing spread ENTO 470 Pest Management LECTURE 9 Forest Insect and Sampling Why do we need to sample Sometimes it is hard to count everything Estimate population with samples Take a part of population Estimate population average and variance Sampling Methods population What to measure from samples Sample variance 2 5 3 6 Average mean Variance or standard deviation Sample average Sample mean average 2425423426 2 2 5 3 6 52 4 Total numbcrofsamplcsn 2 5 3 6 X 4 S standard deviation Total number ofsamplcs n higher mam What is meant by higher variance Sampling Programs Absolute estimate Estimate absolute density of insects No of insects per given area No of insects per tree What to sample Insect density Average number of an insect Insect presenceabsence YesNo 10 type sampling Disease incidence The frequency of occurrence of a disease Relatwe est39mate Estimate relative density of insects Disease severity Does not estimate population directm The degree of infection of disease in an individual plant Sampling Preci ion and Accuracy Converting absolute to relative estimates Goal of sampling i lit Precise and accurate stimation of population assume and 39 meslse assume pul nut sse 39 Slope ofthelineis delity Pleclse but lnacculale m Relative estim ate pul preslse assume Will a pad palm Absolute estimate Three Important Questions in Sampling Sampling Confidence D How much are ourcon dent with our H w much are your confident With your y y estimation estimation The more you take sample the more you are confident with your estimation Sampling is all about economics line more you take samples Increase confidence line less you take samples Decrease cost How many we have to sample How to select sample location How many we have to sample The more the better Number of sampls to be taken see handout Procedure in determining the number of 1 Census total counting samples to take Sampling an entire population 1 Preliminarysampl g Estlma e mean and variance Advantage 2 cide precision level Most accurate and precise 90 confidence 75 confidence D 025 Disadvantage 3 Calculate N Cost ineffective in most cases Minimum number ofsamples to be taken At a given precision level 4 Adjust N based on sampling economics 2 Binomial sampling Sampling Programs Sampling Programs 2 Binomial sampling Presence absence sampling runIMAWIulmnmama Examples Diseased vs healthy trees Infested vs noninfested trees Advantage Easy and quick Disadvantage Gives data only in general Needs more samples 3 Pest Management Scouts Sampling Programs Sequential sampling Decision making sampling Do not have to know population density Sequential sampling plan Advantage Eas and ruick 5 mo E Cumulative count Disadvantage Need some research to generate decision making guidelines Cumulative Number of Counts Sequential Sampling Plan Sequential Sampling Plan Dispersion Pattern of the Population Uniform random or aggregated Economic 111reshold 39 D 111e levels of risks that can be tolerated Precision o 0123456789101112131415 2 10 3 14 17 Num her of Sam pies 1qu mm nr mum sums nEz 5 Sequential Sampling Plan a uuuums may or mom mmzn v2 insect col vs n1234557 a 9 mm 12131415151713 Sample number ENTO 470 Forest Pest Management LECTURE 10 Forest Pest Management Tactics ChemicallyRelated Pest Control stIcI es Insect Growth Regulator Chemical Control Pesticide de nition Chemicals killing pests cide meaning killing Types of pesticides Insecticide insect Herbicide weed Fungicide fungus Aca e mite and tick Mltlcide mite Nematicide nematode Rodenticide rodent Pest management tactics Methods of implementing pest management strategy Chemical control Insect g rowth regulator Modes of lethal exposure to insect 1 Contact insecticide Kills on contact 2 Stomach insecticide Insects ingestand are killed Fate of insecticide on plant 0o ct remains or wash off as residues Systemic take up by plant roots or injection Common Insecticides 1 Pyrethroids rganic and synthetic insecticide Originated from t ruma botanical insecticide The fastest developing modern insecticides why reat eff cti e 55 Safe application Disadvantage Expensive Generations of pyrethroids 1st generation Allethrin 2quotd generation Resmethrin 339d generation Permethrin 4 11 generation Deltamethrin Common Insecticides 2 Carbamates Organic and synthetic insecticide Advantage Broadspectrum insecticids Disadvantage Disadva n tage Toxic to Hymeno ter a Hmevbee parasltold Wasps and polhnators Major chemicals Garb Ca rbo u ra Systemic insecticide Work well WIth soII insect psts Highly toxic to human arvl Low toxicity to human home and lawn use n Common Insecticides 3 Organophosphate 0P Developed during the World War II in Germany Called as nerve gases Common Insecticides 4 Chlorinated hydrocarbon 111e oldest major insecticides Advantage Advantage Very effective Effectiveness Disadvantage Unstable to light 39 oxlc to human Quickly broken down into nontoxic compound Environmental contamination Major chemicals Malalhion Used for all types of agriculture Safe for home use Paralhion Major chemicals DDT Bmken down slowly high residues Biomagni cation HCH or BCH Highly toxic to human More wider spectrum kills more insects Good for dif culttokill insects Good for aphids Common Insecticides 5 Botanicals Common Insecticides Nonsynthetic and organic insecticides 639 Insect Growth Regulator Good for organic agriculture Chemicals that alter insects39 Advantage quot quotma39 9 Natural pmducls less toxic to human quot quotmal develnpmem Disadvantage Expensive Fundamental idea to develop IGRs Understanding insect hormones that control Major chemlcals Gmwth rethrquot Development Uti 39zing insect growth hormones h iting insect hormones ng insect hormones Extract fmm Chrysan lemwn petals Neem insecticide E t fmm neem tree Nicotine Extract fmm tobocoo Hormone mimics Pupa Pupa injected with Juvabione Normal adult 5 11 insta r last instar am i nsta r Normal adult 7 391 insta r Hormone inhibitors AntiJ N 1nd and 4th amt nymph me my me an m w l39nwmlt39 l amwtmt w wasth m Pesticides How to use IGR Same as psticides Applied with pesticide equipment Most important things in IGR application 1 liming or application Effective only when immature insects are exposed 2 Delayed ef ects Like biological control is lower than that ofpesticides Resistance Advantage of pesticides Effectiveness ofpest control Rapid insecticide action Economic Ease of application Disadvantage of pest des Many pesticides are highly toxic to human Negative effect on nonstarget specie Ecological backlash 3R Resu ewe Resistmoe Replacement Development of resistance 55 ammmma lolllllnt mumMl Resistance Resistance and population dynalks Mnbuemsni 3 A Resurgence Development of resurgence Resurgence Replacement Development of resurgence Development of replacement Removal of competitors Removal of natural enemies Puma Replacement Development of replacement m mm 1 MS 39 ENTO 470 Forest Pest Management Biological Invasions Invasive Species Current Four 111reas Bpeciallya ter 911 Invasive species management became a big issue Invasive species may be terror Rquonding as if error occurs l1elated government agencies LSDA USDA Forest Servlce APHIS Arllmal and Plant Heallh inspectlun S WlCe USDA ARS Agrlculmral Research S WlCe Conperatlve Agrlculmral Pest Survey Us qua tment of Homeland Security Usts Geological Survey Current Four 111reats Issued by the USDA Forest Service and fuels Unnanaged recreation Invasive Species Nonindigenous species Insecls insect pests Pathogens plant diseases Plants weeds Biological invasions en e to be increased May be related to global warming Invasive Species National Invasive Species Information Center 39 oulce i 2 n o L39 n Imp mwwrnvasrvespecrssrnlognvnnnexsmml Invasive Species United States sihlation 4500 species of invasive agecies established About 700 species are harmful species p651 Asian longholned beeue only damaged 41 billion so far Invasive Species Invasive Species Three stage of invasion Why they are problematic 1 Arriva Base est co p 2 Establishment 39 3 spread Why invasive species are spreading changing land use patterns Attract or expel Global travel and trade in mlion I Other factors Lack of natural control Legal Pest Control Before Quarantine Act in 1912 Legal pest control Regulatory pest control Gypsy moth introduction Use of legal measures as a pest control tactic Legislation regulation that prevents establishment Leopold 39rrouvelot in 1869 o re uoe spread of pests Introduced gypsy moth from Europe To build bettersilkmoth population More often we call Quarantine Enforced isolation typically to contain the 10 Years later sprea of something considered dangerous Outbreak beam Plant Quarantine Act 1912 The rst legal action taken in the us to prevent cquotquot quot YI introduction of pests from foreign countries Gave up gypsy moth eradication Government agency Slow The Svread ST S Animal md Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS Before Quarantine Act in 1912 Gypsy moth introduction Cost of Invasive Species Establishment of Invasive Species Not every new invader becomes established Habitat in which the invader is transported Suitable host trees Host range of the invader The time of invasion right season for the life stage Environmental variation ie weather The initial population size Only small of invaders become established Establishment of Invasive Species Success rate in natural enemy introductions Number of Individuals A Released Success Failure Success lt 5000 9 89 9 5000 3DDDD 13 20 39 gt 30000 22 6 79 In Canada by Beirne 1975 Invasive Forest Pests in the Eastern US Insects Gypsy Moth Balsam Wooly Aphid Hemlock Wooly Adelgid European Hne Saw y Pine Shoot Beetle Disease White Pine Blister Rust Chestnut Blight Beech Bark Disease Dutch Elm Disease Dogwood Anthracnose Management of Invasive Species Phase Action Arrival Quarantine inspection Establishment Detection amp Eradication Spread Barrier Zones
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