Chapter 54 Population Ecology
Chapter 54 Population Ecology Bio 94
Popular in Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems
Popular in Biology
Bio Sci 93
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Cecilia Quilatan on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 94 at University of California - Irvine taught by Dr. Burley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems in Biology at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Population Ecology (Chapter 54 – Pg 1113) 03/06/2016 ▯ Population: a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time ▯ Population Ecology: study of how and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time and space. ▯ Distribution and Abundance Two fundamental concepts in ecology Range: geographic distribution of different species o is always in constant flux because abiotic and biotic factors change over time. Abiotic Factors: temperature/rainfall/oceans/mountains Biotic Factors: presence of other species that provide habitat, food, or competition ▯ Population Density: the number of individuals per unit area ▯ Individual organisms can be arranges in different patters within populations Arrangement can be random o If position of individual is independent from the others “ “ clumped o if quality of habitat is patchy o if organisms associate in social groups “ “ uniform o if negative interactions occur amongst individuals (ex: competition) ▯ Metapopulation: a population of populations connected by migrations Because us humans are reducing large, contiguous areas, more and more species are being forced into metapopulation infrastructures. ▯ Mark – Recapture Study Step 1: Capture animals, mark them, and release them back into their natural habitat. Step 2: Re-capture same species. The percentage of marked individuals within this group of captured animals is recorded. Purpose: to estimate the total population o Only valid if individuals stay inside study area Assumption: Percentage of marked and recaptured individuals = percentage of marked individuals in entire population ▯ ▯ Demography: the study of factors that determine size/ structure of a population # of population depends on birth rates, death rates, emigration, and immigration ▯ Age Structure: how many individuals of each age is alive Likelihood of age groups survival the following year # of offspring produces at different ages # of immigration/emigration at different ages ▯ Life Table – probability of an individual surviving and reproducing at any given time interval. Age class: a group of individuals of a specific age Cohort: a group of the same age that can be followed through time Survivorship: key component; the proportion of offspring produces that survive, on average, to a particular age o Three general types of survivorship curves Type I: (Humans) have a high survival rate until old, most of species reach maximum life span Type II: came probability of dying young vs. dying old Type III: low survival rate at young ages, high as old Fecundity: the number of female offspring produced by each female in the population o Age-specific fecundity: avg. # female offspring produced by a female in each age class Reproductive Rate o Net R.R. indicates whether a pop. Is increasing or decreasing. o To be stable ( survivorship x age fecundity = 1.00 net R.R.) Fitness Trade-offs o Occur because of restricted time and energy or in other words, limited resources o An individual with high fecundity tend to mature quickly and have more offspring. o An individual with high survivorship mature slowly, therefore have less time to produce offspring. Basically, you can either invest your time and energy into reproducing, or invest it into protecting your own body. ▯ Quantifying Growth Rate Change in # of individuals in the population (∆N) per unit of time (∆t) If no immigration or emigration is occurring then a population growth rate = N x (birthrate – deathrate) Percapita rate (r) = birthrate – deathrate When conditions are optimal for a particular species o Birthrate is at it’s maximum while death rate is at its minimum. o When r reaches its maximum value, ▯ ▯
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