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Chapter 54 Population Ecology

by: Monica Cecilia Quilatan

Chapter 54 Population Ecology Bio 94

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Biology > Bio 94 > Chapter 54 Population Ecology
Monica Cecilia Quilatan

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These notes are basically an outline of the reading.
Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems
Dr. Burley
Class Notes
Ecology, population, Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Cecilia Quilatan on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 94 at University of California - Irvine taught by Dr. Burley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Bio 94: Organisms to Ecosystems in Biology at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Population Ecology (Chapter 54 – Pg 1113) 03/06/2016 ▯ Population: a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time ▯ Population Ecology: study of how and why the number of individuals in a population changes over time and space. ▯ Distribution and Abundance  Two fundamental concepts in ecology  Range: geographic distribution of different species o is always in constant flux because abiotic and biotic factors change over time.  Abiotic Factors: temperature/rainfall/oceans/mountains  Biotic Factors: presence of other species that provide habitat, food, or competition ▯ Population Density: the number of individuals per unit area ▯ Individual organisms can be arranges in different patters within populations  Arrangement can be random o If position of individual is independent from the others  “ “ clumped o if quality of habitat is patchy o if organisms associate in social groups  “ “ uniform o if negative interactions occur amongst individuals (ex: competition) ▯ Metapopulation: a population of populations connected by migrations  Because us humans are reducing large, contiguous areas, more and more species are being forced into metapopulation infrastructures. ▯ Mark – Recapture Study  Step 1: Capture animals, mark them, and release them back into their natural habitat.  Step 2: Re-capture same species. The percentage of marked individuals within this group of captured animals is recorded.  Purpose: to estimate the total population o Only valid if individuals stay inside study area  Assumption: Percentage of marked and recaptured individuals = percentage of marked individuals in entire population ▯ ▯ Demography: the study of factors that determine size/ structure of a population  # of population depends on birth rates, death rates, emigration, and immigration ▯ Age Structure: how many individuals of each age is alive  Likelihood of age groups survival the following year  # of offspring produces at different ages  # of immigration/emigration at different ages ▯ Life Table – probability of an individual surviving and reproducing at any given time interval.  Age class: a group of individuals of a specific age  Cohort: a group of the same age that can be followed through time  Survivorship: key component; the proportion of offspring produces that survive, on average, to a particular age o Three general types of survivorship curves  Type I: (Humans) have a high survival rate until old, most of species reach maximum life span  Type II: came probability of dying young vs. dying old  Type III: low survival rate at young ages, high as old  Fecundity: the number of female offspring produced by each female in the population o Age-specific fecundity: avg. # female offspring produced by a female in each age class  Reproductive Rate o Net R.R. indicates whether a pop. Is increasing or decreasing. o To be stable  ( survivorship x age fecundity = 1.00 net R.R.)  Fitness Trade-offs o Occur because of restricted time and energy or in other words, limited resources o An individual with high fecundity tend to mature quickly and have more offspring. o An individual with high survivorship mature slowly, therefore have less time to produce offspring.  Basically, you can either invest your time and energy into reproducing, or invest it into protecting your own body. ▯ Quantifying Growth Rate  Change in # of individuals in the population (∆N) per unit of time (∆t)  If no immigration or emigration is occurring then a population growth rate = N x (birthrate – deathrate)  Percapita rate (r) = birthrate – deathrate  When conditions are optimal for a particular species o Birthrate is at it’s maximum while death rate is at its minimum. o When r reaches its maximum value, ▯ ▯


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