Principles Of Entomology
Principles Of Entomology ENTO 404
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Date Created: 09/12/15
ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Another way to look nsect taxonomy Primarily wingless insecls Apterygota Five Orders Blattodea cockroach Mantodea praying mantis Primarily winged insecls pterygota Phasmatodea str k insect WWI EEphemeruptera Giylloblattodea rock crawler Mm Der 39 mapteia eaivlng Neapea Enduplerygma October 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Pte ryg ota alanodea B LA1TODEA Key characteristiis Mout part Mmdibulate Antenna Filiform Wing Forewings tegmina Hind wings membranous s L Endoptaygota Demi aptera isoptaa urmoptera Phlhiraplera Plecuptzra Leg mrsorial Appendages Heiiiipt2ra Embiidina lhysanuptera zoraptaa Cerci Mantopnasrrr amdea Psucuptera Males have a pa39r f 51quotquot BLA1TODEA cockroaches BLA1TODEA cockroaches Fossil record Physiological character Upper Carboniferous In rgest cockroach fossil complete metamorphosis eca found in Ohio in 2001 E99 sac win 124 It is dated about 300 we rows of eggs inside llllon years ago D I t eve o men Oldest Wingedinsect P Mostly ovrpa ous Al oslund1mged in M hape f0 about 320 Ov39tvh39pamfu d d m 0 m a eca is rme an en a eca m39 39 quot l5 retracted into a Mather Also called as living V fossilquot iviparous Fiisti st r No eating Molt quickly BLA1TODEA cockroaches Anurlcxnr Order MANTODEA praying manlis Key characteristics Very similar to cockroach o par Mmdibulale Filiform Wing Forewin s legmina Hind wings membranous Elongated pronotun Legs Raptorial forelegs Elongated coxa Order MAN ODEA praying manlis BLA1TOD EA cockroaches Ecological characteristiis Habitats nefer crevices Mostly household pests Some live in woody areas Mosuy nocturnal Most tropical species are diurnal Medical importance Potential vector of Bacteria Vims notozoa Parasite worrn Order MANTODEA praying mantis Physiological characteristics rs Incomplete metamorphosis Oath c Ecological characteristiis Predators sitrandrwait type Highly cmou aged Single family in North America Mantidae Order PHAS MATODEA stick insect Two forms Winged form ocelli present Wingless form secondarily Win Tegmina Cerice 1 pair Order PHASMATODEA stick insect Order PHASMATODEA stick insect Physiological characteristics lete m tamorpho s Body color c ange Altering the dispersal of pigment granules in the rrnis Ecological cha racteristics Her bivoles Highly camou aged Single family in N America Phasmatidae Order GRYLLOBMTODEA Rock Crawler Order GRYLLOBMTODEA Rock Crawler Key cha racteristics enna Flliform yes 39 y Boreal areas Compound eyes reduced or H 7quot Refer cool areas 2 Edges of glaciers Ocelli absent S1ow bmks Wing i caves No wings secondarily Food cerci 1 pair ogmic detritus External ovipositor Physiological characteristics Incomplete metamorphosis Ecological characteristils Habitat r Order DERMAPTERA EARWIG Order DERMAPTERA EARWIG Key cha racteristics Compound eyes reduced or a s ocelli absent 1 pair Highly modified and variable Order DERMAPTERA EARWIG Ecological characteristics a i a Moist environment Lhder stones or logs d me preda ors Breeding and Defense Holecling eggs and offspring with oerci Eating her own eggs when she can39t handle the situation N euptera Lecture Summary Blatmdea L Endupterygma Denn aptera lsuptera Drmuptera Phthiraptera Placuptera Hemiptera Em 39 a Ihysanuptera Zuraptera Mantuphasmatudea psueupnza ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 6 Muscular System How do insects walk and fly 3 September 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Insect Muscular System Does the insect have muscles Muscles need energy sources and oxygen Where do they get them Are insect muscles same as other animals How can insects walk run and fly with their muscles Where are insect muscles Skeletal muscles Attached to exoskeleton A Visceral m uscles Abdomen Attached to intestines in alimentary canal WWWquot MW 7 Mldgul V r v my wams lmludlng urk mu Where are insect muscles Insect vs Human Muscular System Muscle attachment Apoph sis Internal ridges All or for muscle attachment Phragma Platelike invaginatinn Flight muscle attachment apo apophysis cos phragma m thorax bm basement membrane Types of muscles Striated and smooth muscles ll l Insects Striated muscles only m Types ofInsect Muscles Synchronousmuscle ll llJ I39Ihlll KEUDDUF EUMIOMlDUl W l llltlStlE hWii lmltllllllamE li Nwmlnmm s Synchroniled with neural impulse 1 contraction and relaxation per 1 neural impulse Asynchronous muscle More than 1 contraction and relaxation per 1 neural impulse Using resonance of muscles ClDiSSEilldn Oxygen and Energy Source for Muscles Oxygen and Energy Source for Muscles How can insect muscles get oxygen Through tracheal systems Tracheal Liquid Tracheoles Tracheoblasl cell How can insect muscles get energy source through hemolymph Mutiieulslr msymblonls quotmmquot0mm wiiIL Iion vtilirogenouswasiewuraie cells Excretion ReahsnIplion ol halal mind acids suyars salls a on39llulrienls irom W symhinnls t M Solldwasl s l Food Insect Locomotion Insect Locomotion Why do insects have six legs 6 is the minimum no of legs that provide support in a stable tripod arrangement amp Muscles for insect locomotion Levator vs depressor muscle Flexor vs extensor muscle Maniac extensor mm Moat mum mm 16m trundle a Insect Locomotion Insect Locomotion Beetle walking Water strider animal Insect Locomotion Insect Locomotion Insects sliding rml pushm m 1695 m end or power mum Insect Flight Mechanism Muscles for insect flight Direct muscle roll Indirect muscle Duraclerlval l m M 3mm Mvurl uul almlnmsciu Direct vs Indirect Flight Muscles Indirect muscles for insect flight Longitudinal muscle Dorsoventral muscle I Nmum Fleurlwmn aces Lnnquudmm mon muscle quot rr muscle x Su VG m A v an 1 I 1 Grasshopper 39 V 5 Butterfly Special Flight Mechanism Special Flight Mechanism downsiroke Special Flight Mechanism Special Flight Mechanism Mng coupling Mth and withoutwing couplings Frenula Lecture Summary Lecture Summary Does the insect have muscles Where are Insect muscles Skeletal musc es How do insect muscles obtain oxygen Visceral musc Tracheal system blanched to muscles How do insect muscles oblain energy source Muscle attachment Alimentary canal hemolymph muscles physis Is the insect muscle same as other animals39 Yes and no Lecture Summary Insect muscles related to neural impulse wnchronous muscle Asynchronous muscle Insect flight muscles Direct muscle Indirect muscle Special flight mecha nism Halteles Wing coupling ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 25 Endopterygota 3 Neoptera Two Orders Lepidoptera Trichoptera Lepidoptem Trichoptera 20 October 2008 Siphonaptem 2001 Agricultural Sciences HYmemPtem LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth Key characteristics Key characteristics Mouthpart 39 Wing coupling Siphoning type Frenulum Called as proboscis Jugum Some vestigial or mandibles scaes Antenna Called as macrotrichia Filiform or clavate mostly Wing colors PIgmen ta ry color Structural color 9 Epiphysis on tibia LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth Key characteristics Classification of Lepidoptera Suborders 39 Butterfly Rhopalocera Diurnal Mostly eruciform Prolegs with crochet Setae on head and trunk Key feaiure for identi cation Silk production Pupa Mostly adecticous Exa ra te primitive form Obtect evolved form Usually in cocoon Vertical wings at rest Clubbed antenna Colorful Moth Heterocera FiliformIPlumose antenna Dull color LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Classification of Lepidoptera Suborders Macfolepidoptefa 1 Big lqbidopte ans Classification of Lepidoptera Suborders F Wings couple with frenulum Micfolepidoptefa shall Iqaidople ms with jugum LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Suborders Three primitive suborders Zeugloptefa Very small moths Diurnal h bosc s With functional mandibles Larva slugalike with prolegs te pupa Monotfysia one hole in female Exam I Q I Oduaive W51 Dacnonypha Very small moths Ditfysia Diumal Two holes in female Vestigial mandible rwmduaive system Larva without legs Exa ate pupa LEPIDO PTERA butter y and moth LEPIDO PTERA butter y and moth Three pri 39tive suborders Two evolved Suborders Zeugloptefa Monotfysia Dacnonypha short or absent proboscis Empona Larva eruciform or apodous Medium size moths Apodous form is leaf miner ni rnJ Adecticous obtect pupa Vestigial proboscis Adults do not eat Larva without legs Exarate pupa LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Most of lebidopterans belongs to this suborder Developed proboscis No jugum LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Ecological characteristits Nectar feeders Larvae Mostly plant feeders Same predators LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Ecological characteristics Wing co or Nocturnal lepidopterans Brawn gray or We mottled Diurnal lebidopterans Brlghtly calmed Aposematism or mimicry Monarch queen and vioeroy 39 r 39 LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Ecological characteristits I val defensive behavlor Swallow tail butterfly roman Usmeterla Regurgltatlrlg gut ranten Slug mot 5th and spiny setae an buoy e LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Sla Papilionidae swallowtail LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Ditrysia Pieridae cabb e white LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Di LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Dib39ysia Geometlidae Ioopel l LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth Ditrysia Nymphalidae ceroy 39n LEPIDOPTERA butter y and moth LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth LEPIDOPTERA butterfly and moth Ditrysia Ditrysia Noctuidae owlets Sessidae borer moth r 5 51 r x r r TRICHOPTERA caddisfly TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Key characteristics I Key characteristics Antenna I J Larva Filiform m Eruciform scavenger Longer than forewing 39 Campodeiform predator Mouthpart A Bearing protective case Mandible vestigial Wings Covered with hairs Related to scales V a TRICHOPTERA caddisfly TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Key characteristics Key characteristics Three larval types Pupa Free swimmer campodeiform Decticous Net spinner campodeiform Exarate Case maker eruciform Pupal case or cocoon H TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Case makers Limnephilidae uruehln r mull mar mun TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Net spinners Hydropsychidae TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Free swimmers Rhyacophilidae TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Ecological characteristics Food sources for fish EPT index EphemeropteraPIecopteraTrichoptera index Represent cold stream heath TRICHOPTERA caddisfly Ecological characteristics Pollution Tolerance Index Group 1 most Gmquot Group 3 Group A most moderately Intolerant moderately tolerant tolerant Intolerant slune y nymp drzgun ylzrvae rm ge at Wurm peueh nggut mavclv nymph dzmsel y nymph black av larvae bluud mldge aaalsav larvae erane av larvae warerrmre ufletters ufleners ufletters 4 lndex value x 3 lndex value x Z lndex value ufletlers 1 lndex value lIIe r Cump are Tutal index Value m Water Qualle Ratlngnuml ers beluw Water Quali Ratin ty g iExcellent maimed 1122 iFaerIrI JiFuur lt11 Entomophagous Insect ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 34 Entomophagous Insects Entomo phagous insects Insecteating insects How insects eat other insects How preys defense themselves from predators 12 November 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Entomophagous Insect Entomophagous Insect Predator Predator Parasitoid or Parasite Kill greys Consume gt1 are to reach maturity Parasitoid Kill host Consume only 1 host to reach maturity Parasite Do not kill host Feed one or more host Entomophagous Insect Entomophagous Insect Predator Parasitoid or Parasite Predator Parasitoid or Parasite Entomophagous Insect Entomophagous Insect Predator Parasitoid or Parasite Predator Parasitoid or Parasite 39 397 Defense against Entomophagous Insects Behavioral defense Biting Stinging Kicking Dropping down Nests of leaves Burrow soil or plant tissue Morphological defense Enclosed by tough cocoons Hard and thick integuments Defense against Entomophagous Insects Secretion of defensive fluid Distasteful odor Regurgitation Secretion emission of Toxic chemicals Defense against Entomophagous Insects Defensive color Mimics Batesian mimics Resembles an unpalatable or harmful species but does not share antipredation attributes Miillerian mimics Resembles an unpalatable or harmful species and does share antipredation attributes Biological Control Definition 111e action of predator parasitoids and parasites natural enemies in maintaining pest densities below damage level Three Approaches of Biological Control 1 Classical biological control Import natural enemies Establish natural enemies in new area Away from their area of origin First success cottonycushion scale vs ladybug Three Approaches of Biological Control 2 Conservational biological control Minimize disturbances to existing natural enemies No pesticide use Preserve habitats or refuges for natural enemies Three Approaches of Biological Control 3 Augmentational biological control Inoculative release Releasing additional natural enemies of a species that MW Keep adding natural enemies to make natural enemy density at certain level I 1quot quot 39 Q quot I P Three Approaches of Biological Control 3 Augmentational biological control Mass Release Releasing large number of natural enemies Similar to use of peslici es So it is called as quotbiopesticidesquot Lecture Summary Types of entomophagous insects Predator Parasitoid Parasite Prey defense mechanisms Behavioral defense Morphological defense Secretion of defensive fluid Defensive color Mimics Lecture Summary Biological control The action of predator parasitoids a parasites natural enemies in maintaining pest densities below damage level Three approaches in biological control Classical biological control Conservational biological control Augmentational biological control ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 5 Insect Sensory Mechanisms Insects ve senses 29 September 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Sensing with Sensilla Receptor Insect Sensory Reception How do insects see How do insects smell How do insects feel How do insects taste How do insects hear How do insects respond behave to stimuli from outside of the body Photorece ptor Number of ommatidia lt8 in COLEMBOLA gt28000 in ODONATA Photorece ptor Insect eyes Compound eyes 0mmatidiun Ocelli Stemata Lateral ocelli for larvae LEPIDOPTEIIA Photorece ptor Photoreceptor Compound e es Retina clusters of photoreceptor cells Cornea transparent lens Photoreceptor Photoreceptor Pholnreceptur dark and light adjusted Lam my ughl my Photoreceptor 0mmatidia 39 I Dark adapted Rhabdom dopsin commm 415 Cornea Retinal opsin P mzly pigmeni is Clyslamrra eons Rnabdom Emma 5mm WQNEN csua arrmom Bassmem mnmbrana man Photoreceptor Photoreceptor d or lost of compound e Reduce Paia Photoreceptor Ocelli 3 oceIIi are 120 degrees apart en ying oceIIi are oriented to the sky Cave nsec s Soil insects Detect lig Mechanoreceptor Campaniform Mechanoreceptor Trichoid Body orientation Exteroceptur Response to disturbance form envirorment Propriooep or Response to body balance Types of mechanoreoeptor rurmoganoe sociopaie 1 h 39d quot5quot Trlchunm can i Tllc 3 chordotonal organ 4 stretch receptors Mechanoreceptor Mechanoreceptor Johnston s organ Tympanal organ Chordotonal organ Johnston s organ Tympanal organ Tympanum Scoluvlll cell Wm Subgnnunl w umpmmm Alumna s k 39 a aaa e oi antenna WWquot 5quotquot Impmlwuy 1 quotmammalmm Mechanoreceptor Mechanoreceptor Tympanum Stretch receptor Muscles or intestines inlersegnw motor endings mm contractile elemenls muscle quotM Iran cell Chemoreceptor 1 hole at the tip Chemoreceptor Many dendrites For tasting quot of sensma Hairs on mouthpart Hairs on legs Cutlcle Maximize the detection of low concentration Tormogen cell colcpale Trlchogen cell In Olfaction Detection of odors in air Epidermis 3 Basement meml Contact chemoreception Taste in liquid Sensilla for olfaction and taste are the same Sense cells Difference Number of holes at the tip of sensilla Chemoreceptor Behavior man holes at For smelllng 1h tip of Stereotype responses Mainly on antennae sensilla Taxes Olfactory receptors Instincts Learning Mushroom body Communication By sight By sound By chemicals Behavior Behavior Taxes Instinct Geotaxis gravity Feeding Phototaxes light Migration Anemotaxis wind Mating Phonotaxis sound Oviposition Aristotaxis body orientation Nest building Movement during ecdysis Positive means response toward the simulus Mostly hormonerelated behavior Communication Mushroom body Visual signals Color pattern Motion Size How insects see mosaic theory How insects see Are insects color blind HAASI effect Many insects have color vision How An Aien Insect Sees n Butterflies rely on color of flower Aphids attracted to yellow color Others are color blind Honey bees use ultraviolet light Perceive nectarrich flowers Are insects color blind Are insects color blind Human vs insect color detection Many insects detect polarized light Light becomes polarized as it pass atmosphere Sensing the different plane of light waves relative to the sun and the earth Ocelli and stemmata detect olarized liht P 1 2 1332 H I ngoz tral lncldem Beam Unpolarlzed no m m m m mnm I lllFI lAl lED insect Ve rucally Polarized Figure 1 Mg m wave How much insects can see How far insects can see 1 Degree between ommatidla ml Damn 2 DIstance between my 7 V vision compound eyes i mag g g anlerior a A I l xrmmss nnglu hum binocmar area quot vlsion Vertical Horizontal dragon v What shape insects can see Ef e 3 Eli ltxgt quotquot3quotquot Iiiwi I llll o Stalkreved m Communication Visual signals Lightning bugs COLEOP39I39ERA Differentiate sexes and species by the frequency Communication Sound Mosquito Flight tone of female attracts mals Bees and wasps Warning by loud buzzing Termites Drumming head when colony is disturbed Sou Communication nd making Tymb a S Ciradidae HEMIPTERA Mellnowm rum momw Mvum Communication Sound making Stridula tion Gryllidae ORTHOPTERAl mm m M Wm Communication Lecture Summary Chemicals How do insects see Semiochemicals Photoreceptor Chemicals for corrmunication Compound eyes Pheromone intraspecific communication 00639 e Stemata Aggregation phemmone arm Phemmnne How do insects smell Allelochemicals interspecific communication chemoreceptor 0factory receptors Allomone beneficial to sen er Many mes 0 each sensiua Kaimmone benef39 ial to receiver Synomone bene cial to both senderand receiver Lecture Summary Lecture Summary How do insects taste Insect behavior Chemorecel tor Stereotype responses One hole on each sensilla axes Instincts How do insects feel Learning Mecanoreceptor M Sl39quot quot l mly Communlcatlon How do insects hear Bys39gl39l By sound Mechanoreceptor chordotonal organ By chemicals S Antennae Abdomen Lecture Summary Lecture Summary How do insects communicate How do insects communicate cont Semiochemicals Visual signals Pheromone intraspeci c communication Color pattern Se he remone Motion Aggregation pheromone 39 Alarm pheromone sound making Allelochemicals interspeci c communication Tymbals Allomone ene cial to se er Striduhtin Synomone beneficial to bolh sender and receiver ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 10 Insect Circulatory System How do insects circulate their bloods 12 September 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Insect Circulatory System What is the color of insect blood Does the insect have blood cells Does the insect have lymph Q2 How can insects have lymph and blood together without vessels Insect Circulatory System Does the insect have blood Does the insect have heart Does the insect have blood vessels Q1 How can insects circulate their blood throughout their body Open Circulatory System Dorsal open circulatory system Penmrdial cavity Permeural camy hnlennal pulsalllz organ Insect Circulatory System Anna muranm ol dorsal unset 119ml zmmnn nl dares vesse L dorsal Ulaphmm DSEIH vunlrul diuphlam Blood and lymph are mixed hemolymph Inner part of insect body hemocoel Hemolymph Contents Hemolymph Contents Hemoglobinvs hemocyanin Hemocytes Nulnenlslr msymblonls MIMEanquot15 Ulilb Iion gtNnropenonswastes smallcells lionN Excretiony ulnenls lrom Heabsnrplionolwnler WW lLiminoaclds supars salls Fem rid Solldwasles La OrganrcmoleculesIncluding Carbohydrates an Amino acids Peptides amp Protein Lipids ampGlycerol Inorganic ions andminerals Hemolvmrh Contents Hemoglobin Hemocytes L O J 4 n J Various in shape and site T1 quot4quotquot Prohemocyteamp oaguocyte tr fa l Plasmatocyte 39 A Granulocyte 4 Spherulocyte N N N various even In tunctron and amount NH Hemocyaniar NH t H NM l l N 0 N Functronofhemocytes ill up I f l lt gt quotl c m Immunereacbon cum Curlll 0 l N l N Phagocytosis b39 n l u 39n39 Encapsulation Nil N bill Wound healing colorless blue 1 Phagocytosis Plasmatocytes 2 Encapsulation Usually capsules are darkened melaniration w quot 39l l 9amp1 9 r39 will quoti p R 3 4 Iquot 39v y um in t 39 l t 39 1 39 5 V f39 5 J g p V a I tz z 39 139w Bleeding and Healing HemolymphMidgut Interface Insect healing mechanism Less risk of bleeding Because there is very weak blood pressure 4 e 14W I 7 new 39 italm I EyCfrgl i quotam hi o Coagulocytes and prohemocytes Makes clots and repairing wounds Nutrienls lr Nulrienls horn eggNWh Slnrage in latcells AbsoJlon Excce 39 Nutrients lrnm Reahsnryllonofmler V 5mmquot minoacids sugacs salls Faces es g msymblonls lion vllilrogenouswasles gtUrale bells Mn 39 f nn Sannw l 4 HemolymphMidgut Interface HemolymphMidgut Interface Carbohydrates hemocoel uhnk CHZOH 0 HDCH0 H0 no0H Lom b 0 Ink 0 glmose lructose Ilil39lk W W sucnose o F0 on on on ohm um MALTOSE HemolymphMidgut Interface HemolymphMidgut Interface Carbohydrates 0an O HOCH 0 con 0H cryou 0H 0 H0 0 up Hz 0 Ho argon 0 OH 0H 0 OH H0 0 onequot o no OH CttOH 0 on 39 no 39 7 quot QM CELLULOSE 0H 0H glucose lunlooe Carbohydrates HemolymphMidgut Interface HemolymphMidgut Interface Termite and symbiotic bacteria Lipids mm T 1 7mquot finn for quot i39 am Mgfrrrmfr JAEva 539 xvv FExHTVW HemolymphMidgut Interface HemolymphMidgut Interface Protein Plantsapfeeder 001bit com mm 39 3 n x 1 139 NH 00 enoopepiinase I ambition n if 39 CH CH Luna coann coon camoxypemdase attacksth HemolymphHindgut Interface HemolymphMalpighian Tubule Interface Filter chamber Anterior midgul Maipighian tubules Filler chamber Hindnul HemolymphMalpighian Tubule Interface Lecture Summary Malpighian tubule l l Numgenaus wasles wam amino acids v sugarssails gt neahsorpnm c wasr ammo acids w sugarssalls 39 I I Niimqanouswasms excl unbalance Racial pad manor Inlasilne Proximal MaIpLghvan tubule Lecture Summary Lecture Summary mocytes Digestion and absorption of water and Various in shape and size nutrients into hemolymph Various even in function and amount Water carbohydrate Function of hemocytes r ein mnune reaction pid Encapsulation Insect excretory system excrete wastes from hemolymph Insect healing mechanism Malpighian tubules Pl 0 emocytes and coagulocytes Makes clots and repairing wounds Lecture Summary Which parts of insect body can we extract insect blood ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology D39geStwe System Lecture 9 Insect Digestive System How about insects Thorax Abdomen How do insects digest 10 September 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Essential Foods for Insects Essential Foods for Insects r Slmllar to human 5 From drinking or moisture in food From oxidative metabo ism water From absorption of water vapor Through mouth or anus Energy sources Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Lipid Glucose fructose and sucrose are main ones Amino acids Stored as glycogen in fat body Mon Vitamins and minerals n N 0 H WM L 0H 2 H Essential Foods for Insects Fat Body Amino acids 10 essential amino acids same as other animals Methionine From food only insecE can39t synthesize a sulfur i S ontalning amino ac d OSIII on Requlred for sclerotlzatlon Transforms protelns to sclerotln w er H1 sz o CUUH Y o o l was S lquot r r 1 l l n ms umme 93 Essential Foods for Insects Essential Foods for Insects Lipids Fatty acids Energy source Sterols Production of hormones Insects can t synthesile but mammals can Vitamins Essential for living process not for energy Vitamin B is essential for most insects Minerals Same as mammals Minerals cannot be synthesiled How insects absorb water carbohydrates amino acids lipids vitamins and minerals Alimentary canal Anatomy of Alimentary Canal Fmqu mum Hindlul Mnlvlvhinn cm Vnnlrlculul luhuln marlin Esophagus Lnblum mm Lquot Provnlviculun Gnilnc Parllmpmc valum Anus univry cuecum quotlemmas nllnd Fmqu uluwur Hln nul rum numy alnndnnd Funqu smmnm Malplihlan Pylnrl Antnor resawuvv mum on mums vulva Vunlriculus uhnls my mulllne awngas Hyponnmynx rYrIx allvary Lall Len Frovnnlvlculul Gullvic lermnmc Pylo c Rlclum Anna in Ialivuvy ulhnary cecum mamhrane mpuu nland Digestion Fungal lll plrl Hln mn rumquot quotWary allndand Fcranul EmmottBl Malplgnlan Pylon Anllrlor rasawoiv inllmu Crop Danlicla my Vnnlllpulul luhuls vulva mlolllnn Em Hindwul mum Mann um um nwnry Lall Luu Fmvrrlviculua Grimm Parlrmphlc Pylon Reclum Anus gully nI quotmm sanmy enacum memmne mpan lllnd Fullvul mum mum Tuvlum saHvury ulnndand r Slnmn nl Malplghian Pylon Anunnr a vulva Newquot reservolv lnlvm cm Danl mla vulva Vnlnculus mum Dull um Clbnrlum New umy Lull Lou Fmvnlrlculu 5quot Fellimpmc mm Hacmm Ann my ar Hwy Illlvary Clecum membrane nmpulln allvarlnm quot4 Digestion Digestion Fmqu mqu Hln nul Mnlnlghlnn mum Vnnlvlcului mm my alarm and Foranul Slomndual n m c a Pylorlc mp lnllula valv um mry um Lu Provunlyiculus Gullrlc Palllmpmc Pylurvc Raclum Anus m salivary sull39llry magnum mamnu nmpulln Vllnd Funnul mum nlunnul r Tan x nllvnry mm m Fumqu Slamm nlplyhlnn Pylnrl Antnor my mum M resawuvv 39n m cmp nllcla vulva Vunlriculus uhnls mm mm auvary Lall Len Frovnnlvlculul Gullvic leimnmc Pylo c Rlclum Anus m Ialivuvy nlllvary cecum mambrane mpuu nland Digestion Fmqu mum 6 Hindlul z A Tannin nuvary glundsnd quul Slnmodna Mnlpvmm Fyloll Annnor resawoiv n39m Cum nllclu vulva Vnnlrlculul luhuln mm mxaumn EIthlvus MW lnlimn Fylurlc Raclum mpan Digestion soymu mum Hln nul lam nuvary marnuns Slnmndnu Mnlpvgmm Pylun Nilrim rasewulv n m 2an mma vulva my anu u 1 1 aanry Lull Len Fmvmlyiculus Gulm Pavlirnphlc Pylon Anne l my 5 salivavy Illnry caecum mammna ampmln llvnvlum quot39m Mod ca on of Alimentary Canal Fouwl mumI quotmum rumquot quotHwy mundm Forwul M Iwghm Pylon rumor reservoir 39 c vnlncum luhuln um Moum Lnblum lem an Drudrill aMrv Lulu Len Frovunlriculus Guam Parluaphlc Pylunc Anus uvllYl 539 a my salivary euecum mamhmne nmnulln mm Primitive insects springtail Simple tube like alimentary canal Advanced chewing type insects beetles Enlarged crop Filter chamber aphids Liquid feeder long and coiled hindgut Midgut not connected to hindgut Lacewing larvae Excrete waste products when emerging as adults Food Absorption Nutrieo Nulttents tvom 999 Storage in tat melts t Food ts It m symbtonts UIiIhIion gtNtttonenouswaslowuvale oetts Am tton Excretion Nutrients tom Roatzsorption ot walev symhionts mtnnaotds supavs sail m a I to Sottowasl s Fig 51 in textbook page 88 ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 37 Insects A5 Food Insects as Human Food ENTOMOPHAGY 11 1s zoos 2001 Agricultural Sciences HISTQRICAL insects 39r in mass either a zmr s on s hi Tel 39ibahlrlezmed was etiolet rgenl uus eni a gu t m m mg mm 2 5 quot i ancient RD E Flln e istnenmry Romen scholar wmte that human allstocvals I e toe rbeedel rwa Eatedonflourand vlne a scient des n h West c dag Th cable 0 a rundbec mesa nV tastesbeat be at hu rst the t but arte copulation the ternal 4 a a Biblic I miss hanhei d Insects as Vertebrate Food Current consumption by world cultures In much ofthe Third World insects are routinely eaten for pleasure and nourishment despite the prejudices of Westerners Vou39wnever eaten bugs You39re missing out Aboriginesa haneypnt ants maths witthetygmb haneybagbees Attica a antstermlteslarustsatamprvlllar5i anu gruus AsiashiedmrketsgrasshDWErSwaterbugSi ncauas silkmmh pupaewasu larvae Mexico Central America South America grasshoppers agave warms butter y larvae t t t i n h an Why not eat insects Food for thoug htquot People are poisoning the planet by ridding it of insects rather than eating insects and keeping artificial chemicals oh plants that we eat quotWhy douse fields with pesticides irthe bugs we kill are more nutritious than the crops they eatquot Eco Pr einquot not o an are insects nutritious and delicious they could be an environmentally friendly source of human protein quirements A sustainable agricultural model insects can feed the world Cows and pigs arethe SUV 5 ougsare the bicyclesquot Nutrition there are many nutritional benefits to eating insects Hamburger for example is roughly 18 percent protein and 18 percent fat Cooked grasshopper contains up to 60 percent protein with just 6 percent fat Moreover insect fatty acids are unsaturated and thus healthier Nutrition Nutrition 39 39 quot quot 160 gram Major component of insect body serving are as follows Energy Protein Iran Thiamine Rihn zvin V Kcat g mg ng ng Mm Chmquot Termite a 3 W mw w u ym nm 613 14 2 075 013 115 I 095 L MGM 4 l Caterpillar 4a wfmnym 370 r 282 35 57 367 191 52 A39j a wen i 562 67 131 302 224 78 skipquot ti Weevil Rhynchaphamxphaenirix Beer Lemgmum 219 274 35 009 023 60 Fish Emikdmp 170 285 10 008 011 30 Nonedigestible Efficiency Other ideas to Ponder termite colonies can range in size from 10000to three million A swarm of locusts in East Africa can easily blanket 500 square miles and mmprise up to 400 billion insects are much more efficient in convening biomassto protein hig er food mnversion efficiency reedfirst needs to be grown before it is eaten bythe cattle n m i i h i g n y miquot i w my quotn m f lnsect farming is arguably much more efficient than cattle production 100 lbsfeed Q 10 lbs beef 45 lbs of cricket ILLOGICAL shrimp scallops crabs and lobsters gastronomic delicacies Warmsblooded vertebrates use a significant amount of energy insect inyanabmiag mama just to stay warm unlike plants or insects 39 lIther resaurce requirements lha sing and water requirements Aesthetic point ofviews little logic in our culinary prejudices insects lt beef are crabs or lobsters truely more attractive than grasshoppersgtgtgt insects reproduce at afaster ratethan beef animals Cricket 1200 to 1500 offspring 3to4 weeks Asfor cleanliness smuch to be said infavor of insects Beef 4 breeding animals gt 1 market animal crabs lobsters scavenge on all kinds of garbage and debris on the ocean floor food conversion efficiency 20kthat of beef grasshoppers eat only vegetation Cultured products Precautions Pesticide use must avoid ingestion of insects Current research working to develop new meat exposed to or treated with pesticides substitutes including cultured meat meat produced in Vitro in a cell culture rather than from an animal Toxins not all insects are edible come contain 39 quotW mquot 39 H 39 quotquotquotH39im 39 toxic substances ex blister beetles 39 39 some insects feed on poisonous plants ex oleander BIOTQChHOIOEY t0 PI OdHFe VETS Of quot159 cells 39th with some insects cooking is essential since heating breaks goal to produce a sanitized source of bug proteins down many namralmxins that can be dried and added to breads or molded into pseudoburgers Allerglc reactions some people can have reactions to insect substances ex chitin FDA Allowances for insect fragments efm Auinn Levels evels a quotmural m unzvaldzble aeiem iii lands 1th 3112an ii mioi hazards lav iiimisiis mMMDDiTiES m mmmiomzms mm mm Ami Amiwin me wanna m cummnxnnz um Enemiesw in mm is i rum 1 i m iqn mm m an uzrztrsnuxtz eimgiimeiiiesum gemrimez We Accidental consumption mocoLAIE Aim cuocoLME uquon memes r suaimaminsemagiieiismiiuugmiis K amus FRHIYJHKISi cmmzn sai mare Dmsmhila am mhevVWEEESPEVZSU iii mi ai mare MBEEV SPEVZSU iii mmom Aim uoonLE pnonucvs memes 7225 insect regiiisiiisaiiiaie Pa 225 yamsiri 5 Di rm emeripies PENN mm memes r auaiiminsemagiiensmiiuugsiis wnm noun memes ms is mare insea vegiiisiiispisisu gisis popconu minean ai rm mdem meta peiieis are We ini ai mare sAhENPles The BIG SECRET intentional by the industry a mini bnizmbnzr iglim m glam emu glue arid Dhirmitzulitil gim m 912W minimise in Digmzntpm utz v mthirieil mm imiesi whith ivEgYmri new Dur ie m promt2 the pigmznl iii ism in iwi E minim M Di m VDDliiutriwbEVNVD lR mums name we How to HARVEST and PREPARE Collect edible insects in mass ie WaspMinest gimme E Make sure your harvest is pestici Purchase insects from pet storesbait shops reed them on rresii grain before use Raise insects to insure clean colonies 39 RINSE DRV gt FREEZE until dead When ready to cook rinse again rerriove roast grind etc unwanted parts Example Recipes e lemmaiiaisiieiiiamsieawe MS 1 jxu mei ms me We ei mw isii z Muiiiieiw mii i yiyi iy g fiui maii iimeiisi We m M mama him is 132113de Iuiizvll ii Myshm m wise i wil39iil ladi iim ms siiiisii quotmadammomma smaimitNMiiiiiimm mum eii emiw Waits mmui new quotwe iw aim SOU RCES NmLix mix mm in warm i xnn 32x 9676 swig in new mum mm EdibeUriiquecom mi me mom itmiimi um mm m teammate minim thailandumque mm New Order of Insect ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology New Insect Order Mantophasmatodea 21 November 2006 2001 Agricultural Sciences New Order of Insect New Order of Insect New Order of Insect A bizarre insect Especially it looks like praying mantis nymph Look like a cross among a mantis a stick insect 0 wings quot1 a Ell39aSSh l P r Praying mantis nymph Not like a stic nsect Wellrdeveloped raptorial fore legs First thoracic segment is the largest Gladiator Notlikea man is Enl r fr n mi I Fore and mid legs are raptorial Not like a grasshopper Can t jump I Order Mantophasmatodea New order Since Grylloblattodea was described in 1915 Mantophasmatodea Mantodea Phasmatodea Praying mantis walking stick Physical and ecological blend of two insect orders Order Mantophasmatodea Common name Gladiator Physical similarity to armored fighters in the movie 6 iabor Mantophasmatodea Identity The order was erected in 2002 Zompro a German entomologist Found in Namibia Africa Mantophasmatodea Identity Was it the first report Later more insect specimens were found in insect museums in Europe Mantophasmatodea Identity Was it the first report No it has been identi ed in amber Eocene Ballic amber 4050 million years ago Classified as a group of Orthoptera Thought to be extinct Mantophasmatodea Why it has not been identified Living within rock crevices Nocturnal Rare Found only in Tanzania and Namibia Mantophasmatodea Why New Order Why it has not been identified Relative inseds Most recently Found in South Africa too Very closely related to Grylloblattodea Mantodea Phasmatodea Mantophasmatodea Morphology Mantophasmatodea Morphology Antenna B dyr d I Filiform L Cy39quot quotca Mouthpart egs Raptorial fore and middle Chewmg type legs Wing Secondarin wingless Cerci 1 pair Mantophasmatodea Life History Ma ntophasmatodea Life History Incomplete metamorphosis Oviposition 8 Egg Eggnymphadult Carnivore Based on stomach contents of museum specimen Armropou cuucles were lounu Gladiators really prey on spiders and other insects Habitat Arid and mountain areas Crevices between rocks Order GRYLLOBMTODEA Rock Crawler Order GRYLLOBMTODEA Rock Crawler Physiological characteristics Incomplete metamorphosis Ecological characteristiis Habitat yes Boreal areas Compound eyes reduced or nefer cool areas absent Edges of glaciers mg 310w banks No wings secondarily ca gs Fo od ogmic detritus Olrsorial Celci 1 pair Order MANTODEA praying mantis Order MANTODEA praying mantis Physiological characteristics Incomplete metamorphosis Key characteris cs Mouthpart Ecological characteri tits mg I I Pledalol Forewmgs tegmma Sitrandrwait type Hind wings membranous Highly cmou aged Elongated pronotun gs Raptoriai forelegs Celci 1 pair Order PHASMATODEA stick insect Physiological characteristics pl metamorphosis color change Altering the dispersal of 39 n les in the I epidermis Winged form ocelli present Ecological characteristiis Wingless form secondarily Humans L995 Highly cmou aged mrsorial Celice 1 pair Single family in N America Phasmatidae Why New Order Why New Order Once order Orthoptera was big including Phylogenetic position of gladiator Blallodea Man o ea Grylloblallodea By first describer Zompro in 2002 l d Phasmalodea Orthoplera Dermaplera Isoplera vacancy Thus amber gladiator has been classified as Orthoplera EmonzA ZOMP IERA oamoureu vusuuronu mmovmsunoun onvuoaumonu HERMAPIERA Why New Order Why New Order Phylogenetic position Phylogenetic position Based on sperm morphology 2003 Based on mitochondrial DNA sequence 2006 mmvmw 393 Onhcplera Finer calu smrcmn Phasmalodea 39 cum fl clgaphzsmx l parsssansrs Mamophgsmamdea Slyon are scullem Grylob atlodea l 9mm B allodea 0 Wm 39 5 v39hmeuom Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea Fa n1 ily fRaptaptasma kerneggeri 1 4 inch Only 1 family in this order 7 Mantophasmatidae I Genus Three genera Species 8 species 6 living species 2 amber species lmegLrll m ASAMullimadm Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea fRapDaphasma kerneggeri 14 inch Mbntnphasma zephyra 1 inch MH nngayaxie Mulllmedia Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea Mbn Daphasma subsalana 34 inch Praeda Daphasma maraisi 3 I 4 inch iv Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea Karoopba sma bieabu Mensis Austraphasma caledonensis Mantophasmatodea Mantophasmatodea n Phylogenetic Tree Lobophasma redelinghuysensis Primarily Wingless SENS Aplerygola Primarily winged insecls Plerygota Paleuplaa E g phem eruplEra n dunata N mm Enduplerygma Mantophasmatodea in Phylogenetic Tree Blanudea Name I Exuplewaula Manmdea Enduptaygma Manmphasm atudea Eryllublalmdea Psucuptera Plecuptera Em n ma Thysanuplera zuraptaa ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 1 Basic Body Plan of Insects What is the insect Insect structure amp function 20 August 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Entomophobia Entomophilies Insect IN inside SECT divided Entom EN inside TOM divided Entomophobia Entomophilies Arthropod Hexa pod The insect is an arthropod ARTHRO segmented POD leg The insect is an hexapod HEXA six POD leg Insect Body Plan Three major body parts Insect Body Plan Insect Relatives Body Plan Insect Body Plan Terminology Bndy PalIs anterior posterior Cephalothorax lventral Head thorax Abdomen Insect Body Plan Appendages Abdomen Mam digestion Reproduction Head Eyes Compound eye Antennae Mouth parts Head Eyes Head Eyes ommatidium Compound eye Ocelli Head Eyes Head Antenna Flagella Pedicel Scape Head Mouth Parts Head Mouth Parts if Iabrum e 1 mandible Maxilla amp x 39 f Palpi I maxilla Labium amp pa p5 391 palpi Mandible Labrum Iabium Thorax Notum Pronotum Pleuron Mesonotum mm MMWWl M Prospleuron Metanotum Mesopleuron prothorax Metapleuron mesothorax metathorax Metasternum Thorax Legs Thorax Legs Plelanux Foreleg Middleleg Hind leg Tammis Thorax Wings Thorax Wing Venation Forewings Hind wings c costa I I lg 39 Sc subcosta 39 iu R radlus M d39 A me Ian v 3 5i Cu cubitus A I I I a A anal vein Thorax Wing Venation Abdomen Abdomen Tergum Spuacle Tergum II Slemum sternum Abdomen Insect Body Plan Head Thorax Abdomen Male aedeagus Female ovipositor Insect Nose to Breathe Insect Nose Spiracles in 1110rax Abdomen Tarmm Simum IV Tympanum eardrum Lecture 1 Summary 3D grasshopper wwwantiaetata quot39 I I 1IUWIIIUV Lecture 1 Summary Lecture 1 Summary Insect Body Plan Head parts 3 Paris head thorax and abdomen Eyes Antenna Mouth How about insect relatives such as spiders Eyes 2 Paris cephalothorax and abdomen Cnmpmmd eyes and oceni Antenna Main functions of insect body parts Head sensing and eating Thorax locomotion and flight Abdomen major digestion and reproduction Scape pedicel and agella Mouth Labrum mandible maxilla and Iabium Lecture 1 Summary Lecture 1 Summary Thorax Abdomen 3 segments Pmumraxr mesnumraxr and metathnrax Tergum and sternum vs notum and sternum in thorax Wings Leg s Notum Pleumn sternum Splracle Respiratory organ Wings Located in thorax or abdomen Forewing and hind wings from meso and metathorax Wing venation C Sc R M Cu A Insect ears Auditory organ Located in antenna thorax or abdomen Legs Front middle and hind legs Coxa trochanter femur tibia and tarsus Insect or not If not why not Insect or not If not why not Insect or not If not why not Insect or not If not why not Levels of Insect Ecology ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology What is insect ecology Insect life cycles related to seasonality Jpapulatian 22 October2oo7 2001 Agricultural Sciences Individual Insect Ecology Where Insects Live Exlreme environment Terrestrial Arctic About 97quot n 300 species of insects Aquatic fresh water Antarctic About 3 70 Much fewer wecies hm in the Arctic Tidal zone Flies Di era About 01 Bird ea Siphonaptera Louse Phlhiraplera Aquatic ocean 1 species of Gerridae Hemiptera other e reme en ironm ountains 6000 m Himalaya M ee cave Why insects fail to live under the sea or 65 Why insects do not live under the sea Pools ofpetroleum Longevity of Insects Shortlived adult insects Generation 0 insecs Ephemeroptera Adults No eating Strepsiptera Male mate after emergence and die after mating ng ved adult insects Reproductives of social insects Ant queen 8 How many generations per year Termite queen 12 years Univoltin generation per year Honeybee queen 23 years Bi oltine 2 generations per year Multivoltin gt2 generations per year Changes of volh39nism Changes of volt ism Delayed voltine Delayed volh39ne of northern com iootwoim 1 generation per many years Extended diapause of eggs More likely related to low nutrient of food source Resistmoe to crop rotation Wondrburing lnSeCE Treemut feeding lnSeCE v gt i n 1 a Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 23 years Seasonality Seasonality Adaptation of volh39nism to seasons Adaptation of voltInism to seasons Qui Aphids Hemipte a escenoe Unfavorable Condition activity l5 suspended Luwer meta iism 5mm gum Favorable Cunditiun resume activity right away lezcycb Diapause i rmed Unfavorable Condition activity l5 suspended quotWWquotd Re l I Egg diapause diapause nunnune om Larvaldiapause nu pvemle nunnune r e Pupal diapause PTrH lS not released 7 nu ecdysune mgg w r maxi Adult diapause nu Juvenile nunnune e nu reproduction zz Levels of Insect Ecology Population Ecology Ecosystem emsstern ecology sent POPHIaUOH I on Individual insects of same species Ll ng in e same space A the same time W use Population population ecology dividual auteculugy rselected or rstrategy rselected or rstrategy Population dynamics Population dynamics Population glowth model rselected insects Mature raorolv K EVAWE EaFaEW Shortrllved 39 39 g Manv otts nng g g 2 Invest little tor voungsters g g 3 Most pest species a a Boom and bust population E E E Invade new areas one WE nme Exponential population gowth Exponential population growth Log stic pole anon gowth Iselected or Istrategy rselected or Iselected Population dyna mics selected insects Mature slowlv Kecawmcapaw Live long lives LOW Juvemre mortam Few offspring insestuensrty carrwng capacity WE Log39 stic population gowm rselected or Iselected Insect Sampling Why do we need insect sampling Estimate insect population den How many insects re there mean How variable the insect numbers are variance Sampling Absolute sampling ount number of insect in unit area Relative sampling insect numbers with relative sampling tec 39 Need to correlate with absolute count of insects Insect Sampling Absolute sampling techniques Quadrat Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Passive traps Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Passive traps gentaxis Mum Twp Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Attractive and passive traps color HID meunv i run he Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Attractive traps fond Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Attractive traps seminchemical T39m Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Trapping Attraclive lraps light trap mu I ul Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Removal Suction mm www m mum Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Removal Core amp funnel Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Netting Sweeping Insect Sampling Relative sampling techniques Netting Rotary net ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Lecture 2 Modi cation ollnsect Body Plan Insect Body Plan How insect body parts adapted for their life on ear 22 August 2008 2001 Agricultural Sciences Basic Form of Head Modification of Head Antennae Eyes Compound eyes Ocelli Mouthpart Lahrllm Mandible Maxilla Lahillm Modification of Head Antenna Modification of Head Antenna 13 forms of insect antennae 39Wquot Wank erK we 397 x 1 3 Modification of Head Eyes Developed compound eyes dragonfly Modification of Head Antenna No antennae proturan Degeneraled compound eyes I iles Modification of Head Eyes Modification of Head Mouthpalt No ocelli lice Chewing type Lahnml Maud Mes lt quot y Manllary cams Labvzl pilps Modification of Head Mouthpalt Modification of Head Mouthpalt Sucking sponge type Sucking siphon typezyQ Maxllhr Mquot v Labial pulp Labrum Lahlwn 39 Modi cation of Head Mouthpart Basic Form of Thorax Piercing and sucking type Forewings Hind wings I Lahlum Mummy mm Mandible Maxillae 7 Lablum Foreleg Middle leg Hind leg Modification of 11iorax Wing Modification of 11iorax Wing Elytra COLEOPTERA Hemelyta HEMIPTERA Modification of 11iorax Wing Modification of 11iorax Wing Tegmina ORTHOPTERA Halteres DIPTERA Modi cation of11Iorax Wing Sn led wings LEPIDOPTERA Basic Form of Leg Modification of11Iorax Legs cm Tmhnnler Modi cation of1110rax Legs Modification of11Iorax Legs Raptorial grasping type MANTODEA Modification of Thorax Legs Modification of Thorax Legs Natatorial swimming type COLEOPTERA Saltatorial jumping type ORTHOPTERA Modification of Thorax Legs Basic Form of Abdomen Pretarsus spiracle Tergum H sternum 1v Sumarm mam mum Modification of Abdomen Ovipositor Modification of Abdomen Ovipositor Sting HYMENOPTERA Elongated ovipositor ORTHOPTERA Modification of Abdomen Ovipositor Elongated ovipositor HYMENOPTERA Modification of Abdomen Cerci CerciBLA139I39ODEA Modification of Abdomen Cerci Filamentous cerci THYSANURA Modification of Abdomen Cerci Elongated cerci EPHEMEROPTERA Modification of Abdomen Cerci Forcepslike cerci DERMAPTERA Modification of Abdomen Cerci Forcepslike cerci MECOPTERA Lecture 2 Summary Lecture 2 Summary Head Head Antennae 13 different forms yes Filiform Degenerated eyes setacews No compound eyes Monlllform man No ooelll apitate Ge39r tel t Mouthparts em a e Mandibulated chewing type Sucking sponge or siphon type Piercing and sucking type A istate Lecture 2 Summary Lecture 2 Summary Thorax Thorax Wing Elytra Cursorial type Hemelytra Saltatorial type min Natatorial type Haltere Fossorial type Scaled wing Raptorial type Hairy Willy Pretarsus Claw Amlium Lecture 2 Summary Abdomen Ovipositor Stlng Elongated ovipositor lamentous Forcepslike Lecture Overview Lecture Overview we I Lecture Overview Lecture Overview Insect ecology Q I 339 a 9 i K A J viv ENTO 404 Principles of Entomology Insed Tax n my Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arth ropoda Where was the insect from aus Species plexippus 21 September 2007 2001 Agricultural Sciences Danaus plexippus Linnaeus Insect Nomenclature What is a Phylogenetic Tree Oder Oder Mostly ptera Coleoptera Suborder Suborder ptera phaga etc Adephaga Superfamily Superfamily oi Cara bigidea Family Cargbidae Subfamily Cara bidinae Tri e Cargbini Time Ip Five Kingdoms Kingdom Animalia quotrmunquot mum x f i 4 min i i i W mm mm imm IMMW r 391 mg 39 39 lint II wquot 39 42 39W i m J Time y Phylum Arth ropoda Extinct foreveriSO miiiion years Millipedes and Centipedes Labiata Insects belong to this group Chelicerates Evolution of Insect Body 4 Evolution of Insect Body First Appearance of Insects on Earth Gnamocaphalnn First insects emerge r msmmaum 24 Paleozolc era In Devonlan perlod 400 mII yrs ago mad Thorax Abdomen 392 g First Appear ce of Insects on Eart W at were there at that time Trilobites 200 mil yr advance Ancestor sh 40 mil yr advance ampsuorpions Tetrapods about same time Ferns ampsee p Insect Wing Evolution Why insects needed wings Theory 1 Paranotal orig in InsecE need to come down very quickly to avoid predators InsecE needed to glide down Notum was expanded and became wings Insect Wing Evolution Why insects needed wings Theory 2 Exite origin Naiads had gills which are reseane to insect wings i became have wings originated from thoracic giiis from naiads Wing Evolution Wings of a fossil insect prothorcic wings Wing Evolution Wings of a fossil insect giant dragon y This Course Order to Family Levels Species quotI39I39 From the Textbook For the Class This Semester Class Subclass ClaSS Insecta Pr39mar39ly W39ngless Primarily wingless insects Apterygota Including Parainsecta Entognatha amp erygota in the textbook Insecta t Primarily winged Primarily winged insects WM 9 Pterygota Pterygota Including Pterygota in the textbook Paleoptera and Neoptera This Course Order to Family Levels Ametamb39iph lncoinplete Class 39met aniomhosisi class Insecta E Aplerygola Pterygota Exoplerygola Insecta E Apterygota E Endople ygola Pterygota E Paleoptera Neoptera Com I 12 metamorphosis Types of Metamorphosis Types of Metamorphosis 1 Ametamorphosis 2 Incomplete metamorphosis No changes in body form Eggnymphadult Eggnymphadult fnlfmi i m la i iii39 m 391 mm WWW 39 own i mew 2mm M ms quotWNW 2nd stage nvmph mm Types of Metamorphosis 111ree Types of Insects 3 Complete metamorphosis Eggriarvarpupara uit primarily Wingless insects Ametanr orphosis L ders f L I t Primarily winged insecE a Pub V in 0 25 orders Incomplete metamorphosis pain all Exupl u I Him a 17 2mm Complete metamorphosis ta Enduplerygu 1 1 orders Lecture Summary Lecture Summary Evolution of Insect relatives Subphylum 39 39 insect body Tnlo I a Aradwnida spiders mites soorpions ticks etc Meroslomala Horsedwoe crab Crust cea Crabs lobsters shrimps etc Labiata insects belong to this group Diplopoda millipedes Chilopoda cmlipedes Lecture Summary Lecture Summary Why insects needed wings First insects emerge Paleozoic era in Devonian period 400 mil yrs ago Theory 1 Paranotal or n Insects need to come down very quickly to avoid predators Insects needed to glide down Tlilobites 200 mil VI advance Nota were expanded and became wings Ancestor sh 40 mil yr advance at scorpion Tetrapods about same time quotmm 2 Exite ongin Ferns at sea p a s Naiads had gills which are resemble to insect Wln s Adults became have wings originated from thoracic gills from naiads Lecture Summary Lecture Summary Classification of insects Classification of insects Class Primarily wingless insects Insecta Amerygota pterygc39ta Exoptaygom Prlmarlly wmged Insects E Endopterygota Incomplete metamorphosis Complete metamorphosis 11 Orders
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