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Ecology And Evolution

by: Favian Swaniawski

Ecology And Evolution BIOL 221

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Biology > BIOL 221 > Ecology And Evolution
Favian Swaniawski
GPA 3.82

James McGraw

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James McGraw
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Favian Swaniawski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at West Virginia University taught by James McGraw in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/202732/biol-221-west-virginia-university in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Predator Prey Problems 1inked questionSDD As background for these questions you might need to know that r8 for turkeys 1 In a local nature preserve called McKereNeil as in most 39healthy ecosystems there are predator populations The most important predator of turkeys is the red fox and indeed there is a small population of them in McKereNeil The number of prey caught per fox per unit time y increases linearly with increasing turkey density N1 according to the following equation y 002N Therefore in the Volterra predator prey equations 002 A a B dN1dt C dN2dt D p E d 2 If a fox must catch 15 turkeys to raise 1 baby fox what is the birth rate of foxes assuming a population of 50 turkeys A 0067 B 00013 C 15 D l E incalculable 3 If dz 010 which quadrant of the predatorprey graph below would the 2species community be in when N1 50 and N2 3 A Quadrant I B Quadrant II C Quadrant III D Quadrant IV E Quadrant V end of Set yet more linked questions Bald eagles primarily eat sh The Madison River in Yellowstone National Park is home to a fantastic trout population where a large eagle population nests and feeds on the abundant fish The park rangers have been following eagle populations over decades and have noticed a distinct cycling of their numbers through time In the following problem set we will assume that the eagletrout population dynamics follow the Volterra predatorprey equations 4 Ten eagles are presently found along a 20mile stretch of the Madison in Yellowstone If a single eagle can capture 11000m of the trout population each year and it takes 500 captured trout to provide the energy to produce one baby eagle what is the eagle birth rate if there are 1000000 trout along that stretch of river A 05 B 1 C 2 D 3 E 0 5 If the eagle death rate is 025 what is presently happening to the eagle population size A it is growing B it is declining C it is remaining constant D it is zero E it cannot be determined because we don t have enough information 6 If r for the trout population is 005 at what eagle population size would the trout population be stable neither growing nor declining A 5 B 10 C 25 D 50 E 100 7 At what trout population size would eagle numbers be constant A 10000 B 65000 C 125000 D 250000 E 1000000 8 Place a single point on the zgi gure below showing where the two populations are at present relative to the zgi s and draw a single arrow from that point showing the trajectory of the twospecies predatorprey community worth 1 question if completely correct N1 9 Although detritivores are consumers their population dynamics is likely to be quite different from that predicted by the Volterra PredatorPrey equations Why A Because their consumption efficiencies will be very different due to the nature of their food B Detritivores tend to have much lower birth rates than predators C Detritivores have much higher death rates than typical predators D Detritivores cannot be accidentally injured or kill by their prey E Detritivores do not consume a living species so their population dynamics will not affect the consumed population directly as in predatorprey dynamics 10 Explosive synchronous events of welltimed reproduction by longlived species are well known in nature Simultaneous owering of bamboo after dozens of years periodic cicadas mast seed production in oaks and other plants The fact that these species procure an advantage from such behavior relies on overwhelming predator feeding capabilities which in turn is a result of A frequencydependent predation B predator satiation C neutrallystable cycles D the Volterra Principle E none of the above hint don t choose answer E the next 4 questions are linked On a small Paci c island rats introduced by sailors in the 1700 s have been abundant for years gradually eating away the native vegetation and making unique plant species go extinct The Nature Conservancy has purchased the island in the 1950 s and decided to take a radical approach to protecting the native plants 7 introduction of a predator the black rat snake Rats are almost all this population of rat snakes finds palatable on the island so a classic Volterra PredatorPrey cycle is possible 11 Ifr is 2 for the rats and it is estimated that a given rat snake can eat 0001 or 01 of the rats per snake per unit time then at what snake population size would rat population growth be zero A 20 B 200 C 1000 D 2000 E 10000 12 If it takes 10 caught killed and swallowed rats to yield one baby rat snake and the death rate of rat snakes is 01 at what prey population size will the predator population stop changing in size A 10 B 100 C 1000 D 10000 E 100000 13 Early on in the snake introduction project the snake population size is 10 and the rat population size is 12000 Which can be said about the two populations A ledt and szd B ledt and szdt C ledt and szdt D ledt and szdt E we couldn t say anything for sure without knowing r1 and r2 14 Over decades of markrecapture censusing scientists learn that a predator prey cycle exists on this island and while the cycle gets perturbed by tropical storms now and then it always returns to a cycle of the same general amplitude as before the storm What could explain this cycling behavior in theory A it is a neutrally stable cycle B predator satiation C prey densitydependence D predator satiation and prey density dependence E frequency dependent predation end of linked questions Lecture 1 Populations Are Structured Density and Dispersion Preparatory Reading Smith amp Smith Chap 9 Dall Sheep Video Lecture Prep mgtQuicktime Video lecture introductions Ca 5 10 min mgtOrient you to book mgtAdditi0nal sample problems mgtN0te I will have one Video per lecture x Biology 221 Part DeuX 3939 Where have we been Where are we going Part 1 Ecosystems Biomes Biogeochemical Cycling Energy Flow Evolutionary Processes Biodiversity Conservation Biology i Density and Dispersion 0 What is a population ID Population Density What is density i Determining Population Density How do we determine attributes of a population mgtMeth0d 1 mgtWhen to use mgtExamples stationary bird groups walruses Whales small plant populatlons 910 Gannets Hawaiian silvers word Determining Population Density Method 2 When to use Examples corals large populations of plants I Population Censusing cont d ijMethod 3 l When to use 5 Examples Amphibians sh rabbits quot 39 39H Censusing by Mark Recapture mIVIVI WIVR viiVI Equation for estimating N10131 Igt Eco Demo 11 Sample Problem mgtA preVious Biology 221 class captured marked and released 150 spring peepers Hyla crucifer from the arboretum lagoon Two days later they recaptured 100 spring peepers Of these 25 were marked from the preVious capture What was the peeper population density that year Igt Data From Previous Bio 221 Classes Il ll l II III I l Distributions Distribution of Clematis fremontii var riehlii I Distribution thistribution the geographic range of a species 1 in i J Distribution Q What Determines Distribution I Dispersion mgtDispersion the spatial distribution of individuals mgtPatterns of dispersion MClumped Random Uniform I Dispersion cont d mgtDetecting dispersion patterns mgtIndex of Dispersion Dispersion cont d m Clumped Random Uniform I Uniform Distributions re Rare m Shrubs in the genus Larrea show a spaced distribution in the desert southwest US 39 Practice Problems With Clickers m 1 You may choose a partner or 2 with whom to collaborate m2 You may discuss the problem with your partner m3 You may choose the same answer or a different answer than your partner I Clicker Problem Which census method would you use to determine the population size of dandelions on the hill below Woodburn Hall note this is a level 239 question ID Clicker Problem 2 When you perform a markirecapture experiment i you tag39 a certain number of individuals at census 1 This number is given what Variable name note this is a level 139 question I Clicker Problem 3 The most umcommon spatial dispersion pattern within populations is l clumped 2 random 3 uniform note this is a level 139 question Density 183 plantshecmre WV 4 8 million forested hectares Toml population of WV 87 84million plants 43 million plants harvested per year Harvest rate 4 Summary Populations are structured Three attributes describe this structure Density estimated by direct counts quadrat method markirecapture Distributions suitable habitat other organisms Dispersion clumped random uniform Next Lecture Read Chap 10 Smith and Smith See Video intro for more details 10 Previous lecture All Populations Potentially Grow Exponentially Memorize these equations and be able to use them in problems Population of the Earth 2008 6655178417 Population of the Earth 2009 6764852435 Growth 1096 million in one year httpWWW census govipcWWWidbWorldpopinfo html I Lecture 3 Demography Smith amp Smith Chapter 10 caution Rely on this more Bio 221 web site Article 13 Demography Parts 1 2 from Hedrick s Population Biology text 1984 httpWWWasWvuedubiologybio21site lb Demography What is demography Importance of demography l Human biology F I ll L y I Age structure What is it mgtAge structure Igt Age structure Why is age structure important ntirely 0f postm elibate males r Shakers Age structure in Sweden Mexico and the U S swmn huru lmunsmm Im Mum Man mu II 1 in 2074 mum pupulnuun vulugu m pvaulnlmn rummmm pnpuinhun m a Campbell N A Biology 4th Edition I Age speci c births and deaths mgtBirth rate follows consistent general patterns as a function of age ElliII w39 quot39quot I H Survival as fage mgtSurvival of a cohort 10 Ixog1o scale 0 Age yea rs I Age speci c survival curves mgtA plot of log survival vs age reveals 3 general patterns of survival called Deevey l curves 139 Ix log a scale rom Smith and mith 7th edition lt3 Deevey Type I II and III mgtType I Low mortality rates early in life followed by late life aging animals With high degree of parental care e g humans Whales I Deevey Mortality Curves quotType II Constant mortality rates throughout life some parental care but equally vulnerable early and late e g many bird species squirrels L V ea amp Hint If you haven tseen March of the Penguins see it Deevey Mortality Curves mgtType III High mortality rates early in life followed by low rates if maturity is reached eg most plants for example silversvvords I Cohort data mgtBy censusing a population annually demographers assemble the data needed for a life table Typical census data gt Life Table mgtA life table summarizes the survival and fecundity data from the census data mgtDe nitions pLife table for previous census data 9 Purposes of life table Visually summarize survivalreproduction Derive other summary statistics Project future N and age structure I Four Summary Statistics 1 Net reproductive rate expected lifetime offspring production of a newbom39 In our example S 9 Four Summary Statistics 2 Generationlength 7 mean age at which parents give birth In our example 9 Four Summary Statistics 3 Intrinsic rate of increase r HAn approximation I Four Summary Statistics 4 Life expectancy ex particularly important in medical research Given that an individual is age x how much longer is that individual expected to survive 9 Four Summary Statistics Life expectancy calculated in three steps gt Summary of Summary Stats Statistic Equations Note on an length exaln you would be given rate of these r equations but you must lmow de nitions of variables expectancy gt Summary mgtDemography is the study of controls of birth and death in populations mgtCensus data are summarized in a life table mgtSummary statistics derived from the life table tell us interesting properties of a species in a particular environment such as net reproductive rate generation length r and life expectancy gt Next lecture m Population projection and tness m Aspects of human demography Lecture 21 mgtFinal Exam Thursday May 7 8 10 AM G15 mgtFinal 60 questions total 36 of course grade mgthalf comprehensive 30 questions Nequally from all 4 quarters of course mgthalf midterm 4 30 questions mgtMemorize Exp Growth Mark recapture Hardy Weinberg p or q fF11 F12 F22 equations mgtREADING ASSIGNMENT Article 14 Biodiversity Connecting with the Tapestry of Life Biology 32 l I Undergrad Capstone Symposium mgtToday You are invited mgt1 4 PM Posters 3rd oor mgt430 PM Oral Presentations G 15 mgt530 PM Pizza Igt Today mgtlsland endemism and human evolution Homo oresiensis 1 mgtThe Grand Sweep of Selection 7 sex sexual selection the eye W What Makes Species Special 0 in and of themselves 10 us as coiinhabitants of the planet mgtThe Science of Conservation Biology I Homo oresiensis Discovered on the Indonesian Island of Flores 18000 years old New species previously unknown to science Chimpsize brain Human toolusing and reusing traits First published October 28 2004 Nature 39gt Evolution of Sex What do I think about sex Oh I think it s here to stay Marilyn Monroe l There are advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction For sexual reproduction to have evolved presumably the advantages must outweigh the disadvantages Advantages of Sex In response to environmental change Sexually reproducing species will track the environment better Offspring of parents with sexual reproduction will succeed better on average because they are more variable I quot39 dwdt the rate of change of mean population tness I E Fisher s Fundamental I Theorem of Natural Selection Sexual Selection A Variant of Natural Selection l mgtOnce sexual reproduction and sexes exist a new kind of selection is possible mgtSexual selection Two Classes of Sexual Selection mgtl Male Dominance l m2 Female Choice Results of Selection Via Male If Dominance lt a Sexual Selection vs Other Selective Forces i I f I Mountain bluebirds Other Miraculous Products of Natural Selection mgtEvolution of the organs of extreme perfection Darwin 1859 eg the eye sum quot Th Human Eye 9 Evolution of the Eye How could a slow inef cient process such as natural selection produce an organ showing qualities of extremely perfect design I How indeed The evolutionist s simple response 1 Time 2 Short steps 3 Hundreds of mutations 4 Eyes are not perfect 9 Evolution and Diversity A biologist s appreciation of the mechanism of evolution of all diversity on earth does not preclude a reverence for its value This reverence or biophilia also present in nonscientists of course has led to the scienti c eld of conservation biology What Makes Species Special From unsel sh to sel sh reasons Why Conserve Biodiversity Intrinsic Value Argument mgtOther species do not exist for the bene t of H sapiens the latter is the biblical model They are to be valued as unique products of the evolutionary play that perform a unique role in the ecological theater Ethics Moral Imperative for 39gt Biodiversity Preservation mgtEthical sequence in which the individual extends concern outward beyond the self to progressively more inclusive levels What is YOUR sphere of concern Which group are you willing to make Lal sacri ces for 9 Legal Rights 7 Morality is natural lawl Rights of nonhuman species are as legitimate as rights of individuals in society I Philosophical M Yn losing stewardship we losefellowship we become outcasts from the great neighborhood of creation 7 Wendell Beny Religious The 11th 9 Commandment Thou shalt inherit the holy earth as afaith nl steward conserving its resources and productivity from generation to generation Thou shalt safeguard thy elds from soil erosion thy living waters from drying up thy forests from desolation and protect the hills from overgrazing by thy herds that their descendants may have abundance forever 7 Walter C Lowdcrmilk 1939 I Innate Deep Af nity Biophilia m Conservation is sometimes perceived as stopping everything cold as holding whooping cranes in higher esteem than people It is up to science to spread the understanding that the choice is not between wild places or people it is between a rich or an impoverished existence for Man Thomas Lovejoy I Very Homo centric Reasons m Economic bene ts foods medicines timber ecotourism etc etc m Ecosystem services est 33 trillionyr m Recreation hunting animal obsWilderness m Indicator species m Inspiration cultural attributes V I Conservation Biology m To save every cog and wheel is the rst precaution of the intelligent tinkerer mgtThe philosophy of the intelligent tinkerer Aldo Leopold I 949 A Sand County Almanac a deA MWM Aldo Leopold quotIw wilan W wprwvat mv of wworlolx T hor WW E O Wilson T e mzficarefucz ion in f e ean iv z o veryiz y i5 z e fy our 1656671151711 wifeam efy rgt ve lb Conservation Biology m Mission Statement The application of ecological and genetic principles to the goal of preservation of biodiversity for future generations Some fundamental concepts MVP minimum viable population size that population size required to ensure the existence of a population with X probability for erars MDA minimum dynamic area the land area required to maintain an MVP PVA population viability analysis the suite of demographic and genetic studies required to determine quantities such as MVP and I Conservation Biology Read Article 14 Remember pertinent facts Lecture 9 up i mgtF redator prey population dynamics SampS Chap 14 notation warning variable names in SampS are nonstandard so ours will be different if Lecture 9 edator Prey Population Dynamics mgtF redator prey relationships are ubiquitous in nature a Predators of Yellowstone Which animal concerns me the most as a possible prey item while in Yellowstone National Park 39 V 7 lecture 9 Terminology caution wrt bOOk mgtLet Prey Population N1 8amp8 use Nprey mgtLet Predator Population N2 8amp8 use Npred mgtWe will develop 2 population growth equations 1 for prey l for predator lecture 9 I Predator Prey Dynamics quot Starting Point Exponential Population Growth prey population lecture 9 I Functional response of predator mgtlunctiona1 response the number of prey caught per predator per unit time p is the proportion of prey caught per predator per unit time note 8amp8 use c for this variable lecture 9 Real Data 500 I I 400 300 l 200 I 100 I I I I 0 l I l 500 1000 1500 20 0 a Density of Microtus spp individualskm lecture 9 V I Prey Population Growth mgtSubstituting le for the functional response E mgtWhere N1 is the prey population size r1 is the prey intrinsic rate of increase p is the proportion of prey caught per predator per unit time and N2 is the predator population size lecture 9 I More realistic functional responses An asymptotic function may be more realistic and indicative of predator satiation eg l77yr cicada strategy We 9 MORE realistic functional responses Predator satiation PLUS frequencyidependent predation Lecture 9 9 Predator Population Dynamics Start from exponential growth equation Assume prey population size mainly affects predator birth rate Q The manner in which prey N affects predator births is the numerical response of the predator Lecture 9 33 Numerical response of the predator mgtHovv many ground squirrels are required to make one baby fox lecture 9 sponse L Predator numerical re gt w r mgtWhat fraction of a gyrfalcon chick is formed from each ground squirrel caught 1 Numerical response Birth rate of the predator ef ciency with which caught prey are converted to baby predators X the number of prey caught per predator per unit time Note we use the Variable a for the ef ciency of conversion 8amp8 use b Iwill stick with a because 1 has a different meaning Lecture 9 9 Predator Population Growth Integrating the numerical response into the predator population growth equation we have E Lecture 9 I Predator Prey Equations B 0th equations contain N1 and N2 B 0th equations contain p Lecture 9 9 Species 1 zero growth isoline Above a threshold predator level rlp the prey population declines Below this threshold the prey population increases Lecture 9 this threshold the predator population declines lecture 9 I Species 2 zero growth isoline Above a threshold prey population size dzap the predator population increases Below I Neutrally stable cycle Putting the two graphs together we observe that the two species oscillate in population size 90 degrees out of phase with each other Lecture 9 I gt N V s t1me Or N2 Time II IL Lecture 9 p Are there predator prey cycles in natural populations mgtlf so they would be expected in ecosystems Where predator and prey are in a close two species relationship ie in relatively simple communities Lecture 9 LynX hare cycle Years mgtHudson s Bay Company records show I60 snowshoe hare lynx 3 111 9 3 5 E so a E I x C E 40 I 3 L1 0 7 ID 1830 Year Lectureg gt Greater CompleX1ty Woody browsel 50000 gt wlnter food or hares 250w wuai I 2 son7 T g 2507 39 2 ma 54 Q 50 7 8amp8 E 257 quot5quot Flg 1426 mquot Espewshoe E 5 will 1 4 n50 Ly n15 39ii i iiz 3 3 5 El 7 l 2 I Other examples of predator prey cycling Natural populations Snowy owl 7 lemming Fox 7 lemmings Laboratory populations Azuki bean weevil 7 braconid wasp Paramecium 7 Didinium Six7spotted mite 7 predatory mite Lecture 9 Real World Predictions Flowing From Theory Exponential 7gtInvasive species outbreaks Logistic 7gtPrudent predator behavior Competition 7gt Limiting similarity character displacement Volterra Predator7Prey 7gt Volterra Principle Lecture 9 9 Volterra Principle Assumptions Pest populations are often under intense predation General pesticides may affect both predator and prey populations Effect of pesticide in Volterra model 9 Lecture 9 Volterra Principle predalor and prey Lecture 9 I Graphical analysis Find zeroigrowth isolines for species 1 Lecture 9 9 Graphical analysis sp 1 Lecture 9 9 Graphical analysis sp 2 Find zeroegrowth isolines for species 2 predator Lemme 9 I Graphical analysis predator The predalor N when prey populalion size is smal Lemme 9 9 Predator Prey Dynamics The piedaiocpiey equaliors predict a neutrally stable cycle Lemme 9 9 Stable limit cycle Lecture 9 9 Summary Predatoriprey theory developed from exponential growth equations based on two premises prey population growth rates are reduced by predation Via dea predator births are positively in uenced by prey population size Predicts neutrallyistable oscillations of both predator and prey population sizes Lecture 9 9 Next lecture Implications of predatoriprey theory Correspondence with the real world S aInple problems Lecture 9 Lecture 1 Evacuation Routes Department of Biology Ground Floor Nanh The term ecology coined in 1866 By ecnlngy we mean we hndy nfknnwledge vesu u nf metmlre aunnsnf me animal um rgzm envir maul including zhnve all its friendly and czlralatinn 39m h a1 plantsw whichit mzsrl maneeuymmennmeum wnn l gym referred me by mer as me conditions of we struggle m Existencequot Ernst Hzeckel 1856 The Modern De nition Ecology Lecture 1 Characteristics of Ecology Studied at several hierarchical levels Uses the scienti c method Is interdisciplinary A great way to make a living Ecology is studied at many hierarchical levels Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Landscapes Ecosphere AK A The airman i ecologists Lecture 1 ecologism i ecologists Lecture 1 7 ecologists i ecologists Ecologists use the scienti c method to understand the order of the natural world Observations Identi cation ofpattems Formulating hypotheses Test hypotheses with experiments andor more observations Interpret amp publish results Lecture 1 Case Study of Ecologr in Action Observations In 1989 scientists meeting in England for a herpetology conference discovered that all over the planet their colleagues were noticing amphibian declines and disappeamnces No one knew What to make of it Patterns observed in amphibian decline Rapid declines are Widespread m edunmes as cununents am my nmmAwke wwn Patterns observed in amphibian decline Many species are threatened 3 s are eithervulnerable endangered m endeany en Some declines have been dramatic n Oregun awe disappearance dmma memdae pdpuladdns Some populations may have gone extinct Not all species Within the same regions are affected Declines have been noted in remote areas in s equmarkings Canyun Natural Park by late 198m 98 dfpdnds that funnerly had Rama mdmm had ndne Lecture 1 Species Examined Hyla regilla Pacific treefrog Populations NOT declining Rana cascadae Cascades frog Populations known to have decreased Bufo boreas Western toad Populations known to have decreased In nature the eggs of these species are laid in open water amp highly exposed to sunlight 1011 CBPDs per hr per ug Testing in the Lab Photolyase Activities in egg amp oocyte extracts 8 Which species belong to which bar 5 Testing in the Field D3 Cagw39ith treatment DZ 1 E D3 D2 7 Viv ig Lecture 1 Results from eld experiment III I was blocking lm El ULB Iransmitting ller r 0 0 El no lllle 0 a 0 u Average pmpomon sunwing m hatching i TV I 05 I I I 04 J ll Sparks Three Small Three Lost L Cieeks Lake Creeks Lake Creeks Which species belong to which bars Results of of similar experiments have been published and have shown both similar and contrasting results Required Reading Assignment Articles 1 4 Stuart et a1 2004 Science Blaustein et a1 1995 Ecological Applications Com P S 1998 Ecological Applications Blaustein et a1 1999 Ecological Applications All articles amp study questions can be obtained at the Bio 221 web site


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